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Full text of "Transactions of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society"

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY ftlV&^lft^ 




3 1833 01833 2681 



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Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 








in 2014 







https://archive.org/details/transactionsofle214leic 



TRANSACTIONS 



THE LEICESTERSHIRE 



SOCIETY. 



VOL. II.-PAET I, 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE, 
1866. 



Price Three Shillings and Sixpence. 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



TRANSACTIONS 



THE LEICESTERSHIRE 



SOCIETY. 



VOL. IT.— PART I. 



V. X, pt. l-ty 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE 
1866. 



v. i, pt. / -V 



3 



X 



i 




1400193 

Cmitntk 



PAGE 

Soiree in New Music Hall, Leicester .. .. ..1 

Medleval Costume, as Illustrated by Monumental Brasses, by 

the Eev. C. Boutell . . , . . . . . 5 

On the Purposes op Architectural and Archaeological Societies, 

by Mr. Ordish . . . . . . . . 6 

The Heyricke Letters, by Mr. John Gough Nichols, F.S. A. .. 11 
Roman Leicester, as Illustrated by Recent Discoveries, by Mr. 

James Thompson . . . . . . . . 20 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 31st December, 1860 . . . . . . 25 

Treasure Trove, by Mr. George C. Neale .. . . 26 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 28th January, 1861 . . . . . . 30 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 25th March, 1861 . . . . 30 

Annual Report for the Year 1860 . . . . . . 31 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 27th May, 1861 . . . . . . 39 

Maundy Customs, by Mr. North . . . . . . . . 40 

The Herrick Portraits in the Guildhall, Leicester, by Mr. 

James Thompson . . , . . . . . , . 43 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 29th July, 1861 . . . . , . 54 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

ARCHITECTURAL History of S. Margaret's Church, Leicester, by 

Mr. Wm. Jackson {with Illustrations) .. .. ..56 

(ii \riiAi Meeting at Lutterworth, 26th and 27th September, 1861 60 
BRASSES OS ti:e Fourteenth Century, by the Rev. E. W. Woodcock 68 
BRWORTH Church and the Wycliffe Relics, by Mr. M. H. 
Bloxam, F.S. A. (with Illustrations) .. .. ..72 

I'm Excursion, 27th September, 1861 .. .. .. 81 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 25th November, 1861 .. .. ..86 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 27th January, 1862 . . . . 89 

Annual Report for the Year 1862 ( with Illustrations ).. . . 89 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 31st March, 1862 . . . . 93 

The Family of Langton, by the Eev. J. H. Hill ( with Pedigrees ) . . 96 



LEICESTERSHIRE 



ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY, 



December 5th, 1860. 

In accordance with the Resolution passed at the last Meeting of 
the Committee, a Soiree was held in the new Music Hall, Leicester, 
under the presidency of the Right Honorable Lord John Manners, 
M.P. The Hall was specially decorated, and upon long tables 
was arranged a fine collection of antiquities and works of art : the 
lower parts of the walls, too, were covered by architectural draw- 
ings, photographs, engravings, and paintings of local and general 
interest, above which was arranged a series of rubbings of Monu- 
mental Brasses, illustrative of the address to be delivered by 
Mr. Boutell later in the evening. 

At seven o'clock the President took the chair, and said : 
Ladies and gentlemen, 

If it were expected that your Chairman on this occasion should 
deliver some kind of inaugural address on the subject of Architec- 
ture, and Archaeology, I confess that I should have resolutely 
declined to occupy this chair to-night; for, much as I admire those 
studies, and greatly as 1 think they are calculated to promote great 
public objects, I am free to confess that a life mainly spent in S. 
Stephen's is little adapted to qualify one to obtain a pleased and 
attentive audience upon an occasion of this kind. But, if you will 
be good enough to look at the programme, you will see that, were 
1 disposed to glance at the particular objects of the Leicestershire 
Architectural and Archaeological Society, I should be only poach- 
ing on the manor so ably occupied by Mr. Ordish. That being 
the case, I must ask, what is it your Chairman is expected to say 
in opening the proceedings of this evening? And, therefore, you 
will excuse me if I am exceedingly brief in making a few observa- 
B Vol 11. 



LEIC EST ERSHIRE A RCH ITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



lions to fill up the lime expressed in the programme between my 
taking the obair and the delivery of the first lecture — my office, I 
Fear, being pretty much the same as that of the organ between the 
stated hour of Divine Service and its actual commencement. 
Therefore taking advantage of those few minutes, I may be per- 
mitted to make a few passing observations. We cannot but see 
the great and acknowledged improvement and the spread of archi- 
tectural knowledge during the last two decades of our history : this 
I believe to result not from the operations and enquiries of societies 
such as that which has caused us to meet this evening, but I believe, 
on the contrary, that these Societies are but the product of a great 
and deep-seated improvement in architectural study and know- 
ledge ; and the conclusion I should form from this fact, if it be 
one, is that the position of those arts and those studies is a sound 
and a safe one — that it does not depend on a fictitious excitement, 
nor on any sudden opinion, but is the result of the deep-rooted 
conviction of intelligent and well-regulated minds. Another obser- 
vation I should wish to make ; it is that this development of archaeo- 
logical and architectural knowledge owes nothing whatever to the 
government of the country — differing from architecture and art in 
most continental countries. I remember shortly after I entered 
parliament, that the late Mr. Joseph Hume — who never erred on the 
side of extravagance, or on the side of Government grants — coming 
to me with a bundle of documents he had received from France, pub- 
lications of that department of the State that has the care of the 
restoration and supervision of ancient public monuments in that 
country — for the purpose of endeavouring to interest the Govern- 
ment of England to take a somewhat similar course, and devote a 
sum to the repair and maintenance of the beautiful and interesting 
monuments of antiquity on the point of crumbling to decay. Mr. 
Hume was then the foremost member, indeed the chairman of a 
society, which had for its object the throwing open of our cathedrals 
to the people ; but even in those days Mr. Hume made but little 
effect upon most of the members of the House of Commons, or 
upon the Government. But what is the state of the case now? 
By private zeal, and an improved state of knowledge throughout 
the country at large, the people have to a great extent remedied 
the evils of which Mr. Hume was complaining. Every year the 
House of Commons grants any sum, almost without question, 
which the executive government may ask for the maintenance or 
restoration of the buildings confided to the charge of Government 
in England, or in Scotland : and, as we all know, the cathedrals of j 
the land are now devoted to the public as well as religious purposes 
to which they were dedicated. I may say, that one of my most 
pleasing duties when I presided over that department, was to pre- 
pare and arrange the necessary votes for the repair, or restoration, 
or improvement of those beautiful and interesting monuments of 



ADDRESS BY LORD JOHN MANNERS. 



ancient art, which are confided to the charge of the Board of 
Works; and I am bound to say that I never found any difficulty 
in inducing the House of Commons to give the necessary attention 
to those national monuments, as Carisbrooke Castle, the Tower of 
London, 8. Andrew's, Glasgow Cathedral, or the palace of Lin- 
lithgow and other buildings, in Scotland more especially, which 
are placed under the care of that particular department of the 
State. In this, as in so many other cases, the action of parliament 
and the government has followed, rather than led the improved 
taste and knowledge of the country. It occurs to me, however, 
that there is one memorable exception to this gratifying rule, and 
that is, in the firm determination which has been evinced by the 
head of the present Government, not to sanction that remarkable 
change in public taste in matters of architecture, which your presence 
here this evening at this Architectural and Archaeological Meeting 
in my opinion, clearly establishes. Lord Palmerston may be a 
very great reformer in other departments of the State, but I think 
it clear in architecture at any rate, he is one of the sturdiest anti- 
reformers this generation can boast of. If Lord Palmerston's de- 
termination is successful, we shall see one of the greatest public 
buildings of the country erected in a manner w 7 hich no doubt, our 
ancestors a hundred years ago would have admired, but from which 
the more educated taste and knowledge of the country at the pre- 
sent time is revolting, if it has not already revolted. I should be 
sorry to take upon myself to speak in your name or in the name 
of any Architectural or Archaeological Society, but while I am upon 
this subject I would innocently express an earnest hope that the 
members of the different architectural societies will give an expres- 
sion of their views, be it favourable in the matter I am now indi- 
cating, or be it unfavourable, and so decide what shall be the style 
of the great pile of buildings which will have to be erected in the 
course of a few months for the reception of the Indian and Foreign 
departments of the Government, and so that we may have the satis- 
faction of knowing what is the deliberate opinion of these archi- 
tectural societies, and which may, I think, be properly looked upon 
as the cultivated architectural taste of the present generation. 
Although, ladies and gentlemen, I have said that I looked upon 
these societies as the products of the improved architectural and 
archaeological taste and knowledge of the present day, I am of 
opinion that these societies have rendered, and will render, service 
in many ways. Among those modes I should sa^ that by removing 
erroneous views — by spreading throughout the districts to which 
they respectively belong, careful and minute accounts of the 
peculiarities of the district, — these societies are doing an enormous 
amount of good. It is not only that the architecture of Scotland 
differs from the architecture of England — it is not only that the 
architecture of Scotland and of England differs widely from Ireland, 



4 



UK' ESTERSH I R E ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



1 > 11 1 I believe in almost every county a peculiarity of material or 
construction, or both, is found, by those who take the pains to 
investigate. 1 think therefore that these local societies by spreading 
the knowledge of these local peculiarities throughout their respective 
districts, and showing how this knowledge can be applied to a 
practical purpose is effecting an infinite good. In church restora- 
tion — instead of seeing a church restored according to some pre- 
conceived idea, without any knowledge of the peculiarity of the 
district — we are almost certain to see the restoration made with 
the most minute attention to those peculiar features which charac- 
terize the architecture of the time, and the district in which that 
church is placed. For an illustration of this, we need not go far 
from this room. I refer to the perfect and beautiful work of resto- 
ration of S. Mary's Church — which I had the pleasure of visiting 
a few days since, and where the most minute attention has been 
paid to every local feature that characterizes that important build- 
ing. Such then being some of the views and objects of these 
societies, I rejoice that Leicester possesses one of them, supported 
in the satisfactory manner in which the Society is supported. I 
rejoice that the members of this Society thought fit to call a meet- 
ing on this occasion, and would remind them of the old Horatian 
maxim — 

" Segnus viritant animos demissa per aurem 
Quam quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus — " 

and suggest they should act upon it ; and I might trouble each 
gentleman to whisper into the ear of his fair neighbour a transla- 
tion of that somewhat hackneyed phrase. At the bi-monthly meet- 
ings of the Society 5 I am informed there has been a considerable 
attendance and great interest manifested during the last two sea- 
sons, and at which models and objects of art are exhibited in the 
same way as they have been this evening. I hope, therefore, if there 
are any gentlemen present who have not attended those meetings 
they may be induced to do. so for the future. I think it would be 
strange indeed in such a county as Leicester, and in a town like 
Leicester, that a society like the present should not be well sup- 
ported, for I cannot conceive a county more curious or possessing 
more interesting remains for architectural or archaeological study. 
Perhaps it would be going too far to say that in this very town we 
may find specimens of every style of architecture, from the days 
of its foundation by King Lear, through those days when Leicester 
paid a tribute of fifteen sextaries of honey to the Plantagenet 
kings, down to the present time, when we see such a grand develop- 
ment of the glories of red brick. But if that be an exaggeration, 
we may say that we have every style of acknowledged architecture 
which England can boast of. Ladies and gentlemen, I have taken 
the chair on the present occasion with much pleasure, but I am 



MEDLEVAL COSTUME. 



5 



afraid in this desultory -manner I have occupied more of your time 
than I have been justified in doing. 1 have had the greatest pos- 
sible pleasure in taking the chair, and 1 beg to express my full 
appreciation of the Society and its objects. 

The noble Chairman then called upon the Rev. Charles 
Boutell, M.A., to deliver his lecture on 

MEDLEVAL COSTUME AS ILLUSTRATED BY 
MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

The speaker commenced by a reference to the subject of monu- 
mental remains in general, and brasses in particular. The metal 
of which they were composed was not, however, strictly brass, but 
a kind of bronze, and much harder. They first appeared in this 
country about the year 1200. The devices upon them were always 
engraved, and sometimes colour was employed, and so nearly 
approaching to enamel that it might with propriety be so called. 
The hardness of the metal, and the fact of the designs being en- 
graved, made them very durable. The value of the designs of 
course depended on the ability of the artist who originally con- 
ceived them, and on the manipulative skill of the workman who 
carried out the design. For the most part they were good as works 
of art, more especially before the year 1430, the art of outline 
drawing being then thoroughly understood and appreciated. The 
designs were also invariably faithful in regard to costume and 
other accessories, not of the individual commemorated, but of the 
period when the work was executed. On knowing, therefore, the 
date of a brass, the most absolute reliance might be placed on its 
representations of costume, armour, &c. After the date named, 
monumental art in this country began to decline. 

The study of these brasses had been of great advantage to art. 
Our historians and artists had made great mistakes in consequence 
of their ignorance^of mediaeval armour and costume; even Sir 
Walter Scott, in "Ivanhoe" had made very serious mistakes in 
consequence of this ignorance. It was not true, for example, that 
there was any authority for speaking of plumed helmets and other 
matters, which made a very pretty picture, but which were unfortu- 
nately not correct. The designs on the brasses for the most part 
represented not extravagant and eccentric, but the most ordinary 
fashions of their respective times, and hence their especial value 
as indicating costume with exactitude. The peculiar richness of 
this country in military brasses was adverted to, and the lecturer 
regretted that a national collection of them had never been formed 
at the public expense. 

He proceeded to illustrate his remarks by reference to the 



(i 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARC HIT ECT (J HAL SOCIET Y. 



rubbings shown, pointing out how striking changes in armour in 
short intervals, even of ten years, were unfailingly indicated. In 
remarking upon the ecclesiastical brasses, of which rubbings were 
exhibited, the lecturer pointed out the desirableness of studying 
the artistic character of brasses, the workmanship of which was 
often as strongly marked and as easily recognisable as the works 
of well known engravers. The brasses representing ladies were 
somewhat remarkable as indicating that some portions of female 
dress of the present day had been taken from them. This was 
particularly true of the head-dress, consisting of nets precisely 
such as were now worn, and of the whole race of jackets. 

In conclusion, he observed, that no portion of archaeology 
could be more easily studied than brasses, from the abundance 
in which they were found, and the ease with which rubbings might 
be obtained. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Boutell's lecture, coffee and refresh- 
ments w 7 ere served. Music was furnished by the Militia Band, 
under Herr Ptacek. 

Mr. Ordish read, in the course of the evening, a Paper 

ON THE PURPOSES OF ARCHITECTURAL AND 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

After a few opening observations Mr. Ordish said : 

The Architectural and Archaeological Societies of the kingdom, 
of which that of Leicester is an integral part, are but of recent 
date, generally established about twenty years back, chiefly by 
the clergy of our churches and colleges, with other literati, for the 
resuscitation of the knowledge of ecclesiastical architecture, which 
had for the preceding two centuries fallen into dissuetude, but 
more especially thereby to re-enforce the diffusion of knowledge, 
and impulse given to church and school enlargement, and general 
education. They were also intended to investigate and give a 
reasonable solution for those ritual forms and ceremonies which 
preexisted amongst us, so as to perpetuate and enjoy in a higher 
degree those Institutions, those privileges which our forefathers, 
under the Henrys, the Edwards, Mary and Elizabeth handed 
down through so many disasters. They aspire to link the beauti- 
ful with the spiritual ; to impart into Christian worship a profound 
sympathy with the grace of nature, redeeming superstition. 

In the realization of these its primary labours, a wider field 
developes itself, encircling ramifications of every day life ; enter- 
ing into the pastimes, occupations, and mental pleasures of the 
people during ancient days, and to those now so amply diffused 



PURPOSES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 



7 



amongst ourselves, and by comparison contributing to their enjoy- 
ment ; it is for this reason our Society appears before you this even- 
ing; and desires to enlist your co-operation ; and, if in creating, we 
live, and as the " good men do is often buried with their bones," 
the study of architecture preeminently recommends itself, for 
what creative power defies time so long ? 

But the study of architecture and archaeology is not merely 
interesting to those who love it as an art, but it is an evidence to 

which the historian can turn for the character of all ages 

If you desire to study its especial history, British history, you 
may appeal with confidence for information to its bastions and 
bulwarks of the sea ; to its walls, churches, and colleges which 
cover it ; or to those incomprehensible archaeological researches 
amid prairie lands and cities buried in the West ; revealing those 
perceptions of the spirit and feelings of the hearts and minds of 
those who raised them ; for generally speaking we cannot arrive 
at any better knowledge of people separated from us by so long 
an interval of ages, than by an examination of their buildings, 
tombs, &c, &c. 

Their temples (we cannot learn from books alone) speak to us 
of their faith and forms and objects of worship — their palaces and 
courts, of their civil institutions and domestic life — their triumphal 
arches, of their love of country, and sometimes unrestrained 
ambition — their coloseums and amphitheatres of their sports and 
pastimes ; in all of which you may find something, too, worthy of 
imitation. Moreover, its study will incite to travel and health and 
rest from strife, the lessening of pride, and will give mathematical 
information on citadels for defence (though mud and man's resolu- 
tion have much simplified the science here) ; inform you how to 
throw bridges over torrents and mountain defiles ; how to bring 
refreshing streams from distant mountains and lakes, for the health 
and welfare of the living, and how to raise worthy monuments to 
the dead, nationally so tardy in accomplishment. 

The study of architecture has always, amongst civilized nations, 
been deemed one of the noblest occupations of the people, and 
may in its utilitarian sense apply to the adjusting and putting 
together pieces of an edifice having many ramifications, and has 
for its accomplishments — first, utility ; second, light, or the adorn- 
ing and illuminating all edifices for whatsoever use, and contributes 
to health and pleasure, and requires no specious or metaphysical 
reasoning to pervert. 

The study of archaeology, or the description of ancient things, 
is adopted as a science more with reference to the analysis and 
history of the constituents of architectural research, and encircles 
the human race and language, and is presumed to have had its 
origin in the natural cravings of the mind to comprehend and 
decipher the mysterious. It comprises the following Iribu- 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIKTY. 



taries, on which 1 may say a few words, being the matter-of-fact 
consideration of the Society, and in which nomenclature almost all 
are more or less interested, viz., sculpture, painting, colour, music, 
decorative skill, furniture, costume. Honest architecture redeems 
our towns from dreariness and ugliness, giving tone and cheerful- 
ness and beauty, making it worthy of a civilized age in which we 
live ; in short, renders every object about our dwellings, however 
humble their purpose, a source of pleasure, and our habitations 
themselves delightful to ourselves and others. It is necessary in 
order to effect this, and truly learn ourselves, to enter upon its 
study with minds free from hastily-formed opinions and unfettered 
by prej udice, to be willing to admit excellence wherever it exists, 
to perceive a beauty wherever it is to be found, as well as detect 
the rude and meretricious, recollecting in our examination of 
different characters of work, that their forms were not arbitrary 
or accidental, that wherever the manner of construction is suitable 
to the material, wherever the style corresponds with the climate, 
and is adapted to the circumstances, sentiments, and manners 
of the nation and of the age, wherever it constitutes in its 
principles,' forms, and in its details and ornaments an harmo- 
nious whole (rejecting everything inconsistent with and foreign to 
itself), there may be found instruction. We have before us for 
our familiar the wide world, and as pretensions to finality are as 
repulsive in art as in domestic legislation, we must beware of the 
rings which when ri vetted become chains to bind and enslave. 
Then may we roam over its mountains, as well as gardens, and 
participate in that republican life which braces the thews and 
sinews of the body, shewing you amid clouds and long-drawn 
shadows that the elements of all great and beautiful work is con- 
stituted of simplicity, combined with boldness of outline, composi- 
tion, grouping, daring contrasts in form, structure, colour, and 
pervading all, that expression of repose, to realize which is the 
greatest charm, and which the greatest of painters, sculptors, and 
musicians desire to emulate in their w 7 orks — indeed, the consum- 
mation of the creative work was rest. Again, 

" Be silent : for He who never rested — rests." 

To expound the laws which should guide us after these attain- 
ments would exceed the limits of my time; but we are informed 
" that the harmonic law of nature by which the art, senses of 
hearing and seeing are governed, was either originally discovered 
by that great philosopher Pythagoras, who existed upwards of 
five hundred years before the Christian era, or a knowledge of it 
was obtained by him about that period from Egyptian or Chaldean 
priests ; they were not written, but his doctrine regarding beauty 
and its philosophy are well known to be, that he considered 
numbers as the essence and principle of all things, and he attri- 



PURPOSES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 



9 



buted to them a real and distinct existence, so that in his view 
they were the elements out of which the universe was constructed, 
and to which it owed its beauty. He amongst other things dis- 
covered the numerical relation of sounds on a single string, and 
taught that everything owes its existence to harmony." How far 
these laws may eliminate the studies of young minds is beyond 
my reach, but I trust may be excused the following commenta: — 
Music was introduced in this country by the early Christians, used 
for intoning, next chanting, and became a science in the thirteenth 
century, and whether introduced in the battle field or at prayer, is 
always welcome, aud our Society would desire its better and general 
adaptation to church service, in lieu of the quaint performances of 
general musicians. 

Of colour, an eminent professor writes: — 

" If a tithe only of the weary hours passed in learning by heart 
the names of all the Roman consuls were devoted to master the 
principles of colour, new sources of enjoyment and utility would 
be opened to the student that throughout life would be ever fresh 
and constantly occurrent. Household cares after the honeymoon 
throw many little lightly-practised studies into obscurity, while 
skill in polichromy might be rendered available to heighten all the 
calm enjoyments of wedded life." 

I hardly dare attempt any exposition of modern costume, for 
within the memory of many of us we have so passed from one 
extreme to another, from high waists that come under the arms, to 
low waists that come below the hips ; from sleeves so tight and 
narrow as to preclude lifting up the arm, to balloon sleeves swollen 
out by means of feather pillows ; from dresses so scanty as to im- 
pede movement, to others so ample as to cover the ground, and 
half a dozen full-sized men could stand on, that I must refer you 
to works more especially devoted thereto. 

Of the sculptor our hopes are that his labours (now revived) 
may increase and inultiply in him a " beloved existence." Of 
sculptural decoration we think its architectural conventionalities 
might be improved by pleasing associations with the oak, the 
thorn, the maple, the clover, the flrn, and the variety of flowers 
and forms indigenous ; in the same way the Egyptians took for 
their type the papyrus and lotus of the Nile ; the Hebrew the 
pomegranate and almond ; the Greek the honeysuckle ; the Roman 
the acanthus and laurel. 

On the subject of furniture. We have no desire that it should 
be adapted to women only kept in a state of semi-oriental seclu- 
sion, or that they should sleep on litters in a kitchen, that the floor 
should be strewn with rushes, or that their linen and bedding 
should be limited to one bolster worth " twopence," and a rug and 
two sheets valued in old manor house inventories at tenpence : 
nevertheless, we submit whether a graft of the ancient honest 



10 



LEICESTERSH I RE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



simplicity and utility might not advantageously be made on the 
modern restless wearisome superfluities of the age. 

W,e also submit that in dress, and hangings, and the decora- 
tions of our dwellings, we should not be confined to flash 
economies, though created by branches of mechanical skill manu- 
factured by the mile, supplying the place and mocking the sem- 
blance of more solid and real enrichment, or to precious materials 
reproduced by the brush and varnish pot. Thus the papering and 
hollow walls which seem to have usurped undivided dominion, 
should not be perpetuated ad infinitum, with all the disgust and 
contempt incident to recurring change and fashion, and we ask 
whether reverence for home without pretension has not a greater 
charm, lends not a grace, has not a more ennobling affection, 
even to those who hardly can dress gaily, or give substantial dinners 
on solid mahogany. 

We suggest whether the study of these bygone arts, the disin- 
terring of such like vestiges (the object of our Society) may not 
be an efficient help towards the removal of the film which steals 
over the sense, and towards clearly discerning how to appropriate 
the present endless productions of nature and art to their legiti- 
mate use. 

Lastly : our Society has more than ordinary interest in the 
extension and development of ecclesiastical architecture, iden- 
tifying itself with, and desiring to conserve all those forms and 
characteristics which have been handed down to us as a sacred 
inheritance, and with which we have so many personal, perhaps 
dear associations ; tomorrow w r e hope to evince the same by 
depositing the foundation stone of another structure to an eccle- 
siastical establishment, whose nobility consists in its freedom ; 
indeed in this and throughout all the provinces of art there must 
be freedom to secure progress. Studentship ceases but with life. 

We therefore commend its study and objects to your 

further consideration, desiring you to avoid the bigotry of the 
antiquarian, and reminding you that the rattle of all dry bones is 
not music. 

To any of you who are looking to the incipent changes for the 
origin of a new and better order of things, and who think that 
improvements in civilized life rise on the ruins of institutions 
once deemed models of perfection, we would remind them of ancient 
mutations and destruction of cities of which commerce laid the 
foundations, and built the walls now laid low ; and such retrospect 
may at least instruct them what it is yields a blessing, and what it 
is brings a curse. 

The President announced that the next Paper was by Mr. 
John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. That gentleman was, he regretted to 
say, seriously ill, an announcement which must be received with 



THE HEYKICKE LETTEKS. 



11 



regret in any archaeological meeting, but more especially in 
Leicestershire. His Paper would be read by the Rev. J. H. Hill. 

That gentleman undertook that office, reading as follows : 

THE HEYRICKE LETTERS, ILLUSTRATING THE 
STATE OF LEICESTER IN THE REIGNS OF 
ELIZABETH AND JAMES THE FIRST. 

All who have studied the history of Leicestershire are aware how 
large an amount of illustration it has received from the family 
papers preserved at Beaumanor. These valuable documents owe 
their preservation to certain old chests, which once belonged to Sir 
William Heyricke, in virtue of his office as a teller of the Ex- 
chequer in the reign of James the First ; and they principally con- 
sist of papers accumulated during the long life of that eminent 
man, but intermixed with others both of an earlier and a later 
date. Among these interesting memorials of past ages there are 
many letters which were written from this town in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, during which several members of the 
Heyricke family were flourishing inhabitants of Leicester ; and, as 
the most prominent in interest of the whole, are to be regarded 
those of Alderman Robert Heyricke, an elder brother of Sir 
William, — not only from their containing the particulars of various 
remarkable local occurrences, but also from their offering a field 
rich in materials that may elucidate the state of society at that 
period, and the habits and usages then prevalent in a midland 
provincial town. Though considerable extracts from this series of 
letters were published by my grandfather in the History of Leices- 
tershire, yet I was led, on their perusal, to express my opinion 
that they would reward a closer examination — (an opinion com- 
municated to our friend Mr. James Thompson, the living historian 
of your town, who has consequently requested me to give you some 
specimens of their contents,) — and, with the permission of Mr. 
Perry-Herrick, I have much pleasure in now proceeding to do so. 

Time is perpetually deepening the shadows of the past, and 
rendering its former features more and more obscure. Manners, 
customs, and fashions are continually undergoing changes, indi- 
vidually small, and consequently unheeded and unrecorded on 
their occurrence, but which gradually remodel not only the ex- 
ternal face of society, but also its inner machinery, and the very 
tone and spirit of its schemes and speculations. 

We cannot, therefore, wonder at the contrasts which are pre- 
sented to our view after the oft-repeated and incalculable changes 
of two centuries and a half. When we turn from the England of 
Queen Victoria to the England of James the First, we revert to 



1 , K I CKST K RS 1 1 1 1 IK A UCrilT KCT U RA K SOC 1 KTY. 



times Dot merely before the electric telegraph, before the railroad, 
before the steam engine, before gas, before paved streets, and other 
appliances of comparatively modern date, but before the newspaper, 
before the bank, before the general post, before the stage coach, 
and even before the stocking-frame. And yet the Englishman of 
that day, and the Leicester man as much as his contemporaries, 
was eager for news, and very sensitive to any rumour of mischief 
from the Pope or Spain ; he required money-dealers for the trans- 
actions of trade ; he had correspondence with the metropolis and 
other towns ; and was himself a traveller to a considerable extent, 
though with the measured steps and slow that were an exigence of 
his age. It is therefore not only strange to our notions, but in 
many respects instructive, to learn how these several operations 
were then effected ; and on these points the letters of Robert Hey- 
ricke will supply us with various interesting particulars. 

Leicester was not then a town of any considerable trade, nor of 
a large population. It had lost its ancient importance as a frequent 
residence of the junior branch of the royal house, when the Dukes 
of Lancaster maintained their princely household within — of 
rather just without — its walls. It had lost the influence of its 
Abbey, in which the fallen Wolsey breathed his last, and of its 
other religious foundations. It had suffered greatly from desolating 
pestilence and the oft-recurring plague. Its dimensions and general 
aspect have been well represented in the lithographic print 
appended by Mr. Thompson to his History of Leicester, — derived 
from the map or plan made by John Speed about the year 1600, 
but corrected and adjusted by modern measurements. The town 
had been reported by commissioners of the Duchy of Lancaster in 
1587 to be in great decay, when it was said that thirty parishes 
were reduced to six, and four-and-twenty wards to ten.* 

As to trade, Leicester was at that day very far distant from even 
the dawn of its modern career of commercial prosperity. It was 
indeed the county town, and the centre of a rich pastoral district. 
The wool of the surrounding flocks was usually brought to its 
market, and a wool-hall had been erected in the reign of Elizabeth ; 
but little of this valuable product was wrought within the town. 
Efforts had been made from time to time to establish the manufac- 
ture of cloth, particularly that kind called kersey ,f but with small 
success. In 1599, the mayor and burgesses, in an abject epistle 
to the Earl of Huntingdon, declare, " We have no clothing nor 
other exercises to maintain our poor, nor are we able to set up 
any-"* 

Of hosiery, which a century later became the staple manufacture 
of this district, there was certainly a little carried on, but the par- 

* Thompson, pp. 282, 284. + Nichols, i. 398, 399 ; Thompson, pp. 255, 265. 
$ Thompson, p. 303. 



THE HEYRICKE LETTERS. 



13 



ticulars of its history are scanty and obscure. We read in Mr. 
Thompson's history of the town,* that in the year 1597 the mayor 
and the burgesses, by the appointment of the Earl of Huntingdon, 
lent to Thomas Moseley, a townsman, the sum of ^£10., to set poor 
children at work in the knitting of Jersey stockings ; and in a 
paperf preserved at Beaumanor — and which I think was probably 
placed in the hands of Sir William Heyricke when he was burgess 
in Parliament for the borough, it is stated that (in the reign of 
James I.) the hosiers of Leicester were compelled by some officers 
of Black wall Hall (in London) to pay twopence on every score of 
stockings for hallage, unless they would take their stockings to the 
hall, there to be sold. They were also at composition with the 
Duke of Lennox for ulnage, and paid yearly to the Duke's col- 
lectors for the same. 

Now, although the stocking-frame is usually stated to have been 
invented by William Lee so early as 1589, yet, as he is also related 
to have left England, and to have been working at Rouen until 
after the death of Henri IV. in 1610, I think it perfectly certain 
that the frame was not at that period in use at Leicester; and all 
the stockings that were then made, other than such as were cut 
out of pieces of cloth or linen (which had hitherto been the way 
of making hose) were knit by the hand. 

In 1578 Mary Erycke writes from Leicester to her son William: 
" Furthermore, 1 have sent you a pair of knit hose, and a pair of 
knit Jersey gloves. I would have you send me word how they 
serve you ; for if the gloves be too little for you, you should give 
them to one of your brother Hawes's children, and I would send 
you another pair." 

There is a passage in one of the letters of Robert Heyricke, 
written in 1594, which is remarkable for the high value then set 
upon worsted hose : " I have sent up by Henry White this bringer 
40 pair of good worsted hose, tied together in four bunches, 
which I pray you will sell for me for 12 li. or else lay them up in 
your press. I cannot afford them for less." This is the only allu- 
sion to hosiery in Robert Heyricke's letters ; but in another letter 
addressed to William Heyricke at a still earlier date, on the 6th of 
March, 1582, and written from Leicester by Richard Hudson, there 
is a curious passage on this subject, which I think will amuse you 
if I extract it at length : " The cause of my writing unto you at 
this time is to let you understand that I have sent you the pair of 
knit stockens which you sent for by Richard Penne, and 1 have 
received a crown of him for them : they did cost five shillings at 

* Thompson, p. 299. 
t Inserted in the Annals of Leicester, in the " History of Leicestershire." vol. i. 
p. 42o, under the year 1613 ; hut the original bears no date. The word " hallage " 
is there misprinted ballage ; and again in Thompson's " History of Leicester," 
1849, p. 343. 



LKIOKSTKHSIllUE ATtOTf TTKCTURAFi SOCTTCTY. 



Donoaster" — (so that they were made far from Leicester, unless, 
having been made in tins county, they were taken to Doncaster 
fair) — " and if you do not like them of the price, 1 pray you to get 
them coloured of the same colour as the stockens are which you 
had on your legs when I was with you, — 1 take it they were a 
murrey, and 1 will pay you for them, and will send you your five 
shillings again. Moreover, friend William Erycke, I have a pair 
of worsted stockens, the legs of them I pray you to get me a purse, 
a large one, made of them, with a lock ring, and I will pay you 
for it. I would have the fringe that shall go about it to be of silk." 

This letter, I fear, will not have given you a very high estimate 
of the manufacturing resources of Leicester in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. The town was not then one in which large fortunes were 
made by manufactures or trade. Robert Heyricke himself, though 
he had enjoyed a long and prosperous career, testifies to this cir- 
cumstance in a remarkable passage of one of his latest letters. He 
is speaking of the settlement in marriage of one of his daughters, 
and is balancing the advantages between her alliance to a country 
gentleman (one of the Babingtons), or to a " merchant, a gold- 
smith, or any good tradesman" of the City. "You know (he 
writes) that all the good fortunes of our kinred came only by my 
mother's sister being placed in London ; and I thank God that 
your placing there hath not only been your own preferment, but, 
by God's great blessing to you, you have been a great mean for 
the advancement of others. You know how poor and beggarly 
the country is, and that those w T ho do live best, live nothing like to 
citizens of London, though they be not of the richest sort." 

In this passage we have brought to our notice a remarkable 
change in the condition of London, — so far as the city is con- 
cerned. It was then not only a mine of wealth for the industrious 
and enterprising; it was full of life, luxury, and enjoyment; it is 
now a mere workshop for those who take their acquisitions to be 
enjoyed elsewhere. 

But I proceed to those other contrasts between our own times 
and those of the Heyricke letters to which I before alluded; and 
none can possibly be greater than that which the two periods pre- 
sent in the matter of public news. Where every day now issues 
forth throughout the country, in thousands of copies, its hundred 
sheets of varied and accurate intelligence, there was then nothing 
but the occasional pamphlet, such as that which described " the 
fearful and heavy news of the accident at Paris Gardens," of which 
a copy was sent by William Heyricke to his father in 1582. In 
the next year the young man transmitted, in manuscript, a copy 
of a letter sent to the Queen from the Great Turk ; in return for 
which his father communicated one that had come to her Majesty 
from the King of Barbary. In other letters we read of books of 
occasional sermons, or those of my lord mayor's show, but of 



THE HEYRICKE LETTERS. 



15 



nothing of greater importance ; except that one Christmas Sir 
William I ley rick e is thanked by his brother for the books sent in 
his last letter, " and (he writes) I hope the reading of them will do 
many good," — from which expression it may be supposed that 
they were of the nature of religious tracts. 

In any form, very little public new r s seems to have reached the 
good town of Leicester. Occasionally, Sir William appears to 
have informed his brother of the placing and shifting of persons 
in high office, but such intelligence excited but little interest in the 
Leicester corporation : " for my part (says Mr. Mayor) I shall be 
content, do what they will." The matters which more profoundly 
agitated the public mind consisted of rumours chiefly remarkable 
for their false or exaggerated complexion. 

Thus, when Henry Prince of Wales died in 1612, the popular 
report appears to have added that the King was dead also, or that 
something still more awful had occurred. The alderman's anxiety 
to hear from his brother had been greater than usual, " for here 
hath been such heavy news, that when we should have been merry 
with Mr. Mayor at his feast, we could not tell whether better to 
feast or fast: but, God be praised ! now we hear it is not so ill as 
we then heard it, but great loss. If it had been the Lord's will to 
have appointed him life, it had been great comfort to us all, and 
great stay to the kingdom,* but the Lord's will be done I" 

The Gunpowder Treason of seven years before, when both 
King and Prince were to have been destroyed at a blow, had per- 
haps suggested this false alarm ; but the dread which seems most 
frequently to have haunted the good Protestants of that day, was 
that of Popish invasion, as in September 1614 — 

"On Monday last here was such a rumour of a great army 
gathered together by the Pope, the Cardinals, the Prelates and 
Clergy, the King of Spain and the Emperor, to the value of 80,000 
horse and foot, and that they were come into the Low Countries, 
and would shortly be here, that there was many in great fear, till 
some of our neighbours came from London, and brought somewhat 
better news. By your next I pray you certify us somewhat of the 
truth of the matter." 

Again, in November 1615: — 

" Here is such diversity of news, by such as come from London, 
as I can give credit to none almost, unless I have it under your 
hand. Here is news that my Lord of Northampton, who it was 
said died here in England, is now living in Spain. Here is such 
talk of a great banquet that should come from Spain, full of bad 
dishes, and to a most vile intent, that, if it may be true, there is no 
doubt dangerous plots devised by enemies from home ; the Lord 
deliver his Majesty and all his, and all others that fear the Lord ! 
It is said also that at that time this banquet should work its effect, 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Spinola Bhotlld bring in 2,000 strong, and at his coming should 
burn the King's ships in the havens, which God forbid!" 

On questions of general politics the alderman says absolutely 
nothing, but on a change of municipal policy upon the accession 
of a new mayor of Leicester, there is the following amusing pas- 
sage : — " We have ventured on Mr. Bonnet for this year to come ; 
and, though Mr. Manbye hath striven this year to- reform strong 
ale, yet Mr. Bonnet saith it is a good refreshing to a poor man to 
have a cup of strong drink, though he have but little meat, and for 
his part he will not deprive them of it, but if he meet them at 
George Brook's he will take part with them, say against it this 
year they that will." 

We w ill next notice what were the facilities for Written Corre- 
spondence. Though some posts had been established for the 
service of the government, they were not yet available for private 
persons. The usual mode of communication between Leicester 
and the metropolis was by carriers, of whom there seem to have 
been two in constant employment. But the townsmen were fre- 
quently making journeys to London, and did not start without 
offering their services to their friends and neighbours ; and it was 
not yet illegal for them to carry letters ; so that correspondence 
might be frequent, if not regular, or entirely free from mishaps 
and miscarriages. One of the alderman's letters was to have been 
carried by one Blincorn, a workman, but, as the alderman was out 
of doors, the man was fain to lose the carriage of it (for which 
therefore he would have been paid), and it was afterwards taken 
by " a potty carry of our town : his name is Henshaw." A letter 
was sometimes carried along the road beyond its destination : 
" your last letter I understand you sent by Sir Oliver Cromwell, 
but he forgetting it when he lay at the Angel, took it with him 
Northward, I do not know how far, and yesterday he sent it back 
by Mr. Harlow, who brought it to me." 

The majority of travellers performed their journeys on foot. 
At the end of October, in 1614, Francis, the cook of Beaumanor, 
had a pitiful journey : he was eight days coming from London to 
Leicester. Those who could afford a horse travelled on horseback, 
and there are many passages respecting the provision of horses for 
Sir William by his brother, when the former was preparing to 
make his annual visit to Leicestershire. Robert Heyricke prided 
himself on his skill in horseflesh, and on one occasion he recom- 
mends to his brother " a very pretty gelding, as well-paced and 
easy-going as may be, only six years old, well made and clean of 
his legs, milk-white, with some small spots on him, his price £10. ; 
or, if you will have him whilst he is unsold, he shall be sent you 
up to bring you down, and if you like not of his price, you must 
give Fullwood 10s. for his journey, and deliver him safe again." 
This passage shows the cost of hiring a horse for the journey to 



THE HEYRICKE LETTERS. 



17 



and from London. At another time the alderman writes, " This is 
a very ill place for to hire a horse in. I am sure I have sent to 
twenty several places, to such as I did hear were likely to have to let 
for a journey; but amongst all the butchers, and others, that were 
likeliest to do the feat, I could get but one, and he with such 
covenants that if he do not return within ten days, then 12d. a day 
— no less, for every day that he tarries beside." 

When people became too infirm, or otherwise unable, to ride 
on horseback, there was an end to their travelling. Such was the 
case with Robert Heyricke himself when he grew unwieldly in his 
old age. He tells his brother, " I long to see you, and to see 
you here; for I think I shall never desire to go to London to see 
any such sights as heretofore, and by your means, I have often 
seen. 1 feel myself very unapt to ride." In answer to this Sir 
William Heyricke appears to have suggested the resource of a 
caroche, a luxury then unknown in Leicester, unless when the king 
or some man of high rank passed through the town; but it offered 
a mode of travel so untried to the Leicester alderman, that he did 
not accept the proffered kindness without hesitation. " The last 
branch of your letter speaketh of a new caroche, which you say 
will carry me very easy when I am weary of my horse ; but I must 
first make trial here by some short journey, for I dare not make 
trial of so long a circuit." 

If such were the difficulties attendant upon personal locomotion, 
before the days of railroads or stage-coaches, those connected with 
the transmission of money were still more embarrassing. It was 
extremely hazardous to send it along the road, for the bearers were 
very likely to meet with robbers or cozeners, either those who 
would despoil them by violence on the way, or cheat them when 
gambling at the inns. The Leicester alderman was generally too 
wary to incur such risk, but it was often with much trouble that he 
made his remittances in security. Sir William Heyricke and his 
brother, the goldsmith in London and the ironmonger at Leicester, 
were in fact bankers, though that designation was then unknown, 
and it was in transacting business resembling that which was per- 
formed by the modern banker that they both very largely increased 
their fortunes ; but it is strange to observe the difficulties which 
frequently attended their primitive operations in banking. On the 
5th of November, 1613, Robert writes, "Well ! I have spoke and 
sent to all that be likely in the market this day, and cannot find 
one to return (i.e. to London) until the 17th of this present." 
Again, on the 26th April, 1616, "I have such ado to return any 
money up, but they will have all before hand or else no bargain ; 
and I cannot tell certainly their soundness, which makes me quake 
when I do pay them, and yet I am desirous to return it with what 
speed I may." The best resource lay in the cattle dealers, who, 
having sold their beasts in London, were glad to leave their money 

c Vol. IT. 



is 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



safe in Cheapside, and take it again at Leicester; but their move- 
ments were irregular, and often dependant on the great fairs in the 
country, which influenced both the periods of their travelling and 
the roads they took. The alderman sometimes asked his brother 
to take up money in Smithfield, or "to try the butchers in East- 
oheap, or elsewhere, if any of them that come down to Rowell fair 
\\ \\\ leave you 150K. or what you can receive by them ; for I cannot 
return any, but many come to me of the other side, to leave money 
with me to have it in London." 

In connection with this subject may be noticed another mone- 
tary difficulty, which exhibited itself at a somewhat earlier date. 
At the time when William Heyticke was first settled in London he 
was repeatedly required to transmit small change to Leicester, 
where it was obviously very deficient, and its absence very inade- 
quately supplied by the worthless tokens* that traders then some- 
times coined for themselves. On the 6th of March, 1582, Richard 
Hudson writes to him, "I pray you, good William, to send me 
10s. in pence and two-pennies, if you can get them, and I will send 
you money for them." On the 8th of the same month his father 
thanks him for 20s. sent in new half-groats ; and also for 20s. in 
pence and half-pence ;f and on the 16th bis brother John writes, 
" My father gives you most hearty thanks for the twopennies and 
the halfpence that you sent him : he sent you 20s. for them by 
Richard Penn." On the 3 1st of July his father thanks him for 
sending pence and halfpence ; " they have done us great pleasure, 
for small money is yet scant in the country : your sister Hawes had 
sent half-a-crown's worth." And on the 3rd of August following, 
John writes again, "My father and mother gives you thanks for 
the single money you sent him, and he hath sent you money for 
them by John Saunders." 

Whilst coin was thus comparatively scarce, we read of abund- 
ance of good cheer, and it was very usual to make presents of pro- 
visions and luxuries for the table. From Leicester were sent flicks 
or flitches of bacon, shields of brawn, cheeses frequently, and on 
one occasion five dozen of fieldfares, to be distributed among friends 
in the city. From London were sent — a good keg of fresh sturgeon, 

* The great want of halfpence and farthings impelled the almost general use, 
among alehouse-keepers, chandlers, grocers, vintners, and other traders, of private 
tokens of lead, tin, latten, and it is said of leather. There were frequent and well- 
founded complaints that their circulation was derogatory of the Queen's princely 
dignity and honour, and occasioned continual loss to the poor, since for these tokens 
commodities could only be obtained of the parties by whom they were issued ; whilst 
their repayment in silver coin was an expectation very unlikely to be satisfied. (In- 
troduction by J. H. Burn, to the Catalogue of the Cabinet of Tokens presented to the 
Corporation of London, by Henry B. H. Beaufoy, Esq.) 

+ These halfpence, as well as the pennies and two-pences or half-groats, were of 
silver. They were first issued in 1582, and weighed only four grains. There had 
been previously, between the years 1561 and 1579, occasional issues of three-farthing 
pieces, also of silver. 



THE HEYRICKE LETTERS. 



19 



pomegranates, and a box of marmalade, and occasionally a sugar- 
loaf. But at Christmas Sir William Heyricke was always bountiful 
in despatching a large cargo of grocery and spices, which was wel- 
comed with hearty and uproarious gratitude. The alderman's ac- 
count of his family's demonstrations in this respect on S. Stephen's 
day (the morrow of Christmas) in the year 1614, is amusing. He 
tells his brother that his last letter had been "more welcome than 
all the music we have had since Christmas, and yet we have had 
pretty store both of our own and other; and the same day we were 
busy with holding up hands and spoons to you, out of porridge and 
pyes, in the remembrance of your great liberality of fruit and spice, 
which God send you long life to continue, for of that day we have 
not missed any S. Stephen this 47 year to have as many guests as 
my house would hold, 1 thank God for it." 

This old custom of holding up hands and spoons is again men- 
tioned at Christmas, 1616: "This day (he is writing upon another 
S. Stephen's) I have had thirty or near at dinner, and with wine 
and sugar, and hands held up so high as we could, we remembered 
Wood Street ; and though we can do no more, yet in our prayers, 
in our spoons, and in our cups, we do not forget you when time 
serves." 

Such were some of the holiday and everyday occupations of the 
townsfolk of Leicester in the reign of James the First. 1 have con- 
fined myself to general topics: as, to enter into the particular 
matters which form the main subjects of the letters would have 
occupied too much of your attention. I will only, in conclusion, 
briefly enumerate as among the more important of them — the king's 
visit to Leicester in the year 1614, the election of burgesses to par- 
liament in the same year, the incorporation of the Newarke Hospital, 
the purchase of the Newarke Grange by the corporation from Sir 
Thomas Smith, their proposed sale of the Newarke Mills, negocia- 
tions for the purchase of estates at Wanlip, Sweepston, and various 
other places, and for procuring church preferment for Tobias Hey- 
ricke the alderman's son, negociations for proposed marriages of 
the daughters of both the brothers — to Ashby of Quenby, Babing- 
ton of Cossington, and other parties, the extraordinary trials for 
witchcraft at the assizes, and an equally remarkable account of 
open-air preaching set on foot on the suggestion of Sir William 
Heyricke, for the benefit of the Newarke Hospital. In addition to 
these incidental matters of business, there are constant reports from 
Beaumanor respecting the management of that estate and Sir Wil- 
liam Heyricke's rights in the adjacent forest, with some curious 
details on the planting of trees and agricultural matters, and on 
the sports of the field as then practised. 

Altogether, in my opinion, it would be difficult to find, either in 
print or still in manuscript, a more interesting series of domestic 
correspondence than this of Robert Heyricke the old alderman of 



20 



LKlCKSTKUSHrUtt ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Leicester and thrice mayor thereof. He always writes to his brother 
with the warmest affection, combined with an evident respect for 
one who had become a London citizen, a knight, and a courtier; 
but at the same time he discusses every subject as it arises with 
perfect freedom and familiarity, — " as though (he writes on one 
occasion) I was walking with you at Beaumanor," or (at another 
time) " as though I was walking with you in Paul's, a turn and a 
turn." His letters are continued until within a year of his death, 
which occurred in 1618, at the age of seventy-eight. You have 
his monumental stone still remaining in S. Martin's church, and 
his portrait in the Mayor's Parlour at the Town Hall. 

Mr. James Thompson next read a Paper intituled 

ROMAN LEICESTER, AS ILLUSTRATED BY RECENT 
DISCOVERIES. 

From fourteen hundred to eighteen hundred years ago, a populous 
town was standing on the site which modern Leicester occupies. 
In its origin nearly coeval with the establishment of the Christian 
faith among mankind, it existed during the reigns of those cele- 
brated emperors with whose names every schoolboy in Europe is 
familiar. At first merely a military encampment, by degrees it 
became an important city or station. Being formed in the midst 
of a native tribe called the Coritani (or as some scholars name 
them, the Coritavi), and designated by the Romans Ratae, it was 
known to that people as the Ratae of the Coritavi. 

The researches of military and other antiquaries, and the remains 
which have from time to time been discovered, enable us to infer 
with tolerable certainty, that the camp at Ratae was designed on 
the plan of castrametation invented by Polybius, made use of up 
to and before the time of Julius Agricola. It was a parallelogram 
in outline, many acres in extent, and capable of accommodating 
two imperial legions, numbering together from 10,000 to 15,000 
men, including infantry, cavalry, and others. 

Ratae soon became one of the principal places in the island, 
and through it one or two of the great roads passed, connecting 
it north and south, east and west, with other populous centres of 
internal commerce and local government. After the custom of the 
age, it appears to have been fortified, being surrounded by high 
and thick walls, and entered by gates, facing the points of the 
compass. 

Within the walls stood public edifices — the residence of the 
governor, the court-house, the temple, the bath, the circus, and the 
theatre — and many private mansions. In all the latter were 
numerous apartments. The floors of the principal of these were 
covered with tesselated pavements, composed of designs carefully 



ROMAN LEICESTER. 



21 



executed and gracefully arranged. Sometimes the subjects were 
mythological (as in the case of the pavement now preserved in our 
museum) ; at others they exhibited floral and mathematical patterns 
(as in the case of the pavement in Jewrywall Street). Beneath the 
floors were low chambers, called " hypocausts," by means of which 
the apartments above were warmed. The walls were covered with 
plaster, whereon were painted in fresco and distemper, designs far 
superior to many of the bewildering and tasteless patterns of the 
modern paperhanger — designs incomparable for their chaste and 
rich effect ; the art of wall-painting possessed by the ancient house- 
decorator having decayed, and being now almost unknown. And 
these rooms, thus ornamented, were lighted, it is believed, by 
glazed windows in the daytime, and by oil-lamps in the dark hours. 
On the tables at which the inhabitants dined, were set jars and 
vessels of elegant shapes and proportions, made of glass and 
earthenware. At their banquets they drank rare wines, and they 
ate the delicacies found in the river and the forest, and by the sea- 
shore. On tablets covered with a coating of wax they wrote with 
pointed implements the messages forwarded to intimates at a 
distance. 

In their leisure, they frequented the amphitheatre, the bath, and 
the tavern. They periodically sacrificed at the temples of the 
gods in whom they believed. When they offended the laws of the 
empire, or disputed with a fellow-citizen the right to property, they 
attended in the Basilica of Ratse before the local administrator. 
When they died, they were buried in a suburban cemetery, and 
over their remains were placed tablets on which hope breathed its 
fond prayer, and love sobbed its sad farewells. In short, for four 
hundred years the Roman or Roman British inhabitants of this 
locality lived a civilized life on the very site over which we walk 
daily, though time has covered it with a thick carpet of earth, 
through which the stifled voice of antiquity is only occasionally 
audible in mysterious and subdued accents. It is one of the 
objects of archaeology to interpret these, and I am making the 
attempt to do so this evening. 

In fulfilment of this purpose, it is necessary to explain that 
within the last few months the laying down of culverts in the 
streets of Leicester has been carried on extensively, in completion 
of the scheme adopted by the local authorities for the drainage of 
the town. The lines of trenching have been along those streets 
where the local antiquary would look with great expectation for 
discoveries — for example, along the Southgate Street and the 
Ilighcross Street, and the streets passing at right angles by the 
Jewry Wall, namely, Bath Street and Blue Boar Lane. Nor have 
the results been wholly unprofitable ; though they have been far 
from correspondent with the wishes of those who take an interest 
in archajological enquiry. 



22 



i, vac kst i ; i ;s 1 1 1 1 (k a hci irr kct u ua l soctety. 



All persons who have visited the lloman pavement in Jewry- 
wall Street, know that it lies under a house standing at an angle 
formed by the junction of the ends of Bath Street and Jewrywall 
Street. It was in Bath Street that excavations were made about 
Midsummer, 1859, for the purpose of laying down the culverts. 
When the workmen bad arrived about half-way up the street, they 
found their progress obstructed by a wall four or five feet thick, 
which took an oblique direction across the street. The wall was 
constructed of stones laid in cement. On the side of the street 
opposite to that on which the well-known Roman pavement lies 
was another, composed of large tessellee, exhibiting no pattern. 
Near the wall, also, lay fragments of roof-tiles. There can be little 
hesitation felt in assuming this wall to have formed part of a 
mansion, the magnificent pavement adjoining having been the floor 
of its principal apartment; and it is probable the plain pavement 
was that of its courtyard, the roof-tiles indicating that it was open 
and near to the covered part of the building. As these town- 
houses were of one storey, they usually extended over a con- 
siderable area, around one or more courtyards. 

In September last the excavators were engaged in Southgate 
Street. When they were taking out the earth at that part of the 
street lying between Mr. Collier's and Mr. Johnson's malt-offices, 
they found a coarse pavement and a portion of a stone column. 
The latter is about two feet high, one foot and one inch in diameter, 
and three feet two inches in circumference. It lay about twelve 
feet below the surface. Further up the street, in the direction of 
the High Cross, near the premises of Mr. Warren, fragments of 
plaster, which had formed the sides of a room, coloured in deep 
red, were taken out of the ground: they were mistaken for portions 
of a floor. 

Two hundred years ago on the self-same spot, we are assured 
by Throsby, a local historian, traces of pavements and painted 
walls were revealed. " In 1667," he says, " some workmen having 
occasion to dig where Mr. Johnson's buildings now stand, found at 
the depth of twelve feet a beautiful floor of Mosaic work ; there 
were also side-walls standing, beautifully painted." 

These remains were unquestionably those of another mansion 
equal in extent to that in the Jewrywall Street. 

Not far from this locality approaching to the site of the High 
Cross, a " thick, almost impenetrable wall of forest stone," was 
discovered in 1791 at the depth of sixteen feet: it was apparently 
the foundation of some building. It crossed the street in a north- 
westerly direction. When the house opposite to the Nags Head 
was rebuilt by Mr. Stephen's, a tesselated pavement was found. 
Under the parlour of the house now occupied by Mr. Collier, in 
Southgate Street, a similar pavement was once exposed. These 
details prove that almost the entire length of the street from the 



ROMAN LEICESTER. 



23 



High Cross to the South Gate, at the end of Friar Lane, the 
ground was anciently covered with buildings of some pretension to 
solidity of structure and ornamental character. The road must, 
therefore, have been carried over and through their ruins after the 
demolition and desertion of the Roman town, and in the dark 
period intervening between the fifth and the tenth centuries. 

In the street lying between the High Cross and the North Gate, 
the case is different: pavements have not been laid bare along its 
course. That known as the Diana and Actseon pavement was 
found on one side of the street. Now, if the present line of road 
here follows the line of that of the Roman station (as would appear 
likely), then the absence of pavements is what would be expected. 
But recent excavations have brought to light, at four feet below the 
surface, a walk constructed of granite and sandstone, five feet thick, 
extending from a point near All Saints' Church to another near the 
Borough Gaol. 

This line of masonry is too long to be considered that of one 
building, and I therefore assume it to have been that of the street 
frontage of the Via Principalis of Ratae. Its existence in the 
middle of the street does not furnish an objection to the theory, as 
the streets in the Roman-British towns were often little wider than 
passages, and there would be space enough left for the remainder 
of the avenue between the subterranean wall and the opposite 
frontage now standing. 

It may be stated for the benefit of those who have not bestowed 
attention upon this subject, that the reason why walls and pave- 
ments are found manj' feet below the present surface is probably 
this : — In the case of the Roman-British houses the stonework 
only rose, in the first instance, a few feet above the ground, the 
superposed structure being composed of a framework of wood, and 
the interstices being filled in with plaster. As there was only one 
storey the superstructure was necessarily light and insubstantial. 
When, therefore, the buildings were overthrown by hostile hands — ■ 
the woodwork being consumed by fire, and the charred materials 
all falling down in a mass — it is not difficult to perceive how the 
stonework might in great part remain in situ and the earth and 
rubbish be roughly levelled over by succeeding occupants, who 
thus by degrees raised the surface of the streets and of the entire 
intramural area. 

In September last, while the sewerage excavations were being 
prosecuted in Blue Boar Lane, the labourers came in contact with 
a wall following the same direction as the street. The upper part 
of the masonry was five feet below the surface, and it was exposed 
to the depth of five feet lower; six feet below which the lowest 
course had not been reached. The wall was six feet longhand 
constructed of Roman tiles, similar to those visible in the Jewry 
Wall. At one end* of the masonry was found a portion of a stone 



2 I 



LKICKSTKKSIII UK AHCHITKCTURAL 



column, 2 feet 9 inches high, on its plinth or base. The latter was 
about 12 inches in depth; the column was about 5 feet 8^ inches 
in circumference. At the other end of the wall a second fragment, 
without the plinth, was discovered. It was 1 foot 5 inches in 
diameter, 4 feet 7 inches in circumference, and 2 feet lj inches 
high. The two pieces were of millstone grit. 

It will be remembered that a portion of a shaft like those de- 
scribed was found a few years ago at the lower end of S. Nicholas 
Street. The capital of a column of Byzantine character (now pre- 
served in the town museum) was also turned up on or near Talbot 
Lane. In the same locality, in the year 1793, were discovered 
numerous fragments of columns. This part of Leicester has 
evidently, therefore, been covered at some remote period by a 
building, with substantial walls, and adorned with colonnades. 
The ground has obviously been greatly raised by artificial means 
about the Jewry Wall, and the debris of a large edifice have con- 
tributed to the result. 

On looking at the map of Leicester, it will be noticed that an 
area of oblong shape lies included between Highcross Street and 
the Jewry Wall, and S. Nicholas Street and the Blue Boar Lane. 
If we also examine the outline of sucl? a Roman encampment as 
those were which were commonly formed, in the first century of 
our era — of the period in which Leicester was founded — we shall 
perceive that it was usually crossed by two roads. One of these 
was the Via Principalis or High Street ; the other intersected it 
at right angles. At the point of intersection was the Praetorium, 
or quarters of the general. The oblong area just defined corre- 
sponds with this part in Leicester. When the encampment passed 
into a town, the probability is that the Praetorium was converted 
into the Prefecture, or governor's residence, with the Basilica, or 
courthouse, and other buildings of public utility, attached. Some- 
times public baths formed a portion of the various edifices which 
in time clustered round the principal one as a centre. Now this is 
the kind of block of buildings which occupied the oblong area, and 
of which the fragmentary columns recently brought to light, and 
the Jewry Wall, are probably the suggestive remains. 

Other discoveries have lately been made in Talbot Lane, very 
near the locality here alluded to, but they require further attention 
and investigation before they can be satisfactorily described. 

I here conclude these observations and explanations. If they 
be but vague and general — if we are yet unable to construct a map 
of Roman Leicester in its leading "outlines — you may, perhaps, 
have been convinced that many feet below the Leicester of to-day 
lie the traces of a once opulent, populous, and well-built town — 
the ^eloquent memorials of the luxurious Roman, who was sur- 
rounded by his frescoed halls, who trod on his tesselated pave- 
ments, and who indulged in the pleasures of- the bath and the 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



25 



theatre. Thus, locked in the slumbers of oblivion, the Spirit of 
the Past may be said to repose beneath our houses and our marts 
— that Spirit which lived when painting, statuary, and sculpture 
laid their products before the vulgar eye — when law was recognised 
in the city while force ruled in the forest — when the municipal 
organization was witnessed in vigorous operation — long before our 
Teutonic ancestors had learned to lisp the syllables of civilization; 
and if the Buried City beneath us be not wide and marvellous as 
are those which are scattered over the plains of Assyria — nor com- 
plete and startling in its apparent freshness as the lava-engulfed 
cities of Italy — yet do its many vestiges appeal more directly to 
our everyday sympathy and local associations. 

On independent grounds the minutest relics of antique social 
life have a charm for the intelligent mind ; for even the rusty fibula 
affords almost a concentrated history of the Roman art, and the 
shattered urn often tells a vivid story of Roman customs; but when 
at ten, fifteen, or twenty feet below the surface of modern Leicester, 
the excavator brings to light massive fragments of masonry, held 
together in the bonds of a tenacity which defies assault, are we not 
disposed to ask whether there were not "giants in those days?" 
And, as the fossil geologist finds in the perishing bone a relic of 
the mastodon of the early world, are we not in like manner re- 

' minded by these subterranean walls of the stately fabrics of the 
primeval Britain? Does not that grim and misshapen ruin, the 
Jewry Wall, seem to us like a plesiosaurian monster of Archaeo- 
logy left stranded by the ceceding tides of time on the shores of 

# eternity ? 

Votes of thanks to the Readers of Papers, and to the Presi- 
dent (the latter proposed by the Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester, 
and responded to by the President, Lord John Manners. M.P.) 
closed the proceedings. 



Blst December, 1860. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the Chair. 

The following Gentlemen were elected Members of the Society: 
Mr. H. Lankester, Leicester; Mr. William Allen Kendall, Huraber- 
stone ; Mr. Thomas Mercer, Leicester; Mr. John Hunt, Thurnby: 
Mr. Alfred Russell Donisthorpe, Leicester; Mr. H. I). Dudgeon, 
Leicester; Dr. Day, Wymondham ; The Rev. Augustus Packe, 
M.A., Walton on the Wolds. 



26 LKICKSTKKSIIIKK A 1101.1 1 TECTU11AL SOCIETY. 

The following Gentlemen were also elected Honorary Members 
of the Society: Mr. E. L. Stephens, Borough Surveyor; the Rev. 
C. Boutell. 

The Rev. J. H. Htll exhibited rubbings of a brass of Sir 
John de Wantyng. of Wimbish (1347) ; of a fragment of a brass 
at Bodiam, Sussex (136*0) ; of a brass in memory of Robert 
Kervile, Wiggenhall, S. Mary's, Norfolk; and of another in memory 
of Peter Denot or Devot. 

Sir H. L. Dryden, Bart., presented to the Society a lithograph 
of Copplestone Cross, North Devon. 

Mr. George Cowdell Neale read the following paper on 

TREASURE TROVE. 

I beg to trespass upon your time this morning whilst I make a few 
observations on the appropriation of Treasure Trove, a subject 
which I consider so important as to affect the interests of this and 
other archaeological societies, all local museums, and especially 
every private collection of antiquities. My few remarks will refer 
principally to the numismatical department of archaeological science. 

In the early historic ages of our country, we find that in the 
absence of peaceful pursuits, the love of conquest and the desire for 
plunder so occupied the attention of neighbouring nations, that 
Britain was not likely to, neither did she, escape the scourge of the 
invader's sword. Conquered and reconquered for many centuries, 
much of her soil was saturated with the blood of her brave defenders 
and never- tiring foes. In the presence of, or close proximity to, 
such enemies, with but a thinly-scattered population, little agricul- 
tural development, and less of manufacturing skill, it became a 
necessity that almost every man should be a warrior, should buckle 
on the sword and learn the art of war. Although in succeeding 
ages the invader never landed on our shores in any force to devas- 
tate the land and pillage the homes of our ancestors, yet records 
of wars more cruel, of a civil and intestine character, fill pages of 
our history with melancholy details of desperate conflicts ; as 
examples, those of the Roses, and of the seventeenth century, 
stand out most conspicuously. To these frequent sanguinary con- 
tests, combined with accidental causes and the absence of public 
depositories for wealth, the coin collector of the present day is 
indebted for those interesting relics after which he industriously 
seeks, and places from time to time in his cabinet, as fresh links in 
a chain, which he is ever anxious to extend, although he may never 
be able to complete. The bank of deposit to the soldier and man 
of wealth, in the troublous times to which we have alluded, was a 



TREASURE TROVE. 



27 



secret little chamber in a chimney, an opening in a beam, a crevice 
in a wall, or more generally a hole in the ground. Before he went 
forth to the battle-field, he secreted his hoards of silver pennies 
and groats, his golden nobles and broads; but often the too well 
directed arrow or pointed spear prevented his return to disinter his 
hidden wealth, where concealed for centuries it lay, with no other 
visitant than the spider or the worm — until the pick of the navvy, 
the hammer of the mason, or the saw of the carpenter, unexpectedly 
struck upon the precious deposits. We think this view we have 
taken is corroborated by the fact, that the coins of Charles L, and 
those in circulation during his reign, are so frequently discovered in 
such places, and in such quantities, as to leave no doubt of their 
being secreted wealth. 

The discovery of these treasures has often given rise to serious 
dispute, and even litigation. The finder, the owner of the soil, the 
lord of the manor, and the Crown, have each, I believe, endeavoured 
to substantiate a claim. A few little difficulties and distinctions, 
more nice than wise, such as whether the objects were discovered 
on the surface, or an inch or two below, have rendered decision on 
these matters somewhat perplexing. But Government has lately 
instituted such an active inquiry after, and demand upon, relics of 
antiquity, that we are led to conclude it is supported in its claim 
by some ancient right, which, like many obsolete laws and customs, 
more honoured in their breach than in their observance, has not 
hitherto been rigorously enforced. As archaeologists, we naturally 
and interestedly ask — can this be a right, or is it an assumption ? 
The purchaser of a house concludes that the whole of its materials 
are his own, de facto, as well as de jure ; and if, during its demo- 
lition, any treasure should be discovered, who in equity has so great 
a claim to it as himself? The proprietor of a Welsh mountain, for 
example, concludes the mineral wealth it may contain is indisput- 
ably his own ; and if he be so fortunate as to find in its surface-soil 
a coin of Edward I., which some attendant was less fortunate to 
lose, as he escorted his Queen to Carnarvon castle, such by right 
should be his — to decide otherwise would be making a distinction 
without a difference. In appropriating these treasure "finds," 
Government purchases what it appears to claim, at about their in- 
trinsic or natural value. Every one at all acquainted with ancient 
coins knows, that in many cases their intrinsic value is not their 
worth — there is a fictitious price far above this. The value of a 
coin or medal depends upon its rarity, condition, beauty of execu- 
tion, or its association with any interesting circumstance, person, or 
event. Rarity is exemplified in such coins as the gold penny of 
Henry III.; the petition crown by Simon; the quarter florin of 
Edward III. ; the George noble and rial of Henry VII I., and many 
others. Condition is estimated according to the legibility of its 
type, freshness and freedom from abrasion. Beauty of execution 



28 



I r l ( T'.ST i ; i;s 1 1 1 ll K ARCHITKCTURAL SOCIETY. 



is observed in the coins of Cromwell, which were never in circula- 
tion, and during the Protectorate were treasured up as works of art. 
The live shilling piece of the present reign is a work of such exqui- 
site skill, that a proof realizes five times its metallic value. Under 
this head we cannot classify, though of recent production, the new 
bronze coinage. The value of a coin or medal, estimated according 
to its association with any historic event, is exemplified in the 
medal which Captain Knight exhibited at the late soiree. Its 
intrinsic worth is perhaps two shillings, but being associated with 
the history of a most unfortunate monarch, in times most eventful, 
it is deservedly and highly prized by its fortunate possessor. 

During the last and present generation, the rapid increase of 
wealth, and the facilities for acquiring knowledge, have naturally 
been followed by refinement of taste, and a due appreciation of the 
rare and beautiful. Objects of antiquity of every description have 
found many admirers, who have become diligent students of their 
various merits, and of the department of science to which they 
belong. Ancient coins, as they have been discovered, have found 
their way into the cabinets of private collectors, where they have 
been carefully classified and arranged. Many, no doubt, have been 
melted down; and one-third of those discovered in the present 
day, from their imperfect condition, deserve no better fate. We 
are told Government is instituting its present active enquiry after, 
and demand upon, Treasure Trove, to prevent this destruction : but 
we cannot accept the plea. Almost every village now has its 
virtuoso, and every town its jeweller, to whom coins are consigned; 
and the collector is well acquainted with these depots of the objects 
of his cherished pursuit. There is little danger now of coins of 
value being cast into the melting pot or refiner's crucible. We 
believe the private collector to be quite as safe a guardian of the 
objects of antiquity, as museum curators, or government officials. 
So far as the numismatical department is concerned, the British 
Museum is little better than a condemned cell ; where, most 
securely kept from the visitor's eye, are objects professedly for 
" public view." As we are told these are not the days for silver 
keys to unlock museum doors and government offices, we refrain to 
apply them. To visit the coin-room of our national museum, we 
must procure an order, not always easily to be obtained, from some 
official. A visitor too feels a delicacy in asking to see ten different 
coins, which perhaps have to be selected from as many different 
cabinets; however courteous the curator may be, he regards his 
visit almost as an intrusion. Surely, in this age of iron and glass, 
when the former can be made of any strength, and the latter of any 
necessary thickness, and of crystal purity, coins need not be exhi- 
bited in opaque cabinets. To dispute the value of museums would 
be folly, but in the department which we have been considering, 
we think more general information is distributed by the one thou- 



TREASURE TROVE. 



29 



sand little collections in our own country, than by this gigantic 
system of centralization. The private collector regards with a very 
jealous eye the government appropriation of Treasure Trove ; he 
must henceforth relinquish his pursuit, or study his subject deprived 
of his alphabet, grammar, and rules; for such to him are his coins. 

Two recently discovered hoards, one at Barrow, the other at 
Kibworth, have been removed from the county ; two pages, as it 
were, rudely torn from the history of our local antiquities. Some 
we know would have been lodged in our local museums, their 
proper destination, if to be publicly displayed ; others have passed 
by purchase into the possession of a gentleman fully capable of 
appreciating their worth. The Nunburnholme (Yorkshire) "find" 
does not appear to have been demanded by the Lords of the Trea- 
sury. Lord Londesborough, the owner, states, that he divided the 
coins equally, and presented them to three different Institutes, two 
belonging to the county of York. The claims of local museums 
and private collectors should not be disregarded in the discovery 
and distribution of relics. The British Museum is indebted for 
her choicest specimens to the private collectors, the contents of 
whose cabinets from time to time, from various causes, have been 
distributed under the hammer of the auctioneer. Owing to the 
labour and taste of the local archaeologist, many a costly gem has 
been snatched from oblivion, and the accumulated dust of ages has 
been removed from objects which have proved valuable accessories 
to the study both of history and chronology. If the Government 
appropriation of Treasure Trove be rigorously enforced, even under 
the active surveillance of the police, archaeological societies must 
necessarily decline, local museums may close their doors, and 
private individuals must cease to collect. The subject was named 
to Lord John Manners at our late meeting. Several members of 
Parliament have also promised to give it their attention, and to 
introduce it where it will obtain a fair and candid discussion. 

Lt appears especially desirable that a Society like this should 
discuss the question, record its opinions, and enter a formal protest 
on the minutes of its proceedings. My own conviction is, that the 
diffusion and not the centralization of objects of antiquity is the 
way to advance science ; that Treasure Trove should be allowed to 
take its accustomed and accidental course, as in an age of taste and 
refinement like the present it will not be overlooked or misappro- 
priated. We need no Act of Parliament now to prevent the de- 
struction of relics ; it would be well indeed if more vigilance was 
exercised to prevent their manufacture. We do not wish to form 
an Archaeological Protection Society ; we would rather have all un- 
necessary restrictions removed, which prevent the free distribution 
of objects of antiquity. Treasure Trove is described by an old 
but excellent authority to be, "Money, which being found, and not 
owned, belongs to the King; but in the Civil Law to the fmder% w 



30 



LEIC ESTERS! [IRE ARCH] TECTURAL SOCT ETY. 



How far the present interference of Government accords with this, 
LB a subject of considerable interest and open to grave criticism. 



January, 1861. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the Chair. 

The following resolutions, &c, were passed in Committee : — 

That Mr. G. C. Bellairs be treasurer in the room of the late Mr. 
Isaac Hodgson. 

That the Rev. E. W. Woodcock be a member of the committee. 

That Mr. Goddard be auditor for the year. * 

A letter from the Rev. J. M. Gresley, announcing his resignation 
of the office of joint honorary secretary, and of his retirement as a 
member of the Society having been read, it was resolved, "That 
the thanks of the Society be presented to him for his able and 
indefatigable services, and that he be elected an honorary member 
of this Society." 

That Mr. North be elected Honorary Secretary of the Society in 
the room of the Rev. J. M. Gresley. 

Mr. John Thompson was elected a member of the Society. 

Mr. Vincent Wing exhibited some fine and interesting photo- 
graphs from the church of S. Chad, Stockton, Salop, which has 
been lately restored from that gentleman's own designs. 

Mr. Goddard exhibited an ancient iron stirrup and a spur. 

Mr. Vincent Wing called the attention of the Society to the 
bad and dangerous state of the fine church at Melton Mowbray, 
and to the absolute necessity for extensive repairs being made to 
the fabric. He also referred to the limited supply of funds, and 
the great difficulty of raising money for the purpose. 



2oth March, 1861. 
The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the Chair. 

Mr. North (Honorary Secretary) presented and read the fol- 
lowing Report of the proceedings of the Society for the past year, 
which was adopted, and ordered to be printed in the next annual 
volume of the associated societies; — 



RETORT FOR 1800. 



31 



THE REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1860. 

In reporting the operations of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological 
Society for the year I860, your Committee will divide their remarks into three 
sections : — 

I. The Bi-Monthly Meetings. 
II. Architectural Progress in the County during the year. 
III. The Exhibition and Soiree. 

The bi-monthly meetings have been of a most interesting character, and the 
objects exhibited both rare and curious, but of so varied a character as to render 
anything like a definite description of them in a Report altogether impracticable. 

The numismatics! department has been well represented during the year. 
Among other contributions, Mr. G. H. Nevinson exhibited Roman coins found at 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, counters and tradesmen's tokens ; the Rev. G. E. Gillett, 
English silver coins from Waltham ; the Rev. J. Sankey, Roman and English coins, 
with some medals; Mr. North, some local tradesmen's tokens. To Mr. G. C. Neale 
the Society and all coin-collectors are much indebted for a short Paper upon 
Treasure Trove, which your Committee have pleasure in presenting to the members 
of this Society in the volume of Reports and Papers about to be printed by the 
Societies in union for that purpose. The subject is one claiming the attention of 
all interested in local antiquities ; for, if the Government is, unchallenged, to assert 
its right to all coins found below the surface of the soil, the private collector will 
have little inducement to follow his favourite study, and the local museum will be 
wanting in a department illustrative of local history, most interesting to all enquirers 
into the "bygones" of particular localities. 

Several typographical curiosities have been laid upon the table : 

The Rydeware Cartulary, a MS. compiled 2 Edward II., by Thomas de Ryde- 
ware, lord of the manor of Seile, Leicestershire, containing transcripts of charters, 
and illustrated by several curious drawings showing the dress, regal, military, and 
ecclesiastical, of the period, was exhibited by the Rev. J. M. Gresley, at the October 
meeting. The Staffordshire Clog Almanack, mentioned in Shaw's History of Stafford- 
shire, was also exhibited and illustrated by a paper read by Mr. Gresley at the same 
meeting. The same gentleman exhibited numerous curiosities at the other meetings 
of the Society, as did also Mr. Goddard, Mr. Jacques, the Rev. J. H. Hill, and other 
members. 

Several Papers illustrative of local history and antiquities, or of the objects 
exhibited, have been read during the year, which your Committee regret cannot be 
placed upon permanent record, they being worthy of more than a mere passiug 
notice in a necessarily short Report. 

i. The Monumental Brass of Robert Staunton, Esq., and Agnes his wife, at 
Castle Donington; description of the Brass, and historical sketch of the 
Family, by the Rev. J. M. Gresley. 

ii. Churchyard Crosses, by V. Wing, Esq. 
in. Newstead, by the Rev. J. M. Gresley. 

rv. The Biddenden Cake, by G. C. Neale, Esq. 

v. Staffordshire Clog Almanack, by the Rev. J. M. Gresley. 

vi. Treasure Trove, by G. C. Neale, Esq. 

If we may anticipate a few lines, and add to these the Papers read at the 
Soiree which we shall notice presently, we have 
vn. Mediaeval Costume, as illustrated by Monumental Brasses, by the Rev. Chas. 
Boutell, M.A. 

viii. The Objects of Architectural and Archaeological Societies, by F. W. Ordish, 
Esq. 

ix. The State of Leicester in the early part of the seventeenth century, by ,T. 
Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. 

x. Recent Discoveries illustrative of Roman Leicester, by James Thompson, Esq. 

Had this Society's work, during the past year, been confined simply to the 
bringing of these Papers before its members and the public, its existence would 
have needed no apology. 

Paper No. IX. is also printed in the volume for the year 1 8G0. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Though your Committee have to regret that during the past year few Architec- 
tural Plans have been laid before them, still, much has been done in the county in 
the way of church restoration, the erection of school-houses or other buildings 
claiming particular attention, in many of which members of this Society feel a deep 
interest, or with which they are intimately connected. The following may be 
cited :— 

S, Martin's Church, Leicester. The restoration of this church is again being 
resumed : this time alteration as well as restoration is to take place. The spire and 
tower being pronounced in a dangerous state, the former has been taken down, and 
the bitter is to follow in the ensuing spring. It will be remembered the tower rests 
upon four Norman arches, the western one being made additionally heavy in appear- 
ance, by the addition, some years ago, of a course of brickwork to increase its 
strength ; these, with the large mass of masonry containing the belfry stairs, are to 
be removed, the whole to be replaced by an Early English tower, resting upon cor- 
responding arches and surmounted by a broach-sprre — should sufficient funds be 
forthcoming — in character and design similar to the well known example at Ketton 
in Northamptonshire. The belfry stairs will be placed in the north transept, the 
entrance being from the exterior. The north or Heyricke's chapel, which is in a 
very dilapidated condition, is to be restored, and the north transept to be carried out 
considerably: the whole being under the architectural care of Mr. Brandon. 

The substitution of one style of architecture for another in rebuilding portions 
of an ancient church, is a proceeding which in almost every instance is open to 
severe criticism, if not to reprobation ; but there will be so much apparent gain, in 
this instance, to the general effect and utility of the church, in bringing the chancel 
into closer connection with the nave, and in throwing open a large space by the 
removal of the belfry stairs, that the general rule is, perhaps in this case, judiciously 
departed from. Plans and elevations of the intended alterations were exhibited at 
the late Soiree of this Society. 

S. Mary's Church, Leicester. During the past year the restoration of this vener- 
able church has been brought to a close. This church is of large dimensions, and is 
peculiarly interesting as exhibiting various styles of architecture, beginning with 
eai-ly Norman, of which there are some fine examples. The works effected during 
the year consist of the rebuilding of the whole arcade on the north side of the nave, 
with the clerestory above. Before their reconstruction the arches on this side the 
nave were extremely plain, being entirely destitute of mouldings; they are now, 
however, richly moulded, to make them correspond with those on the south side. 
The clerestory, like the arches below, is in the Early English style, displaying twelve 
lancet windows, joined together on the outside by a continuous arcade with clustered 
columns. The north side of the nave now forms a fine feature of the church. The 
other works carried on during the year were the completion of the seats, which are 
of oak with carved poppy heads, and the substitution of an elaborately carved oak 
pulpit in the place of the old one. A south porch has also been erected in the Early 
English style, which has a fine recessed daorway with enriched mouldings. The 
inside is ornamented with an extremely chaste arcade with polished alabaster pillars. 
All the doors of the church, too, have been replaced in oak, those on the north and 
south being good specimens of carving, exactly copied from the old ones. The other 
doors are of plain oak, covered with richly wrought iron work. The lighting of the 
church is also entirely new, being effected by means of gaseliers suspended from 
the roof, manufactured by Skidmore of Coventry. They are of very handsome 
design, the coronee in the chancel and that over the font being much richer than the 
rest. The rebuilding of the arcade of the nave and the erection of the south porch 
were carried out, from the designs of Mr. G. G. Scott, by Mr. Broadbent, of Lei- 
cester. 

The munificence displayed in this work of restoration by a member of this 
Society — the outlay being almost entirely defrayed, and the works personally super- 
intended by Mr. Thomas Nevinson — not only makes the town of Leicester, a lasting 
debtor to his large-hearted liberality, but sheds a lustre upon any Architectural 
Society which, like this, can number him among its most enei^getic supporters. 

S. Andrew's Church, Leicester. This new church is now in course of erection in 
the parish of S. Mary, from designs of Mr. G. G. Scott. A sketch of the exterior 
was exhibited at the late Meeting and Soiree of the Society in Leicester. 

Belgrave Church. The chancel of this church has been recently restored by Mr. 
Evan Christian, the architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission. This fabric is ex- 



REPORT FOR I860. 



83 



ceedingly interesting, being of the Decorated character, and the details of the tracery 
almost unique — there being only two or three other churches in the country possess- 
ing similar architectural features. The original character of the fabric has been 
faithfully preserved ; the reduced pitch of the roof adopted since the Reformation 
has. however, unfortunately being retained. The chancel is furnished with open 
seats placed choir-wise. 

Skejfington Church. The restoration of this church, dedicated to S. Thomas a, 
Beckett, is rapidly approaching completion : when the works were commenced the 
intention was merely to re-seat the church and replace the roof, which from decay 
had become in a dangerous state, by a new one : Richard Sutton, Esq., however, 
would not allow the good work to be stayed where absolute necessity would have 
allowed it, but at his own cost undertook the re-erection of the aisles, south porch, 
font, &c. Subsequently Mr. Sutton has also rebuilt the chancel entirely at his own 
expense, inserting in the east end a stained glass window by Wailes of Newcastle. 
The church is now almost a new structure, but, with the exception of the porch and 
chancel, is a faithful copy of the original building. The seats are of Spanish deal. 
The roof is of the same wood, one bay of the old one fortunately remaining as a 
guide to the restorer in erecting the new. The font, of Aubigny stone, is placed 
close to the south door. 

The chancel has been rebuilt from designs by the architect, in a character to har- 
monize with the other portion of the church, which is built in the Late Perpendicular 
style ; the old chancel was of so late a date as to be properly avoided in the rebuild- 
ing. The reredos is of stone, with alabaster panels, and is ricMy carved. The seats 
here, screens, altar-rails, pulpit, and desk are of oak. 

Mr. Millican of Leicester is the architect; the carving, by Mr. Barfield of Lei- 
cester, is admirable workmanship. 

Pickwell Church. This Church, dedicated to All Saints, has a tower at the west 
end, and a good sized nave, aisles, and chancel. A peculiar feature here is that the 
chancel is nearly the same height as the nave, and there is no arch to divide the two. 
-The north aisle is one bay longer than the south ; and the northern arcade, which is 
composed of late Norman arches, originally extended nearly to the end of the chan- 
cel. The tower, which is Perpendicular work — like so many others in this part of 
the county — is of excellent workmanship. The lower half of the belfry windows 
had been blocked up, but they are now opened, and restored to their original condi- 
tion : the lower window and base mouldings have also been repaired. 

The original plans for the restoration comprised new roofs on nave and aisles, 
rebuilding the south aisle and porch, opening the tower arch, removing plaster from 
the walls, and renewing the mouldings ; re- seating with open benches, new pulpit 
and reading-desk, re-glazing the windows, new pinnacles on the south aisle, and the 
introduction of an arch between the nave and the chancel. All these works have 
been carried out, with the exception of the pinnacles and chancel-arch, which were 
abandoned for want of funds. The division between nave and chancel is shewn by 
bringing one of the roof-principals lower down, and filling up the spandrils with 
tracery. 

The native stone has been used for the new ashlar work, and Ancaster stone for 
the door and window dressings. The expenses, beyond what is raised by rate, are 
being defrayed by the Earl of Gainsborough, A. Smith, Esq., of Leesthorpe, and the 
Rev. G. Lovett. Mr. R. W. Johnson of Melton Mowbray is the architect. 

Welby Church. This church is a plain building, without aisles, and has a small 
gabled tower at the west end. The chancel has a good east window of Early Per- 
pendicular work, and windows of a similar character on either side. The nave of 
the church, in addition to windows of a nondescript character, was lighted by two 
heavy dormer windows intersecting the roof, which was ceiled. In last summer, the 
roof having given way, a new one became a necessity: so the dormer windows have 
been removed, and a new open roof in character with the building has been put on. 
NeAv windows similar to those in the chancel have replaced the old ones, and a new 
south doorway and porch have been erected. 

The internal fittings, with the exception of the pulpit — which is Jacobean — are 
very poor; it is hoped the parishioners will complete the restoration by re-seating 
the church, a plan for which is now under consideration. Further improvements, 
by lowering the ground, &c, are to be made; formerly there was a descent of 
steps into the church, now the floor and the churchyard will be level. Mr. B . ^ 
J ohnson of Melton is the architect employed. 
D 



4 



Ml 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



Fenny Drayton Church, Two years ago this church presented a lamentable 
Bpeotaele of negleot and desolation ; it was covered — nave and aisles — by one low- 
pitohed roof) and lighted liy a skylight! The chancel window was gone, and its 
plaoe supplied by a square opening. Internally, there were the to-be-expected fea- 
tures — a low plastered ceiling, and the high ugly pews. 

The tirst active work of the recently appointed rector, the Rev. J. E. Colyer, was 
— aided by subscriptions — to place the church in the hands of Mr. W. Jackson, archi- 
tect, of Leicester, to effect a thorough restoration. The old roof has been replaced 
by new ones of higher pitch over the nave and south aisle ; the walls have been 
cleared of stucco and partly rebuilt ; a new east window has been inserted ; the old 
pews have given place to carved stalls in the chancel and open benches in the body 
of the church ; a new chancel-arch with responds supplies the place of the wooden 
beam which finished the old ceiling; a new tower-arch that of the old "singers' 
gallery;" and a new porch of stone that of the old one. of brick. 

Thorpe Satchville Church. This church has been partially restored, and wholly re- 
pewed in oak; the pulpit, reading-desk, and altar-rails, are new, as is the east window, 
font, &c. The works were executed by Mr. Sherwood and Messrs. Linley and Firn, 
under the inspection of Mr. Henry Goddard, architect, Leicester. 

Burrow -on-the-Hill. This church has also been restored by Mr. Henry Goddard, 
architect, of Leicester. In addition to new seats in the church, a new oak pulpit, read- 
ing desk, altar-rails, stalls in chancel, &c., have been erected ; and the richly orna- 
mented Early English font thoroughly cleaned and restored. It is now placed near 
the south entrance. On scraping the arcade arches the remains of elaborate decora- 
tions in colours were discovered, and the timbers of the roof, &c, were found to have 
been similarly ornamented. The works were executed by Mr. Broadbent, of Leicester. 

Owston Church. This church (the only remaining portion of the abbey founded 
here in the reign of Edward III. by Robert Grimbold) has been thoroughly restored, 
and the spire heightened. The works by Mr. Broadbent ; the architect, Mr. Henry 
Goddard, of Leicester. 

Birstall School. A new national school has been erected at Birstall, from the 
designs of Mr. W. Millican, architect, Leicester. It will accommodate 120 children. 
The cost is £400., exclusive of site. The building is of Mountsorrel granite, with 
Bath stone dressings to windows, doors, &c. ; with an open timbered roof, covered 
with tiles. The whole is of an early character. 

Enderby School, by the same architect, and of similar design and materials, is 
completed, and will shortly be opened. 

Your Committee, in addition to the ecclesiastical and scholastic edifices thus 
enumerated, can point with pleasure to many private residences lately erected, or 
now in course of erection, in the neighbourhood of Leicester, which show great 
originality in plan, and considerable taste in many of their details. With room for 
further improvement, there is, undoubtedly, a freedom and boldness which promise 
much in the future. 

In consequence of intended arrangements for the annual meeting, to be held at 
Lutterworth, not being carried into effect, it was determined that the year should 
not close without the members and friends of your Society being called together, as 
they had been, once at least during each year of the Society's existence ; these 
meetings not only being found most agreeable and interesting to the members them- 
selves, but tending to strengthen and to carry out the intentions of the Society by 
the addition of new members, by causing to be brought together for exhibition an- 
tiquities, and works of art, which otherwise would never appear before the public, 
and by eliciting papers upon local topics — architectural, historical, or antiquarian — 
from members or friends of the Society. 

It was therefore proposed to hold a meeting in Leicester. The arrangements 
were placed in the hands of a sub-committee, who determined upon the rather bold 
experiment of an Archaeological Soiree, to be held in the Music Hall, on the 5th of 
December. _ The loan of antiquarian objects, photographic views of churches, draw- 
ings of ancient buildings, architectural designs, specimens of carving, antique china 
and objects of virtu was solicited, the intention of the exhibition being, as stated by 
the Committee in their circular, "to illustrate the Art of Architecture and the Science 
of Archaeology, and, as subordinate thereto, to exhibit specimens of Decorative Art 
generally." This appeal was well responded to. The tables were arranged, as far 
as possible, according to date; whilst the drawings and photographs were hung upon 
the walls, and upon upright stands prepared for them. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



35 



[The Report proceeds to record the proceedings at the Soiree, which do not 
require repeating here. See p. 1.] 

In concluding a somewhat lengthy Report, your Committee would congratulate 
the Society upon the increased desire exhibited throughout the county to uphold 
and to restore the venerable fabrics in which our fathers worshipped for so 
many centuries ; and upon the care, and, in most instances, the correct architectural 
taste, shewn in the restoration or rebuilding of them. They must also be permitted 
to refer with considerable satisfaction to the success attending the Exhibition and 
Soiree just referred to. It being the first meeting of that kind attempted by the 
Committee, there were, unavoidably, some slight mistakes in the arrangements, 
which experience will teach how to avoid in the future. Congratulations must not, 
however, blind us to the fact that your Society does not make the progress in num- 
bers and consequently in influence which its objects certainly claim. 

Your Committee, in order to strengthen its position, would strongly urge upon 
each member the duty of paying his subscription punctually, enlisting his friends as 
members, and of furthering the objects of the Society to the best of his ability. 



The Treasurer's Account for the past year, shewing a balance 
of £8. 1 7s. 6d. in favour of the Society, was also presented and 
adopted. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society : 
The Rev. E. J. Colyer, Fenny Drayton Rectory ; the Rev. R. J. 
Allen, Leicester; the Rev. Assheton Pownall, South Kilworth 
Rectory; Mr. Wm. Jackson, Architect, Leicester; Mr. Fred. 
Jackson, Architect, Nottingham ; Mr. Henry Moore, Leicester. 

Tt was Resolved that the following memorial, referring to the 
new Government Offices, be sent to the Right Hon. Lord John 
Manners, M.P., for presentation to the House of Commons. 

" To the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland in Parliament assembled, 

The humble petition of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society sheweth 

That the Gothic Style of Architecture is in the opinion of your 
memorialists the national style of England. 

That whilst it is universally recognized as the most fitting for 
ecclesiastical edifices, it is equally, they believe, well adapted — 
whether considered as to its beauty or economy — to every purpose 
of public utility, and is thoroughly identified with the natural 
tastes, sentiments, and traditions of the people. 

Your memorialists therefore humbly pray your honourable house 
to adopt the Gothic style of Architecture for the new Government 
Offices about to be erected. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c. 
Signed on behalf of the members of the Society, 

THO. NORTH, 

1400193 ** on ' S ecretai 7-" 

Mr. G. C. Neale exhibited two fine medals and described 
them thus : 

t exhibit a very interesting and well struck medal commemo- 



36 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHIT E CT URAL 



rating the defeat of the Spanish Armada, improperly, if not im- 
piously, called the " invincible." It is the work of a Dutch artist, 
and dated 1588, the period from which commenced the gradual 
decadence of the once powerful and flourishing kingdom of Spain. 
From the device and inscriptions, we regard the medal as satirical. 
On the obverse are seated in Council, the Pope, wearing his triple 
crown, cardinals, bishops, and other Roman Catholic princes, having 
their eyes bandaged, and their bare feet placed upon prickles. 
Above is the inscription, O coecas hominum mentes, O pectora coeca 
— "O the blind minds of men, O their blind breasts." Between 
two beaded circles we read, Durum est contra stimulos calcitrare 
— " It is hard to kick against the pricks." On the reverse is re- 
presented the destruction of the Armada; some of the ships have 
struck upon the rocks and are sinking in the deep ; their sails are 
swelled and riven by the wind ; and men are floating on pieces of 
the wreck or struggling in the waves. Above is a play on the 
memorable words of a more successful invader than Philip : Veni, 
vide, vive — " Come, see, live." Whilst the Spanish monarch and 
his courtiers ascribed the dispersion of the mighty fleet to the 
weather, or as a judgment from heaven for allowing the Moors to 
dwell in Spain, the Queen of England and her subjects piously 
expressed their feelings in the inscription which encircles this 
medal, Tu deus magnus et magna facis tu solus deus — "Thou 
art the great God, and doest great things as the only God." 
It is interesting to observe how medals as well as coins assist 
in establishing or confirming historical facts. For instance, on 
the defeat of the Armada, the High Admiral, Lord Howard of 
Effingham, reverently alluded to God as being " our best friend," 
for whilst the vigilance of Drake, and the sudden appearance of 
our fire-ships in Calais roads effected much, it is evident the 
" freshening gale " was the more immediate cause of the enemy's 
destruction. Another medal, struck for the occasion, has the 
appropriate inscription, Flavit et dissipati sunt — " He blew and 
they were scattered." The legend on Elizabeth's "fine sovereign," 
A Dno factu est istud, et est mirab in ocul nrs — " It is the Lord's 
doing and marvellous in our eyes," might at first sight seem to 
allude to the aforementioned event ; but we read that the Queen 
uttered these words on hearing of the death of her sister. How- 
ever this may have been, we are certain it was not an original but 
an adopted motto, as it appears on the gold coins of the previous 
reign. The interesting little picture on the reverse of the medal 
reminds us of the graphic description given by Drake of the defeat 
and annihilation of the Spanish armament, — "Beaten and shuffled 
together from the Lizard to Calais, driven by squibs from the 
anchors, and chased out of sight of England, about Scotland and 
Ireland, their invincible and dreadful navy, with all its great and 
terrible ostentation, did not in all their sailing about England so 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



37 



much as sink or take one ship, bark, or pinnace, or cock-boat of 
ours, or even burn so much as one sheepcote on this land." 

I beg also to exhibit a medallion of Queen Anne, engraved by 
Oroker, and struck to commemorate what is described as " Great 
Anna's reign, long accounted the Augustan age of England." A 
medal commemorative of an era adorned with the names of Sir 
Isaac Newton, Locke, Pope, Steele, and Addison, is interesting to 
the general observer, and most valuable to the collector. Both 
may regard it as a little tablet on which England gladly recorded 
her appreciation of an age of literature and science. The obverse 
has a magnificent bust of the Queen, boldly struck and finely 
delineated. The head is crowned, and the hair tied back with 
strings of pearls. The drapery is rich and jewelled, and several 
orders are worn upon, or suspended from the breast. The in- 
scription is the same as on the coins of the reign, Anna dei gratia, 
&c. On the reverse is represented Minerva: in one hand she 
holds a spear ; the other rests upon a shield, on which is engraved 
the head of Medusa, not beautiful, as described by the Greeks, 
or as seen upon amulets, but hideous, with large open mouth, 
great teeth, lolling tongue, and hair transformed into snakes. The 
figures on Etruscan vases answer to this description. In the plume 
surmounting the helmet of Minerva we observe an owl, the substi- 
tuted symbol of the goddess. The inscription above is Novae 
Palladium Trojce. A well preserved coin or medal *of Queen Anne 
is scarce. The bust is raised so far from the field or level surface, 
that the figure is generally much abrased. 

Mr. James Thompson exhibited a curious small chest or casket, 
oblong in shape, and about seven inches in length, probably a 
reliquary : it was found in sinking a shaft in a cellar in the neigh- 
bourhood of Oakham. It was made of copper, enamelled, and 
inlaid with figures of saints, and from its style of ornamentation 
and general appearance, was probably the work of the thirteenth 
century. Much discussion was elicited as to its probable use. In 
shape it was not unlike the shrine figured in The Glossary, vol. i., 
p. 426, it having a high pitched lid. Reliquaries were common in 
churches before the Reformation ; they were made of wood and 
stone as well as of metal, and were frequently elaborately orna- 
mented with most costly embellishments. Again, small coffers or 
caskets were used for the safe keeping of precious jewels. The 
one under notice, however, from its size and formation, could 
hardly have been used for that purpose. 

Mr. Thompson further laid before the meeting many fragments 
of pottery and some Roman coins, which he illustrated by the 
following remarks: 

Within the past seven months extensive excavations have been 
carried on in the space lying between North Bond Street and 
South Bond Street in this town, for the purpose of laying the 



38 



LEICESTERSHIRE A UCH ITECT URAL 



foundations of a new manufactory, and constructing a reservoir, 
on thu premises of Messrs. Fielding and Johnson, worsted spinners. 
The site, viewed relatively to the ancient boundaries of Leicester, 
is nearly central, though nearer to the eastern than the western 
wall of the original city. 

A very large quantity of earth has been removed, to the depth 
of ten or twelve feet, and, in consequence, the nature of the soil 
lying over the virgin mould has been discovered. What that would 
be, after the lapse of from fourteen to eighteen centuries, on a spot 
which has been inhabited more or less ever since, it is a matter of 
curiosity to discover. But beyond the presence of a darker coloured 
earth, lying over the ancient level at irregular heights, and con- 
taining small fragments of pottery and bone and rubbish, the 
sections exhibited no noteworthy specimens of antique objects. 
Many other fragments, with a few coins, were however turned up, 
and to those I invite the attention of the Society. I may classify 
these objects thus : 

1. The white pottery. 

2. The Samian ware. 

3. The coins. 

The principal specimen of white pottery is an ampulla, which 
had originally two handles, one now remaining. 

The Samian ware is all in fragments. I produce numerous speci - 
mens, lettered for the purpose of explanation. On those lettered from 
A to I are embossed figures of the animals which were hunted by 
the Romans — the hare, the stag, the boar, and the rabbit. On 
fragment D is the stag, in bold relief ; on F are the lower limbs of 
some animal pursued by another, with the potter's name Cinnamus 
(probably) partly remaining in relief on the outside. The fragments 
lettered J and K refer to the gladiatorial customs of the Romans. 
On J are parts of two naked gladiators, apparently pugilists ; they 
are in bold relief. On K is the figure of a vanquished gladiator, 
with one knee on the ground, holding up his right hand, in the 
attitude of soliciting mercy from the spectators. The fragment 
lettered L is full of subjects. The space is divided into compart- 
ments by dotted lines. In one of these the god Mercury is re- 
presented in a bent posture, holding in his left hand the caduceus; 
in another compartment a satyr stands on a pedestal formed of a 
mask; in another is a rabbit; in another a Cupid; and in another 
the lower part of an altar. On the fragment lettered M is the 
representation of Hercules with his club, and on the right of him 
the compartment is filled with a quasi-column composed of fruit 
baskets, a mask, and dolphins. On fragment N two cocks are 
seen sparring. On O are three circles containing a mask, a stag 
conchant, a lion's head, and a semi-draped female figure standing 
on a pedestal. On P is a rabbit in a circle, surrounded by foliage. 
On Q are two large leaves. On R are embossed a dog and bird. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



39 



On S is a youthful figure carrying a small amphora. On T are a 
winged figure and a rabbit. On U is a diminutive figure. On V 
(the rim of a small vessel) is seen a leaf with its stem. Two or 
three other specimens are not lettered, as they show no marked 
peculiarity. 

On other portions of Samian produced, are impressed the 
potters' marks, all known to the antiquary, and included in the 
list appended to Wright's work, The Celt, the Roman, and the 
Saxon? Among these are biga fecit, tituro, albucus, and 
severianus. One or two names are too faintly impressed to be 
made out. 

The coins found in the same locality with the pottery were not 
numerous. They consist of a first bronze of Hadrian, with the 
laureated head on the obverse, and a female figure, holding her 
right hand over an altar, on the reverse. A second bronze apparently 
of Caesar Augustus (the first Roman emperor) who ruled about the 
commencement of the Christian era. A second bronze of the 
brutal Domitian, who ruled from 81 to 96 a.d. A second bronze 
apparently having on the obverse the profile of Hadrian, and on 
the reverse a seated figure, with spear and shield, and beneath her 
the word " Britannia." And two or three smaller bronzes. 

A small bronze fibula (complete) was also turned up: it is now 
produced. After the lapse of fifteen or sixteen centuries the pin 
retains still some " spring " in it. 

It should be added that the preservation of these antiquarian 
relics is to be ascribed to Mr. Fielding Johnson, who has bestowed 
both care and money in rescuing them from oblivion. As ad- 
ditional evidences of the Roman habitation of Leicester, they are 
valuable and instructive. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill exhibited a series of stereograms of 
Cranoe Church and Rectory, executed by a local artist. 



27th May, 1861. 
The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the chair. 

A letter was read from the Right Honble. Lord John Manners, 
M.P., acknowledging the receipt of the memorial from this society 
in favour of the Gothic style of Architecture for the new Foreign 
Offices, and expressing a hope that all similar societies, would 
follow so good an example. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the 
Society : — 

The Honble. Major H. L. Powys-Keok, Stoughton Grange ; 



.10 



LKIOKSTtfllSlUKli ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



C. W. Paoke, Esq,, M.P.; W. U. Heygate, Esq., M.P.; Major F. 
Wollaston, Shenton Hall; The Revs. IJ. L. Dodds, Glen Magna; 
H. J. Hoskyns, Blaby Rectory ; C. W. Bclgrave, North Kilworth 
Rectory; John Saukey, Stoney Stanton Rectory; P. Wilson, 
Mowsley Rectory; M. I). Millett, Leicester; Edward Elmhirst, 
Sbawell Rectory; Messrs. R. Overton, Jun., Leicester; T. W. II. 
Miller, Loughborough ; F. VV. Franks, Billesdon ; T. H. Thomson, 
Leicester; .John Taylor, Loughborough ; James Spencer, Leicester ; 
and Chas. A. Spencer, Leicester. 

It was Resolved that a General Meeting and Exhibition be held 
at Lutterworth early in September next, and that an excursion be 
made therefrom. 

The following antiquities, &c, were exhibited : — 

By The Rev. J. H. Hill, two fine old engravings and a 
series of photographs of etchings and engravings by Jennings 
of Market Harborough. He also exhibited a tinctured coat of 
arms of the Ellis family, framed, which was thus described on the 
back : " Elys or Ellis a family of great antiquity and in great repute 
in the reign of Edward the third King of England as is confirmed 
by an ancient manuscript taken Anno Domini 1326 of the nobility 
and gentry then boare for their standard coat of arms gold on a 
cross black five crescents of silver. W.E. A.D. 1809." 

By The Rev. Ernest Tower, a sword from Bosworth Field and 
some portions of encaustic tiles from Shenton Church, bearing- 
heraldic devices, one being apparently Lozengy Or and Gules, the 
arms anciently borne by Creon of Freeston or Burton Croun, C. O. 
Lincoln, whose descendant William Lord Vaux, the second son of 
Petronal de Creon, married Eleanor, daughter of William Lord 
Ferrars, temp. Hen. III. According to Domesday Henry de 
Ferrariis held lands at Shenton when the general Survey was 
taken. A Nuremberg token of the ordinary character was also 
found lately in Shenton Church. 

By Mr. North, specimens of Maundy money of George III., 
and of the present year. He also contributed the following notes 
on the 

MAUNDY CUSTOMS. 

It is curious to trace the Maundy customs down to the present 
moment. 

Maundy-Thursday is the day preceding Good-Friday. The 
word Maundy has received several derivations : according to 
Halliwell the Anglo-Norman Maund signified to command, Maun- 
dement a commandment ; accordingly Maundy -Thursday is the 
day of Christ's commandment on instituting the Lord's Supper. 
Again it has been supposed to be derived from the French Maun- 



MAUNDY CUSTOMS. 



41 



dier, to beg, because the poor on that day were partakers of the 
liberality of the sovereign. Maund is also an old word for a hand- 
basket with two lids or openings, such as we now see in the butter 
market; baskets of this kind may have been formerly used in 
which to carry the gifts on Maundy- Thursday, and so, as Arch- 
deacon Nares remarks, have given a name to the day. 

From whatever source the name may be derived, there is no 
doubt the customs observed on Maundy -Thursday were in com- 
memoration of that act of humility, performed by our Blessed Lord, 
in washing the feet of His disciples, on the night of His betrayal, 
as recorded by the Evangelists. 

The custom observed by our English sovereigns of then wash- 
ing the feet of the poor and distributing gifts in commemoration 
of that event is undoubtedly an ancient one ; for centuries past 
the number of poor people of both sexes chosen to receive the 
royal bounty, has corresponded with the age of the reigning 
monarch. There is printed in Arch(£ologia, vol. i., p. 8, " The 
Order of the Maundy made at Greenwich, March 19, 1572," by 
consulting which, an interesting picture is obtained of the ceremony 
as performed by Queen Elizabeth. The Queen being then thirty- 
nine years of age, that number of poor women — the men seem to 
have been omitted — were assembled in the hall, when her majesty 
arrived attended by the like number — thirty nine — ladies and 
gentlewomen, who— after singing, with prayers and the gospel read 
— assisted her in washing one foot of each of the poor persons in 
so many basins of warm water and sweet flowers ; after which she 
" wiped, crossed, and kissed them." The Queen then gave to each 
certain yards of broad cloth to make a gown, then a pair of shoes, 
then to each a wooden platter, wherein were half a side of salmon, 
as much lyng, six red herrings, and two loaves of bread ; she then 
gave to each a white wooden dish with claret wine, and having 
received from each waiting lady her towel and apron, gave to each 
poor woman one of the same. The treasurer of the chamber then 
came forward and presented to her majesty thirty-nine small white 
purses, wherein were thirty-nine pence after the number of the 
years of her majesty's age, which she distributed ; she then further 
received from him as many red leather purses each containing 
twenty shillings, for the redemption of her gown, which by ancient 
order she ought to have given to some one of them at her pleasure. 
To avoid the "trouble of suit" which was made to obtain posses- 
sion of the gown, she changed the reward into money, to be thus 
equally distributed amongst them all. 

King James II. was the last English monarch, who in person 
washed the feet of the poor. This ceremony, until its desuetude, 
was afterwards performed by the Lord High Almoner. In the 
Gentleman 's Mayazine for April 1831, will be found an account of 
the distribution in that year at the Banqueting house, Whitehall. 



42 



LKIOKSTKKSIIIRK AK(JJ I ITKCTURAL SOCIETY. 



In addition to the provisions as mentioned before, each recipient 
received a leathern bag in which were one penny, twopenny, 
threepenny, and fourpenriy pieces of silver, and shillings, in all 
amounting to about four pounds to each person. The washing 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord High Almoner, took place 
afterwards in the Royal Chapel, Whitehall. 

Hone describes the ceremony as performed in 1814. After 
distribution of provisions in the morning, at three o'clock in the 
afternoon seventy-five poor men, and the like number of women 
(the King, George III. being then seventy-five years of age) 
assembled in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, the men on the one 
side, the women on the other. A procession then entered, consist- 
ing of a party of the yeomen of the guard, one of them carrying a 
large gold dish on his head, containing one hundred and fifty bags, 
with seventy-five silver pennies in each for the poor people. These 
were followed by the sub-almoner in his robes, with a sash of fine 
linen over his shoulder and crossing his waist. He was followed 
by two boys and two girls, the secretary and another gentleman 
wearing similar sashes, &c, &c, all carrying large nosegays. The 
evening service was then performed, at the conclusion of which 
the silver pennies were distributed, and woollen cloth, linen, 
shoes, and stockings given to the men and women, and a cup of 
wine to drink the king's health. 

The ceremony of the washing appears now to have been abro- 
gated ; perhaps the white sash was a feeble descendant of the ancient 
towel, and the "nosegays," the representatives of the "sweet 
flowers" used by Queen Elizabeth. The Maundy ceremonies 
were further curtailed upon the accession of her present majesty. 
On Maundy-Thursday, 1838, the men and women received each 
two pounds ten shillings, and nineteen silver pennies (nineteen 
being the age of the Queen). The men were presented with 
woollen and linen clothing, shoes and stockings, and the women 
with one pound fifteen shillings each, in lieu of clothing. The 
men and women also received one pound ten shillings, a commu- 
tation for the provisions heretofore distributed 

Since that time to the present, the annual ceremonies appear to 
have been the same. This year (1861) the charities were dis- 
tributed to forty-two aged men and forty-two aged women in 
Whitehall Chapel. A special evening service was performed. 
After the first lesson Nares' Anthem, " Blessed is he that consider- 
ed the poor and needy " was sung. 

The sub-almoner then distributed to each woman one pound 
fifteen shillings, in lieu of clothing, and to each man shoes and 
stockings. 

Second Anthem, " Hide not Thou Thy face from us O Lord " 
(Farrant). 

The sub-almoner then distributed woollen and linen clothes to 
each man. 



THE HERRICK PORTRAITS, 



43 



The third Anthem, " O Lord grant the Queen a long life " 
(Nares). 

The sub-almoner then distributed to each man and to each 
women purses of money. 

Then followed the second Lesson, a fourth Anthem, "Who is 
this that cometh from Eden" (Arnold), and prayers composed for 
the occasion. 

Each red purse contained a gold sovereign — was this like Queen 
Elizabeth's twenty shillings, in lieu of her majesty's gown ? and a 
further sum of one pound ten shillings, as a commutation for pro- 
visions : each white purse contained the Maundy coin, consisting 
of fourpence, threepence, twopence, and pence in silver, amounting 
together to forty-two-pence, the age of Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Queen. 

Mr. James Thompson read the following Paper on 

THE HERRICK PORTRAITS IN THE GUILD HALL, 
LEICESTER. 

In the chamber in which the Town Council of Leicester usually 
meets are suspended two ancient portraits. They rarely attract any 
attention, because, perhaps, they have remained there so long, and 
perhaps because the eye has become familiar with their dark colour 
and general appearance. They hang on each side of the Mayor's 
chair, and above the bench on which, in old times, the Aldermen 
were wont to sit, ranged to the right and left of the chief magis- 
trate. 

If the visitor to the Mayor's Parlour will look attentively at the 
pictures, he will discover something in them to awaken curiosity 
and to reward a patient examination. That on the left hand is 
evidently the portrait of a man far advanced in years. His grave 
and venerable aspect is that of a person once accustomed to exercise 
authority and to command respect. His head is bald and covered 
with a close-fitting skull cap; though his visage is still ruddy, as if, 
when he sat to the artist, he was enjoying a hearty old age. His 
steady grey eye bespeaks calm thought and matured intelligence. 
The white hair of the upper lip and the short beard tell their own 
tale of years gone through. The regular features and general 
contour of the physiognomy bear the impress of the Englishman of 
the standard type, free from admixture with Celt or Lapp or Finn. 
Around his neck he wears a frill. He is clothed in a long black 
gown. He w 7 ears ruffles round his wrists. In his left hand he 
holds his gloves. A diamond ring is seen on the little finger of 
the same hand. In the upper right hand corner of the picture is 
painted a shield, on which is blazoned the coat armorial of 1 lev riok 



1 1 



[ ,v. 1(1 1 ;ST i . 1 ;s 1 1 1 1 ; E ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



quartered with that of Bond of Ward End in the County of War- 
wick. In the upper left hand corner of the picture are these lines: 

His picture whom you here see 

When he is dead and rotten, 
By this shall remembered be, 

When he shall be forgotten. 

This portrait is that of Alderman Robert Heyrick, who died in 
the reign of James the First; of whom some account will shortly 
be given. 

Very different in description is the person who is pourtrayed in 
the picture on the right of the Mayor's chair. Something of the 
same style of feature may, indeed, be seen in him as that of his aged 
companion ; but there is all the difference between the greybeard of 
more than seventy, and the mature but comparatively youthful man 
of thirty. There is the grey eye, and the middle sized nose, pointed, 
and slightly upturned ; but the cheeks are not ruddy. They are 
thin and pale, and the whole countenance is that of a more refined, 
courtly, and intellectual person than the aged alderman. The ample 
forehead indicates the man of thought, and the compression of the 
lips suggests the man of decision and self confidence. The eye- 
brows are arched and wide apart. The head is covered with dark 
hair, brushed back from the face, and the upper lip shows a slight 
moustache ; below which a short, dark, picked beard, completes the 
physiognomy. It is a three-quarter face, of which the right side 
is presented to the spectator. This person, like the other, has a 
frill round his neck, and is clothed in a long dark gown. He, too, 
holds his gloves in his hands; and round his wrists are lace ruffles. 
There, is, however more attention throughout to the details of dress 
in the younger than in the older man. The younger man wears 
on the little finger of his right hand a signet ring, on which is 
engraved the shield of Bond of Ward End, distinctly visible. The 
left hand grasps an object which it is difficult to designate : it may 
be the corner of a table, or it may be a bag, or wallet, richly embroi- 
dered. On the little finger of this hand is seen another ring. Tn 
the upper right hand corner are painted the armorial bearings of 
the Goldsmiths' Company. In the upper left hand corner is the 
coat of arms of the Bond family. On the left hand side of the 
head are the words " cetatis suce 30:" on the right side, "An. 
1594." 

This portrait has generally been described as that of a citizen 
and goldsmith of London, named Bond ; but Mr. John Gough 
Nichols, after a close inspection of it, has lately conjectured that 
the picture represents William Herrick, the youngest brother of 
alderman Robert Heyrick, just mentioned. 

In order that we may learn who these two personages were, I 
here briefly notice the way in which the Heyrick family became 
connected with Leicester. 



THE HE URIC K PORTRAITS. 



45 



Originally landowners at Great Stretton, they had removed to 
Hough ton- on- the- Hill in the earlier part of the fifteenth century, 
where Robert Eyrick possessed an estate in the year 1450. Plis 
son, Thomas, removed to this borough, where he became a settled 
inhabitant. At what time this occurred does not appear in any of 
the local records; as the Hall Books do not even show in what year 
he complied with the rule (then indispensable to municipal recogni- 
tion and status of becoming enrolled in the Guild Merchant; with- 
out which enrolment he was ineligible to hold local office, and 
incapable of carrying on business ; though it is probable he was 
not an inhabitant of Leicester much earlier than the year 1500. 

Thomas Eyrick soon became a "man of mark" and substance, 
for in 1512 we find him filling the important and trustworthy office 
of joint-chamberlain of the corporation — an office all the more im- 
portant and trustworthy as it formerly involved the performance of 
the twofold duties of our modern borough treasurer and borough 
accountant. Appointed by the commonalty as their chamberlain, 
Thomas Eyrick evidently stood high in the estimation of the bur- 
gesses generally; though he never reached the highest round of the 
ladder of municipal promotion — he was never chosen Mayor. It 
would appear that he did not pass beyond early middle life ; for 
when he died in the year 1517, he left behind him a widow, a son 
1 Nicholas, about fourteen years old, a son John, about four years 
old, and an infant daughter. Thomas Eyrick lived, and in all 
probability died, in his house in the Market-place, which stood at 
the corner of the Cheapside. 

The will of this burgess of former days gives us some insight 
into his character and position.* In it he bequeaths his soul to 
Almighty God, to our Blessed Lady his mother, and to all the 
glorious company of heaven ; and he desires that his body may be 
buried in St. Martin's Church, whither he wishes it to be carried by 
the order of friars in Leicester, each of whom is to have 20d. for 
his services. He leaves also to every priest of St. Martin's Church 
6d., to Robert the parish clerk 4d., to the other clerk 2d., to every 
priest that attended his funeral 4d., and every child a farthing. 
He desires also that a "trentall" of masses be said for his soul 
within the Church of St. Martin. 

Having thus, like a devout Catholic, made provisions for his 
spiritual concerns, he next arranges his temporal affairs. He be- 
queaths to his son Nicholas the house in which he (the testator) 
was then dwelling, with £3. 6s. 8d., in ready money, and his best 
book covered with chamlet. To his son John he also bequeathed 
£3. 6s. 8d., with his second book with silver clasps, and his best mass- 
book. To his daughter Elizabeth also he bequeathed the sum of 

* I ought here to acknowledge the courtesy I have invariahle experienced at the 
hands of Messrs. Nevinson, the Registrars, who have always rendered me their kind 
assistance in all researches into the ancient wills of which they are the custodians. 



1(> 



LEICESTERSHIKE ARCHITE CTUB AL SOCIETY. 



£3. 6s. 8d., a mass-book " with a stone," and a long girdle that 
was his (the testator's) mother's. To his wife he bequeathed all 
his moveable goods in order to provide the prayers for his soul, with 
all his lands for her natural life ; Nicholas and his heirs to have 
them afterwards ; John to have them in default of issue to Nicholas; 
Elizabeth to have them in default of issue to John ; and the widow 
and her assigns, should her children all die childless. Thomas 
Eyrick made his wife his executrix, and his father-in-law the 
supervisor of his will, 

The two sons grew up and prospered. Nicholas lived in his 
father's house, where he carried on his business as an ironmonger, 
and it would seem that John lived with him for some years. 
Nicholas was admitted into the Guild Merchant on coming of age 
in the year 1524. In subsequent years he was chosen Mayor's 
Chamberlain, Auditor of the Borough Account within the East 
Gate, one of the Stewards of the Market, one of the Borough 
Coroners, and ultimately Mayor, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, 
and afterwards a justice of the peace for the remainder of his 
days. 

But it was John, the younger brother, whose history it is more 
especially necessary to relate, as he was the father of the two 
characters whose portraits are on the walls of the Mayor's Parlour. 

John Eyrick was admitted into the Guild Merchant in the year 
1535 3 that is, on attaining his majority. When about twenty-four 
years of age, he took to himself a wife. There was then living at 
Ward End, otherwise Little Bromwich, in the county of Warwick, 
a gentleman of estate named Bond. He was wealthy. He had 
built a Chapel, and endowed it with lands wherewith to maintain a 
priest ; and round his mansion he had made a park, which he had 
stored with deer. He had also a daughter Mary. She was just a 
year younger than John Hey rick, who sought and was fortunate 
enough to obtain her hand. John brought his wife to Leicester, to 
the house in the Market-place, which he had purchased from his 
brother, and there the exemplary couple dwelt (as we shall shortly 
see) for many long years, in happiness and prosperity. They 
became the parents of twelve children — five sons and seven 
daughters. 

John Eyrick and his brother Nicholas lived through periods of 
strange and stormy revolution. Born before the Reformation, they 
were trained up in the belief of the tenets of the Roman Catholic 
Church, yet they lived io see that church overthrown and her altars 
destroyed: they lived to witness the Church in which they had been 
baptised, stripped of all its ancient accessories and fittings in the 
reign of Edward the Sixth, refurnished with them in that of Queen 
Mary, and once more denuded of them on the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth. Tt is, in truth, on record that Nicholas Eyrick pur- 
ehashed a " tabernacle," or recess for an image, and John Eyrick 



THE HER RICK PORTRAITS. 



47 



an organ chamber, on the public sale of the appointments of St. 
Martin's Church in the reign of Edward the Sixth. That they 
subsequently espoused heartily the doctrines of the Reformation 
cannot be doubted: though John Eyrick had served the office of 
Mayor in the reign of " Bloody Mary." 

After having brought up his numerous family, and seen his sons 
established in business, and his daughters all married, John Eyrick 
died aged seventy-six, in the house in the Market-place, where he 
and his wife had lived together for fifty-two years, during which 
time they had "never buried man, woman, nor child, though they 
were sometimes twenty in household," as is recorded on an upright 
marble tablet still preserved in St. Martin's Church. The old 
townsman's will (yet extant in the Registry of the Archdeaconry 
of Leicester), marks how great a change had come over the minds 
of men during his lifetime ; for, while his father, Thomas Eyrick 
had left money for the saying of masses for his soul, John Eyrick 
died in the full belief that he was " one of God's elect children," 
leaving Calvin's translation of the New Testament to his son 
Thomas, and to his daughter Mary, Fox's Book of Martyrs. The 
house he was dwelling in when he made his will, and where he had 
dwelt subsequently to his marriage (when he purchased it from his 
brother Nicholas), he bequeathed to his son Robert, with his scarlet 
gown: his "holiday gown," faced with foins, he also left to Thomas, 
and his satin doublet to John. Mary had in addition to Fox's 
Book of Martyrs, a silver spoon gilt, and the "aumbry" in the 
great parlour. 

The eldest son of John and Mary Eyrick was Robert. It is 
this person whose portrait is suspended on the left hand of the 
Mayor's chair in the Guildhall. He was born in the year 1540, his 
boyhood being passed in the closing years of Henry the Eighth's 
eventful reign. He was brought up to his father's business, and 
apparently lived with him. When twenty-seven years of age, he 
married Elizabeth Manby, probably the daughter of William 
Manby, who was twice Mayor of Leicester, in the reigns of Queen's 
Mary and Elizabeth ; and the old house in which he and his many 
brothers and sisters had been reared from childhood, was in a few 
more years as full of young people as it was in the time of his own 
infancy ; for he became the father of two sons and nine daughters. 
Robert Eyrick followed in the footsteps of his father, and became 
a thriving Burgess : adding to the land which had been his grand- 
father's extensive properties in Leicester. Having graduated in 
municipal offices, he was first elected Mayor in 1584, when he was 
forty-four years of age. He rendered himself highly serviceable 
to the town ; advancing money on its behalf to aid in the purchase 
of the Grange Estate ; involving himself in debt in relieving the dis- 
tressed, when the plague carried death and desolation into every 
household ; filling the Mayoralty three times, and representing the 



48 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



borough in Parliament during one session in the reign of Elizabeth ; 
and rendering material assistance in procuring the incorporation of 
Trinity Hospital. He died in the year 1618, laden with years and 
honour and respect, after a life passed in the practice of domestic 
virtue, civic usefulness, and genuine benevolence — the type of the 
venerable English burgomaster. Tn death, as in life, he — the father 
of eleven children — was mindful of the welfare of his poorer fellow- 
creatures ; for he bequeathed sums for the benefit of the poor 
widows of Leicester, and of the under-usher of the Grammar 
School; for the distribution of bread to poor householders and 
" old bodies;" for lending money to young burgesses; and for the 
maintenance of Trinity Hospital. 

Such w r as the character of the man whose portrait, after the 
lapse of nearly two hundred and fifty years, looks dow r n upon us 
from the canvass on the walls of the Mayor's Parlour — of that 
apartment in which (remaining now nearly as it was then) his form 
was once frequently seen and his voice often heard, to guide the 
counsels and to benefit the fortunes of his fellow-townsmen. As 
the venerable burgess looks down from the picture in solemn com- 
posure, he may be imagined to be still exercising a kind of tutelary 
influence over the affairs of that body whose periodical meetings 
are held in the antique chamber which is now his abiding-place. 
He may be imagined, after the lapse of the long centuries, to be 
meditating on the fortunes of the place in which he once swayed 
the sceptre of local government with all the anxieties of the ruler of 
a petty kingdom. 

An upright slate, in one of the chancels of St. Martin's, near to 
the tablet which records his father's decease, thus briefly com- 
memorates, in quaint and homely phrase, the story of Alderman 
Robert Herick : — 

"Here lyeth the bodie of Robert Herick, 
Ironmonger and Alderman oe Leicester, 
who had been thrise maire thereof. 
hl3e was eldest son of john herick and marie : 
And had 2 sonnes and 9 daughters by one wife, 
with whom he lived 51 ye ares. 
At his death he gave away 16 pounds, 10 shillings, 
a year to good uses. 
He lived 78 years : 
and after dyed very godly the 14lh of june, 1618. 

All flesh is grass; both young and old must die ; 
And so we passe to judgment by and by." 

Alderman Robert Herick's brother Nicholas was the second son 
of their parents. He was born in the year 1542. When about 
fourteen years of age, he was articled to a goldsmith in London. 
He subsequently established himself in the same business, which, 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, before the professional banker was 
known, was often a business associated with the keeping and lend- 



THE HERRICK PORTRAITS. 



49 



ing of money, and its transmission to distant places. Nicholas was 
the father of one of our English poets, who has been fancifully 
designated the " English Anaoreon " — a poet whose sweet lyrics 
breathe a passionate love of nature, of old customs, and of rural 
life, and, while we read them, familiarize us with the joyous and 
festive life of olden time, when the merry youth disported them- 
selves in the meadows and the groves: in whose pages the sylvan 
scenes of old England reappear before us in all their freshness and 
beauty. 

As, however, it is neither with Robert Herrick, the poet, nor his 
father Nicholas, that this brief memoir is concerned, I pass on to 
William Herrick, the subject of the portrait now hanging on the 
right hand of the Mayor's Chair. The youngest son of John and 
Mary Eyrick, and their youngest child but one, he was born in the 
year 1562. The register of S. Martin's parish attests the fact; 
though some uncertainty seems to have existed in relation to it, 
his age having been several times misstated. When William was 
born, Nicholas was of age, and commencing his life's career in the 
great metropolis. With what principles the two were fortified to 
pass through the career that lay before them, we may learn from 
one of good old John Eyrick's letters to his son Nicholas :* 

"Nicholas Eyreck," he says, "your mother and I have us com- 
mended unto you, trusting that you be in health. We do pray to 
God daily to bless you, and to give you grace to be good, diligent, 
and obedient to your master, both in word and deed ; and be pro- 
fitable unto him, as well behind his back as before his face ; and 
trust nor lend none of his goods without his leave or consent ; and, 
this doing, God will bless you and all that you go about. And if 
so be that you be faithful and painful in your master's business, so 
as I hope you to be, doubtless God will provide for you another 
day the like as much again. And look — how you be yourself, so 
look you for the like ;"for it is a great part of the filling of God his 
commandments to do as we would be done unto. I pray God to 
give you his grace to live in his fear; and then you shall not do amiss." 

Such are the affectionate exhortations of John and Mary Herrick 
to their secondt boy, thrown into London — then, as now, a place 
where peril and temptation for the young abound ; and it may be 
fairly presumed that the after success of Nicholas, and his young 
brother William, were in great part attributable to an obedient and 
filial observance of the precepts enjoined upon them by their parents. 

The boyhood of William Herrick was passed in the old house in 
the Market-place, where his grandfather had lived and died, where 
his father was born, and where his aunts and uncles also had lived. £ 

* Mr. John Gough Nichols informs me that this letter was addressed to William, 
not to Nicholas Heyricke. 

+ The fifth son, if William were addressed. 
X The home of the Herricks stood on the site of the house and premises now 



E 



Vol. II. 



U'.IOKSTKIISII I RK \ RC1 1 fTECTl rRAL SOCIETY. 



Three hundred years ago, the Market-place was surrounded with 
old houses of timber, their gables pointing to the open area and 
overhanging the lower storeys, around them being gardens or plots 
of ground — elm trees spreading their leafy boughs across the grass- 
grown space, and the pinfold standing in one corner. 

It was a kind of sunny social life the people then enjoyed, free 
from the ostentatious parade and corroding anxiety of modern times. 
Some of the popular sports were coarse — for they baited the bear 
and the bull in the Market-place ; but others were less so ; as, for 
example, when the inhabitants went a birding, with hawk on wrist 5 
in the unenclosed fields round Leicester ; and there was a simple 
and hearty hospitality and genuine neighbourly feeling then exist- 
ing, which complete a picture somewhat different from that pre- 
sented in the more refined and pretentious nineteenth century. 

It was this kind of Leicester with which William Her rick was 
familiar in his boyish days, when he was in all probability a pupil 
at the Free Grammar School. But he was sent very early to London, 
to his brother Nicholas, where he was initiated in the business 
of a goldsmith. His father, writing to Nicholas, in the year 1575, 
says, " I have received your letter by your brother William. And 
I give you hearty thanks that you would send him to Leicester to 
see us ; for your mother and I did long to see him ; and so did his 
brothers and sisters ; for the which we give you hearty thanks. 
We thought he had not been so tall as he is, nor never would have 
been."* 

We here get a pleasing glimpse of the interior of the household 
in which William Herrick was nurtured. It was one evidently in 
which gentle and natural affection, and brotherly and sisterly union, 
reigned supreme. The boy of fifteen, springing up into the tall 
youth, was clearly welcomed home with equal pride and pleasure. 

Three years after, his mother forwarded to him a pair of knitted 
hose and a pair of knitted Jersey gloves, in return for presents 
of marmalade, foreign fruit, and fish, which he had conveyed to her 
some time before. Indeed, the letters extant show that William 
Herrick was at this period of his life continually forwarding presents 

occupied by Mr. Griffin, ironmonger. We discover the fact in this way : — In the 
will of Alderman Eobert Heyrick, dated March 26, 1617, he desires to be "given 
forth of the house he dwelt in, to be paid yearly for ever," .£5 into the Mayor's hands, 
for the purpose of purchasing loaves of bread to be distributed among the poor in 
all the parishes of the town. This annuity is still paid, more than two hundred and 
forty years after the date of the bequest, by Mr Griffin, as the owner of the house 
which stands where the venerable alderman's originally stood. It is the corner 
house of the Market-place and Cheapside. Aid. Eobert Herick inherited the property 
from his father, John Eyrick, who purchased it from his elder brother Nicholas, who 
succeeded his father, Thomas, by whom it was bequeathed to Nicholas in the will 
made in the year 1517. Judging from the style of buildings erected at the commence- 
ment of the sixteenth century, it was probably one of four gables — two overhanging 
the Cheapside, two the Market-place — and a picturesque fabric. 

* Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. ii., part 2, p. 621. 



THE HERRTCK PORTRAITS. 



51 



from London to his parents, manifesting warm filial affection in re- 
turn for the unceasing regard they expressed to him, which shines 
out of these ancient messages as freshly and brightly as if the 
writers were alive but yesterday, instead of having been in their 
graves two hundred and sixty years. 

When the portrait in the Mayor's Parlour to which allusion has 
been made, was painted, William Herrick was thirty-two years of 
age. As already remarked, this picture has been for some time con- 
sidered to be that of a citizen of London named Bond ; but the 
pedigree of that family does not contain any person whose age would 
correspond with that mentioned on the portrait. What has pro- 
bably led to the supposition that the person represented was a Bond, 
is the introduction of the arms of that family into the picture, in one 
corner, and upon the signet-ring worn on one of the fingers of the 
subject. As, however, a ring with the same arms upon it appears 
by the will of old Robert Heyricke to have been in his possession, 
and as the Bond shield is figured on the wainscot of an old pew in 
Woodhouse chapel with William Herrick's initials above it — thus 
showing that the brothers at one time committed the not uncom- 
mon mistake of appropriating their mother's armorial insignia — it 
is very probable the same error was fallen into by the artist who 
painted William Herrick's portrait. That the latter was a member 
of the Goldsmith's Company when his likeness was executed is 
tolerably certain, and this accounts for the appearance of the arms 
of the Company by the side of those of Bond. There is little 
difficulty, therefore, in coming to the conclusion that the second 
portrait was that of William Herrick. 

He had now become a prosperous man, having evidently for 
some time left the house of his brother Nicholas, and entered on an 
independent career. In the ten or twelve years following the attain- 
ment of his majority, he had amassed considerable wealth, for he 
purchased the estate at Beaumanor from the agents of Robert, Earl 
of Essex, in 1595, when he was only a year older than he is seen 
to be in his portrait. In another year the new proprietor of Beau- 
manor married Joan May, daughter of Richard May, Esq., a citizen 
of London, and sister of Sir Humphrey May, Knight, once Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He now renewed his connection 
with his native town, and became enrolled on the list of freemen, 
giving to the Mayor "in kindness" twelve silver spoons, with the 
cinquefoil upon the knobs of them, instead of the usual fee of 10s. 
Shortly afterwards, in the year 1601, Mr. Herrick was elected one 
of the Burgesses in Parliament, with Mr. Belgrave, of Belgravc, and 
remained in that position until the decease of Queen Elizabeth, in 
March, 1603. In that year, Sir Henry Skipwith and Sir Henry 
Beaumont of Gracedieu were elected to represent Leicester in Par- 
liament. In the early part of the year 1605 William Herrick was 
knighted by King James, and he was a second time returned member 



52 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



for Leicester in the place of Sir Henry Beaumont, who deceased 
in the month of October of the same year. At this time also he 
was appointed to an office in the royal jewel-house,* having for one 
of his coadjutors George Heriot — the "jingling Geordie" with whom 
Scott has rendered us delightfully familiar in his " Fortunes of 
Nigel," who was the contemporary, and in some sort the rival, of 
Sir William Herrick ; who himself must have seen as much of the 
eccentric and pedantic monarch as Heriot did in his frequent inter- 
course with royalty. The owner of Beaumanor was now as frequently 
a resident in the metropolis as in the country, for he was appointed 
a Teller of the Exchequer about the same date as that under review ; 
and in this capacity, as in that of the great capitalist and court 
banker of the age, whose money was lent alike to the king, the noble, 
the peeress, and the commoner, he cannot help but have been con- 
stantly employed. 

He was not however a mere sordid money maker ; since we find 
his services were sought by the inhabitants of Leicester in affairs 
of importance, and by him freely given. He lent his valuable 
assistance — his "great paynes and care" — in the purchase of the 
Grange, near this town; for which the whole Corporation ac- 
knowledged themselves "bound unto him," and which services 
Mr. Manby, the Mayor, said " all succeeding ages " would have 
great cause to acknowledge. He was, besides, mainly instrumental 
in the incorporating of Trinity Hospital. The numerous and im- 
portant benefits conferred upon the borough by Sir William Herrick 
led to the declaration by the Chief Magistrate, and his compeers 
in the municipal body, in 1616, that they were beholden to him, not 
only in regard to the affairs of Trinity Hospital, but for " divers 
others" his "loving favours" manifested unto them and the whole 
Corporation, and they desired the continuance of his kind favours ; 
" for," they added, " upon yourself we and our whole corporation 
are bold wholly to rely, without which we know not what might 
befall us." 

In the year 1620, the worthy knight was a third time elected 
member for Leicester, with Sir Richard Morison, Knight, Master 
of the Ordnance. In the letter to Mr. Pares, the Mayor, (still 
extant,) in which he returns thanks, he characteristically writes : 
" It is a sentence in the Gospel that there were ten lepers cleansed, 
but there was only one that returned to give thanks. I wish I may 
be that one ; for of all vices I would not be counted ungrateful. I 
acknowledge your love to me in chosing me your burgess ; and I 
speak it with truth, never any did with better alacrity attend that 
service than myself did." 

This paper would be extended much beyond the limits of such 
a memoir as can be offered to the notice of a meeting like the present, 

* Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii., part 1, page 150, note 6. 



THE HERRICK PORTRAITS. 



53 



were all to be included in it that could be said of Sir William 
Herrick. It must therefore be brought to a close. On the 
Knight's retirement from Parliament, he seems to have sought the 
tranquil enjoyments of a country life in his mansion, surrounded 
by the noble oaks of Charnwood Forest. There he dwelt until the 
year of his decease in 1653, aged 91, surrounded by his 
children's children's children, as his venerable mother Mary Eyrick 
was, when — at the age of 97 — she died in 1611, having seen 
before her departure one hundred and forty-two of her descendants. 

It is here worthy of mention, that since the decease of Sir 
William Herrick, the estate of Beaumanor has passed in regular 
succession through the hands of five other William Herricks, 
whose united ages yield an average to each of 76 years ; the pre- 
sent proprietor (YVm. Perry- Herrick, Esq.) being the seventh link 
in the genealogical chain, and enjoying the prospect of a longevity 
equal to that of any of his forefathers. The late William H eyrick, 
Esq., of Thurmaston, the last male representative in the direct line 
of Aid. Robert Herrick, died, it will be remembered, at a good old 
age, a few years ago. 

Enough will, T think, have been said to show that the portraits 
of the brothers Herrick, preserved in the old Guildhall of Leicester, 
are those of two Town Worthies ; to whose efforts in the past, we 
of the present day are indebted for the preservation and extension 
of our municipal heritage. To such men we may point as to 
those who greatly helped to build up the fabric of local self-govern- 
ment, in the reigns of the Tudors and Stuarts, and who, by their 
civic services, their public benevolence, their patriotic spirit, and, 
last but not least, their exemplary domestic lives, showed the 
worth existing in human nature. Sincere but unostentatious ; 
austere in profession but genial in practice ; rigid in creed but 
tolerant in heart — these municipal magnates of the Puritan times 
come down to us as types illustrative of ancient manners and for- 
gotten principles, the study of which may serve to stimulate and 
instruct their successors ; and in an age in which men live in large 
towns, of which the government becomes every day more compli- 
cated and more important, examples of simple life, of elevated 
integrity, and of love of doing one's duty for its own sake, may 
well be brought before us, even from the graves of men of the 
seventeenth contury, to excite our admiration and to enkindle our 
emulation. We need not turn to the cities of ancient Greece, nor 
to the turbulent municipalities of ancient Italy, for models of 
human conduct, while we have had in our own towns patterns of 
private and public virtue, more homely perhaps than those de- 
scribed by the classic historians, but more true to nature, safer to 
imitate, and, being of our own race, better acquainted with the 
wants and requirements of the people of their age, who only 
differed from the people of our age in being placed in circumstances 



54 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 

varying from ours, but who were identical with us in all the 
essentials of national character. 



29th July, 1861. 
The Rev. Robert Bhrnaby in the chair. 

Mr. James Thompson having communicated the information 
that Mr. John Gough Nichols had collected and arranged the 
ancient letters in the possession of Mr. Perry-Herrick, the follow- 
ing motion was adopted : — 

" That, in the opinion of this Society, the extracts from the 
letters of the members of the Herrick family, used at the late 
soiree, indicated that the letters possessed great local interest and 
value, and therefore the publication of the whole series would be 
viewed with pleasure by this Society." 

It was reported that arrangements were completed for holding 
a General Meeting at Lutterworth on the 18th and 19th of Septem- 
ber next. 

Mr. James Thompson further made some observations relative 
to the value of the past transactions of the Society, and advocated 
their publication. 

The following articles, antiquities, &c, were exhibited : — 
By Mr. Ordish, a chromo-lithograph of Ecclesiastical and 
Domestic Furniture, designed by the late Mr. Pugin, and shown at 
the exhibition of 1851. Mr. Ordish presented the picture to the 
Society. 

By Mr. Hunt, an ancient coin, found near the church at 
Humberstone. On examination it proved to be a Nuremberg 
jetton, issued by Damian Krauwinckel, and probably of the fifteenth 
century. These jettons or tokens are found abundantly all over 
the country. They were coined by the eminent merchants of 
Nuremberg, when that great city was the emporium of European 
commerce, and when they had dealings with merchants in all parts 
of the world. A great variety of articles were made there, and 
hence the couplet : 

" Nuremberg's hand 
Goes through every land." 

The frequency of the rinding of these tokens in England is in 
some measure accounted for by their having formerly been com- 
monly used as counters. 

By Mr. Thompson, a manuscript book, containing the rent- 
roll of Philip Sherard, Esq., of Teigh, in the county of Rutland, 
of which he gave the following account : — 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



55 



A very curious manuscript book has been lent to me for exhi- 
bition to this Society. It is a " Survey of all the lands and here- 
ditaments of Philip Sherard, son and heir of Francis Sherard, Esq., 
lying and being within the town and fields of Teigh, in the county 
of Rutland " drawn up by William Wallis, surveyor of Stamford in 
the year 1597. The Philip Sherard, Esq., here mentioned, was 
the ancestor of the late Earl of Harborough, among whose muni- 
ments the volume was discovered. 

Not only is there in it a minute mention of every portion of ' 
the Teigh estate ; but there are besides small maps exhibiting 
detached parts, which are examples of the water colouring, the 
ornamental caligraphy, and the surveyor's drawing of two hundred 
and sixty-four years bygone. At the end of the book is a list of 
the tenants, with the amount of the occupation of each, whether in 
meadow or pasture land. The names of the tenants are Richard 
Barrow, Richard Dinge, Nicholas Coale, John Squire, Thomas 
Taylor, Thomas Whittle, Michael Gray, William Fowler, William 
Roe (rector), William Ecoppe, William Aswell, William Pullen, 
Widow Hitchcock, Widow Conyborowe, Thomas Ecoppe, Widow 
Roe, John Briggs, John Yates, Robert Rudkin, Edward Cowper, 
William Pyne, Richard Greene, Richard Wade, William Berye, 
William Wensley, Widow Pickwell, John Dalbye, and William 
Smythe. The total acreage was 1,118 acres, 17 perches. 

I need scarcely say that documents like that before us have 
an antiquarian value which should ensure their preservation by 
their owners. To the topographer and genealogist they are emi- 
nently serviceable in throwing light on village history. The names 
of the tenants are probably represented to-day in Teigh by the 
descendants of their former possessors; though I should say 
I am here speaking in entire ignorance of the locality. Should 
it prove to be so, it will add another proof to the many I 
have met with of families (not those merely of the nobility and 
gentry, but of the yeomanry and farmers) residing on the same 
spot, and pursuing the same avocations, for successive centuries — 
showing how, without the influence of a caste system (like that of 
Oriental nations), the inhabitants of this country, owing to their 
practical character, innate tendencies, and stability of purpose, 
maintain the distinction of classes and of occupations. 

By the Rev. J. H. Hill, a series of photographs of windows 
designed by Messrs. Lavers and Baraud and Messrs. Heaton and 
Buckler of London ; also, a portion of a bayonet, corroded by age, 
and an ancient spur, found near Glooston. The bayonet is said 
to have been invented in the latter half of the seventeenth century, 
and to have received its name from Bayonne, in the south of 
France. The relic exhibited appeared to have been fastened 
upon a piece of wood, portions of decayed fibres still adhering to 
the socket. The spur was of the kind which is seen figured on 



56 



I KK KSTKHSIllUU ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the sculptured effigies of the early part of the fifteenth century, 
and was used by horsemen about the time when the Wars of the 
Roses were being carried on in this country. 

By Mil. T. Ne Vinson, a coin of the reign of Queen Anne. 
It was about the size of a farthing. On the obverse was the head 
of the queen; on the reverse, the date 1711, with the usual abbre- 
viated legend — reg. mag. br. fr. hib. &c. The coin is of copper, 
but has been washed over with gold. The impression of the Society 
was that the coin had been gilded over for the purposes of decep- 
tion. ( Vide Humphreys' Manual upon the coins of Queen Anne.) 

Mr. VVm. Jackson (architect) read the following Paper upon 

THE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF S. MARGARET'S 
CHURCH, LEICESTER. 

The remarks which I am about to read upon the Architectural 
History of S. Margaret's Church, if I may use so dignified a title, 
were first suggested to me during the progress of collecting some 
examples of Gothic mouldings, which are here particularly good and 
characteristic, and to which I shall have occasion hereafter to refer. 
In the course of this collateral study, I was struck by the singular 
and gradual progression, in point of date, in these mouldings, 
from the east end of the church, down the south side of the nave 
and south aisle, and thence to the north side ; and being thus led 
to seek for information from our usual local authorities, I learnt 
only that no satisfactory account was to be found, and that no 
materials were believed to be in existence, from which an authentic 
history could be written. These remarks are offered, therefore, as 
an attempt to work out the problem, which, under such circum- 
stances, the peculiar and fragmentary examples now remaining in 
the church proposed to my mind. 

The early history of S. Margaret's, like that of many other 
churches, carries the mind back to the most remote period in the 
annals of our country. It is not of that time, however, I have now 
to speak, except as it is naturally suggested by an attempt to 
explain several peculiarities in the structure as it now stands. 
Nothing, indeed, remains of that early period except the dim 
record of a cathedral which stood here in the seventh century. 
Leland records that in his time a portion of the Bishop's palace yet 
stood by the church—" the fairest parish church of Leicester ;" 
though I should think it more probable that what Leland saw were 
the remains of the vicarage, of the endowment of which Nichols 
gives a copy, dated 1276 —and that these remains were finally 
dispersed in 1568, when Mr. John Lounde, the vicar, repaired the 
house, and with the consent of his loving parishioners " dyd extyrpe 



HISTORY OF S. MARGARET'S CHURCH, LEICESTER. 



57 



and pull down all monuments of superstytyone out of the said 
prebendall church."* Nichols also quotes the register of Bishop 
Alnwyke, which describes the alteration and reparation of 1444 ; 
and our modern historians make the most of the same materials, 
and of the alabaster monument (which now adorns the chancel) of 
Bishop Peny, who died in 1520. But the structure itself preserves 
some indications of a history which appears to have quite escaped 
any written record. 

It is certain that there was a Saxon building here, from the 
statement in Domesday Book, that two of the churches, out of six 
then in the town, were given to the Bishop of Lincoln by the 
Norman Conqueror: it being clear that S. Margaret's was one of 
these, from the record (quoted by Nichols, 1110) that "Robert de 
Beaumont repaired St. Mary's church, and placed there a dean 
and twelve secular canons, restored their possessions, and appro- 
priated to them all the churches in Leicester, except St. Margaret's, 
which was of the See of Lincoln." 

This Saxon church, then, or such remains of one as had escaped 
the successive ravages of the Danes during the tenth century, and 
containing doubtless some " Norman" additions, stood here about 
the year 1110; but doubtless, also, in a dilapidated condition, from 
the above-named causes, and from the effects of the warlike visits 
of William the Conqueror, and of his son and successor, William 
Rufus, who " took vengeance on the town (a.d. 1088) in retaliation 
for assistance given by the Earl of Leicester to the king's elder 
brother Robert." 

About the year 1120, Robert Bossu succeeded his father as Earl 
of Leicester, and Nichols, and tradition, have both assigned to him 
the figure in the niche on the northward side of the east window ; 
and both also say that he built part of this church — the first state- 
ment certainly wrong, the other probably right; but if the tradition 
be true, what part did the Earl build ? not " the oldest remaining 
part, the last bay eastward of the nave," if Mr. Poole be correct as 
to its date, as about a.d. 1200; and if not that, certainly no other 
part, for Earl Bossu died in the year 1168. But, on the suppo- 
sition that he did build that east bay of the nave (and there is 
nothing, I think, in its style of architecture to make that suppo- 
sition improbable, but the contrary) a great deal of otherwise un- 
accountable detail becomes reconciled. Thus: — Robert Bossu, 
Earl of Leicester, finding S. Margaret's Church in a very dilapi- 
dated condition, pulled down the old Saxon anci Norman remains, 
and recommenced building from the chancel arch; but the work 
was stopped by his death, 1168; stopped, also, by the treason of 
his son, who conspired against the king, Henry II.; and by that 
king's vengeance, who, for two years, 1173-5, demolished the 
town and neighbourhood. 

* Nichols. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



This supposition accounts, I think, for one great peculiarity in 
the church, viz., that the east bay of the nave only remains of the 
semi- Norman style. 

Apart, however, from any historical association, this east bay of 
the nave is itself a most curious study; and it will be remarked 
first, that the south-east pier is the only one remaining intact of 
the original design ; the others, in addition to their having been 
under the hand of the modern " restorer," were, I think, originally 
copies of the south-east pier by another hand — curiously so, too, 
for it will be seen that the square abacus of the old capital becomes, 
in the others, a truncated roll and fillet; the plain, slightly articu- 
lated leafage becomes the more elaborate foliage — and the cham- 
fered neck-mould, the small annular moulding. (Fig. 1 and 2.) 
The other piers are also curious: — obviously built, or put together 
at three different times; — it is equally clear, I think, that the 
capital, half-way down the western side, is the earliest; the 
eastern half next in date ; and the western upper capital the latest. 
It will be observed that the early hood-mould is continued down to 
the springing line of the arch ; not as it would be if this capital 
had been continued in the ordinary way, merely to the intersection 
of the adjoining hood-mould; and this leads me to think that the 
lower capital was originally continued with arches at its present 
level down the nave, and that the builder, who took up the work 
commenced by Robert Bossu, pulled down this nave, leaving only 
the east pier, which had been incorporated with the semi-Norman 
alteration in the way we now see it. 

The next earliest part is the south side of the nave, and this is 
also quite distinct in character and date from any other part; and 
it is curious to observe, in parish churches, how commonly this is 
the case — that one side of the nave differs in date from the other 
side. Here we have the " nail-head" decoration of the arch, the 
double-bell and plain neck-mould of the capital indicating a date 
early in the thirteenth century. One of these capitals (the second 
from the tower) differs from the others, having only a single " bell ;" 
and its neck-moulding being the common truncated roll, instead of 
the three-quarter annular moulding. It is, however, so clearly 
similar in general character to the adjoining work, and there are, 
besides, no evidences of its being of another period, that I think it 
must be regarded as a singular instance of the early use of the 
details in question. (Fig. 3.) This side of the nave is generally 
thought to be the finest part of the church : its chaste and elegant 
capitals, and deeply-recessed arches, alternating with small 
moulded ribs; its hood-mould filled with the characteristic dog- 
tooth ornament, with foliated terminals, make one regret that the 
other side of the nave does not remain in the same style — regret 
too, the destruction of the west bay, which was done, apparently, 



HISTORY OF S. MARGARET'S CHURCH, LEICESTER. 



59 



at the time when the tower was built, as if to force into notice the 
singular contrast in the moulded work of the two periods. 

Turning next to the south aisle, we find a difference from the 
style of the south side of the nave, in the " double bell" and the 
"nail-head ornament" being no longer employed. With this 
exception, however, there is a similarity in the mouldings ; the 
abacus being the truncated roll and fillet, and the neck the bold 
three-quarter annular moulding. (Fig. 6.) The bases and string- 
course are " restored" ones, and it is questionable whether their 
true contour has been preserved. As regards the bases, they are 
of some form that belongs, I think, to no period of architecture 
whatever; and, as respects the string-course, there is no other 
example of the "scroll moulding" in this part of the church. 

The cincture in the jamb-shaft at the east end of this aisle, and 
indeed, the whole of the details of these rere-arches and capitals 
are quite worth remark : nothing, indeed, could be better, probably, 
for their place and purpose ; stopping short of needless elabora- 
tion, yet quite sufficient to produce a chaste and rich effect, and to 
indicate the thought bestowed upon them ; nothing, either, could 
be more clearly indicative of the style, of the destroyed mullions 
and tracery; and nothing more conclusive that the plain, heavy, 
chamfered mullions which have lately been inserted, are quite out 
of character. 

Passing westward we have, in the " neck-moulding" of the last 
window in this aisle, (Fig. 4) the first indication of the later style 
which prevails in the whole of the north aisle, and, on the north 
side of the nave, indicated by the " scroll moulding" of the abacus 
and neck of the capitals, by the more simple form of section, by 
the base mouldings projecting over the line of the plinth, and by 
other details. The date of this work I should suppose to be the 
early part of the fourteenth century. (Figs. 7 and 8.) 

At the east of this aisle is a curious capital, growing, as it were, 
out of the pier, at about the same level as the lower capitals in the 
east bay of the nave before alluded to ; but this, also, has been 
under the hand of the " restorer," and it is very doubtful whether 
the original foliation was not of earlier character ; the square abacus 
rather leads to the belief that such was the case. 

Another point deserving attention, in this place, is the curious 
variety, as well as the symmetrical beauty, of these mouldings : — 
although, on a cursory view, they seem all alike, as, indeed, they 
are generically ; it will be found, on examination, that the form of 
section is varied in almost every instance. It will scarcely be 
doubted, I think, that the builder who exhibited so much fertility 
of design in this matter, would fail in the more striking feature of 
window tracery, and yet, I understand that in the proposed 
restoration of this aisle, one design is to be repeated in the whole 
six openings. 



60 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

The history of the remaining part of the church is well known 
from the register of Bishop Alnwyke, quoted by our local historians; 
from which it appears that the tower and chancel were built about 
the year 1444. 

I have thus endeavoured to lessen the hiatus which exists in 
the history of S. Margaret's Church, between the time of " Domes- 
day Book " and the register of Bishop Alnwyke, so far as a careful 
examination of the simple yet characteristic details of the building 
will permit; and I have also endeavoured to explain the architec- 
tural problem by an historical parallel, which accounts for the tra- 
dition that Robert Bossu built part of this church. In conclusion, 
permit me to remark upon the wide field into which the enquiry 
has introduced us: we step at once, by the help of these apparently 
unimportant stones, into the province of universal history : we pass 
in review the first Christian edifice which arose here in the remote 
and barbarous ages of our country : we account for its disappear- 
ance by the savage and successive ravages of the heathen Danes ; 
for its rebuilding after the Norman Conquest ; and for its partial 
destruction during and in consequence of the feudal times ; and 
these are all matters of universal interest, — interest which cannot 
fail to derive additional importance to us from being thus localized ; 
whilst, at the same time, the veneration we owe the fabric cannot 
fail to be increased from being thus palpably connected with some 
of the most important events which have occurred in the history of 
the world. 



GENERAL MEETING AT LUTTERWORTH. 
Z6th and 27th September, 1861. 
The Rev. J. P. Marriott, President. 

To a casual observer Lutterworth might appear to offer few attrac- 
tions to claim the visit of the members of an Architectural and 
Archaeological Society. It is a small market town on the banks of 
a small river, the Swift, which soon discharges itself into its 
better known neighbour the Avon. Its ancient hospital has long 
since passed away, and there is, apparently, nothing to attract the 
attention of the visitor but its church, and even that is robbed of 
much of its dignity, symmetry, and beauty by the loss of its noble 
spire. These are the impressions upon the mind of a mere passer- 
by. To the thoughtful observer, to the antiquary, to the student 
of history, in short, to every one feeling the least interest in the 
antecedents of the locality, the town of Lutterworth, and more 



GENERAL MEETING AT LUTTERWORTH. 



61 



especially its neighbourhood, offer suggestions, and evidences at 
once valuable and interesting. 

Possessing neither the Baron's Castle, nor the Abbey, Priory, 
or even Monastery of the Church, Lutterworth does not appear 
upon the pages of mediaeval history so prominently as do some 
other towns of no greater magnitude in this county. It appears in 
Domesday-Book under the name of Lutresurde. Soon after the 
Norman Conquest the manor of Lutterworth passed into the hands 
of the Verdon family, Nicholas of that name founding there, in 
the reign of King John, a hospital dedicated to S. John the Baptist, 
for one priest and six poor men, and also endowing it with means 
to "keep hospitality for poor men travelling that way." This 
Hospital stood adjoining to lands in the parish of Misterton called 
the Warren, being divided from the town of Lutterworth by the 
river. At the dissolution of the monasteries this hospital was sold, 
and the lands and mills leased to the Faunts. There are now no 
remains of the ancient fabric standing. About the middle of the 
fourteenth century the manor of Lutterworth appears to have passed 
by marriage into the family of Ferrers of Groby. Sir William 
Ferrers de Groby, in 1414, obtained the grant of a fair at Lutter- 
worth, to be holden upon Ascension-day, whence it was called Lord 
Ferrers' holiday : it is also said he at the same time obtained a 
grant of a weekly market. From the Ferrers' family the manor 
passed to the Greys, and from them— upon the attainder of Henry 
Grey, Duke of' Suffolk — through the crown, after some lapse of 
time, to the corporation of London, who, in the year 1629, sold it 
to Basil Feilding, Esq., whose family had from ancient time been 
connected with Lutterworth, and which family, in the person of 
the present Earl of Denbigh, is now in possession of the manor. 

The church of Lutterworth, both as a building, and from its 
intimate connection with WyclifFe, the " Morning Star of the 
Reformation," will always claim earnest attention, but neither the 
edifice nor the man whose name will ever be associated with it, 
must here receive more than this cursory allusion, because the 
remarks of Mr. Bloxam, and others, upon these interesting topics 
will be given hereafter; after reading which, it will be seen that 
Lutterworth is not without strong claims upon our attention and 
study, and not an unfit place for a visit from the members of an 
Archaeological Society. If this may be said of the town of Lutter- 
worth, much more may be said of its neighbourhood. It is situated 
near to the Watling Street, that great Roman road constructed by 
the early conquerors and civilizers of this country, to enable them 
to extend their conquests and hold their new acquisitions, — it is 
within an easy walk of Claybrooke, which, whether it were anciently 
the great Roman city as described by Burton or not, was unquestion- 
ably a Roman station, evidences of which from time to time are being 
thrown up by the earth in the shape of coins, &c, &c. High Cross, 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



too, where the Fosse and the Watling Street intersect each other, 
is not far distant; while, on the other side of Lutterworth, the 
Roman Tripontium is within easy access. It will thus be seen 
that this is a large field for the enquirer into the Roman history of 
this country, and no barren field either, as will be seen from the 
very many Roman antiquities found in the neighbourhood and 
exhibited at Lutterworth. Neither is it the Roman period of 
our history alone which this neighbourhood brings before 
the curious visitor, mediaeval times — the " dark ages " — are not 
without their tokens in the many beautiful churches adorning 
the landscape in this locality, and the works of art they contain, 
monuments alike to the piety and the artistic skill of their founders 
and builders; Misterton and Stanford churches, for instance, may 
be cited, as speaking, in eloquent silence, of the times which saw 
their rise, and which certainly bid us pause and well consider before 
we speak with too much certainty of that " darkness" for which 
the period of their erection has become so proverbial. Then, 
again, in Theddingworth church — within the limits of a day's 
excursion — we have a proof that the old spirit of self-sacrifice, and 
of reverence and esteem for God's house, is still alive in this 
country, and that the architectural skill, and the taste for the 
beautiful, which so distinguished the church builders in the middle 
ages, is not now lost, but these shine forth in a manner at once 
pleasing and heart cheering, not only to the man of taste, but to all 
w T ho wish to see the services of the Church conducted in buildings 
at once worthy of Him who is there worshipped, and of the Church 
whose time-honoured Offices are therein performed ; and for those 
whose tastes lead them to contemplate the stern realities of life, — 
the rise and fall of men and the things of men, — the Field of Naseby 
offers a rich page of history. Such being the attractions of Lut- 
terworth and its neighbourhood members would learn with satisfac- 
tion of the intended visit of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society there, on the days indicated above.* 

The proceedings were opened on Thursday, the 26th of Sep- 
tember, by a meeting of the Committee of the Society in the ante- 
room of the Town Hall, when the following new members were 
elected: — The Revs. J. P. Marriott, rector of Cottesbach; John 
Halford, of Wistow; H. K. Richardson, rector of Leire, and rural 
dean ; M. Cochan, of Dunton Bassett ; Thomas Cox, of Kimcote 
Rectory; H. Fox, of Lutterworth: Thomas Watson, Esq., and 
Messrs. Charles Burdett, W. Footman, Charles J. Lea, G. S. 
Wardley, of Lutterworth, and Mr. Joseph Goddard (architect), 
Leicester. The Rev. J. O. Stuart was elected an honorary 
member. 

* This introduction to the formal report of the Proceedings at this Meeting was 
furnished at the time hy the Hon. Secretary to a local newspaper, and is now 
reprinted. 



GENERAL MEETING AT LUTTERWORTH. 



63 



LUTTERWORTH CHURCH. 

Shortly after twelve o'clock, a large party assembled in the 
Parish Church, to hear Mr. M. H. Bloxam's extemporaneous 
account of the fabric and its contents.* 

MISTERTON CHURCH. 

After a short interval, a large party of ladies and gentlemen, 
headed by Mr. Bloxam proceeded over the fields to Misterton, 
crossing on their way the little river Swift into which the ashes of 
the first English Reformer were cast, after his dead body had been 
exhumed and burnt, to show the blind and impotent fanaticism of 
his enemies. The distance of Misterton from Lutterworth is one 
mile, over a rich undulating country, studded with good ash timber; 
the appearance of the fine broach spire, as the church is approached, 
is extremely picturesque. Upon entering the edifice, Mr. Bloxam 
remarked that it, — that is the nave and two aisles' — like Lutter- 
worth, was built in the fourteenth century. The chancel being, as 
was very apparent, of a later poriod. The appearance of the 
church, after Lutterworth, was quite refreshing, being much more 
in its original state, there being no galleries, and many of the open 
seats of the fifteenth century being still preserved. The arches of 
the nave were without any capitals, an occurrence not at all un- 
common in the fifteenth and previous century. The hood and all 
the mouldings in the church were remarkably good. The south 
aisle was formerly a chantry chapel, divided from the nave by a 
handsome screen, large portions of the lower part of which were 
left; the founder was buried under an archway at the side. The 
piscina was still remaining, and some small pieces of good stained 
glass of the fourteenth century, coeval with the church, were well 
worth attention. On the south side of the church was pointed out 
the doorway and staircase leading to the " Domus inclusus," or 
chamber, over the south porch (still existing), which was formerly 
the residence of a recluse. The open seats of the fifteenth century 
were specimens of good carving, and all required careful examina- 
tion, many being richly decorated with armorial bearings and re- 
ligious emblems and devices, such as the five wounds, &c, &c. 
The base of the rood-loft was inspected, .and the entrances to it, 
below and above pointed out. A handsome altar tomb, in the 
church, attracted much attention. It commemorates " Mychel 
Pulteney, Esquire," who, dying in 1577, has the usual termination 
to monumental inscriptions, prevalent during the predominance of 

* As the account then given was more elaborated in the Taper read by that gentle 
man at the evening meeting, and which is given bereafter, it is Unnecessary to pre 
serve his remarks here. 



64 



LEICESTEESHIEE zYKCTITTECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Roman Catholic opinions, thus qualified upon his tomb, " On whose 
soulle the Lorde hathe taken mercy." 

THE MUSEUM. 

At one o'clock the temporary museum at the Town Hall was 
opened to the public. Its contents were of a varied character; 
the space at the disposal of the Committee prevented the display of 
all the objects offered for exhibition, but it will be seen from an 
abstract given below that the tables were covered with articles of 
considerable value and beauty, and that a variety of objects of 
great local and general interest were collected together, speaking- 
well for the good conservative spirit of the neighbourhood — by 
conservative spirit is meant a due regard and care for all objects 
illustrative of the daily lives of our forefathers, and of the circum- 
stances under which they lived. 

Among the chief contributors to the museum, and from the 
large collection of objects exhibited the following are noted : — 

By the Earl of Denbigh : Letters written by, or addressed to, the 
members of the Feilding family during the time of William and 
Basil, the two first Earls of Denbigh, 2 MS. vols, folio. Letters and 
other papers chiefly addressed to, or written by the Earl of Denbigh 
during the civil wars, 2 MS. vols, folio. Portrait of the Countess of 
Desmond, taken at the age of 121 ; she died aged 140; she danced 
with Richard III. as a young person, and she has left record that he 
was not humpbacked ; artist unknown. Portrait of Queen Anne 
Boleyn, by Holbein. Portrait of Sir Robert Cotton, founder of the 
Cottonian Library ; artist unknown. Portrait of Mary, Countess of 
Denbigh, wife of Basil, sixth Earl, and daughter of Sir Robert 
Cotton, drawn in chalks by Sir Thomas Lawrence when he was 
thirteen years old. The lady was staying at the Inn at Devizes, and 
the innkeeper's wife asked her to sit to her little boy ; hence the 
portrait. Alleged portrait of Wycliffe; artist unknown. Portrait 
of the Infanta of Spain, by Balthazar Gerbier, brought over to 
England by Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, when sent to Spain to 
negociate the proposed marriage of the Infanta with Prince Charles 
— afterward Charles I. of England. The dagger with which Felton 
stabbed the Duke of Buckingham, 23rd August, 1628, given by the 
Duke's valet to the first Lady Denbigh, the Duke's sister. 

By Mr. M. H. Bloxam : First Edition of Robinson Crusoe, 1719, 8vo. 
2 vols., very rare. Sir Thomas Lawrence, when a boy, drawn by 
himself. Portrait of Thomas Wilson, son of the Bishop of Sodor 
and Man ; Paul Veronese. Portrait of a lady (temp. Mary) ; Michael 
Angelo. Anglo-Saxon beads from the Watling Street. Anglo- 
Saxon sepulchral remains, from near Brentford-bridge, Warwickshire. 
Anglo-Saxon fibula, &c. Roman remains and glass from Caves Inn. 
Key found in a grave six feet deep at Irby-upon-Humber, placed 
upon the breastbone of a corpse of great stature. Roman steelyard 
weight found near Combe Abbey. Roman bull's head and key of 



THE MUSEUM. 



65 



bronze found at Princethorpe. Ancient bronze dagger (Celtic period). 
Irish celts, primitive type. Palstrave, secondary form. Celt-loop- 
eyed or tertiary form of celt. Socketed spear head. Ancient Celtic 
bronze sword. 

By H. Payne, Esq. (Leicester) alleged portrait of WyclifFe. 

By the Rey. J. H. Hill: The portraitures of his sacred Majesty Charles 
I., l*2mo., 1649. Mastin's History of Naseby, with engravings, &c. 
Light of a painted glass window representing the first act of mercy, 
M I was an hungered and ye gave me meat," by Lavers, London. 
Engraving of Charles I. from Vandyke's celebrated picture. Engrav- 
ing of Henrietta Maria, from a painting by Vandyke. These engrav- 
ings hung for many years in the parsonage at Naseby. Engravings 
of Gaston de Foix and Admiral de Biron, from the collection of the 
late Cosmo Neville, Esq. Bombshell found at Naseby forty years 
ago, when the parish was enclosed. Ancient spur ploughed up at 
Arnesby, Lincolnshire, where the royalist troops were defeated by 
Cromwell in 1642. Early bayonet, found at Glooston. Skillett or 
trulla of bronze, the handle perforated with a trefoil for suspension. 
Handle of a vessel of bronze with the figure of a youth. Elegant 
striated handle of a Roman vessel found at Hallaton. Upper portion 
of a praefericuluui or jug, of fine workmanship, with a band of 
foliated ornaments round the neck. Straight reeded handle of a 
patera of bronze terminating in a ram's head. Three Roman vessels, 
called Lachrymatories, or Unguentaria, used as receptacles for per- 
fumes, or some other usual accompaniments of a funereal deposit. 
Hand bricks or props, found in Orby-in- the- Marsh, Lincolnshire, 
under a marine alluvial deposit at the depth of four feet : these 
bricks were used in the manufacture of hardware. Series of photo- 
graphs of stained glass windows. 

By Mr. W. Jackson (architect, Leicester) : Pen and ink, and other 
architectural drawings. 

By the Rey. Canon James : Two oriental swords and shields. Engraved 
antique gem. Gold medal of Fairfax. Silver Buddhist symbol. Two 
oriental jugs, silver and gold. Impression of mediaeval seal. Silver 
counter of Charles and Henrietta. Two battle axes. Illuminated 
MS. copy of Koran, Persic. 

By the Rey. J. P. Marriott : Roman and English coins. Encaustic 
tiles, and head of a figure in chain armour upon glass, from Cottes- 
bach Church. Anglo Saxon spear from Watling Street. British 
bolt or axe head from Cottesbach. Anglo Saxon fibulse, clasps, dice, 
beads, &c. Anglo Saxon boss of shield from Watling Street. Roman 
flue tiles. Roman pottery found in a gravel pit near Caves' Inn. 
Fragments of Saxon ware. Roman amphorae, or urn vessels. IMS. 
copy of the works of Wycliffe, collected in the last century. 

By Mr. H. Goddard (architect, Leicester) : Bible presented by Cromwell 
to the officers of the parliamentary troops, 1653, 24mo. Thomas a. 
Keinpis' works, 1659. Two very handsome antique gold watches. 
Silver watch found near Prince's Risborough, Bucks., the residence 
of Edward the Black Prince, "The Annunciation" on the lid, "The 
walk to Emmaus " on the back. Tortoiseshell box inlaid with silver. 
Boxes carved in ebony, eighteenth century. Vinegarette, carved 
upon the nut of a species of the palm [temp. Charles I.). Ancient 
f Vol. tl. 



<><> LKKT.KTK.KSHIHK, ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

key found at Wilmslow, Cheshire, 1840. Ancient keys. Old bronze. 
Silver spoon (hull mark 1600). Clay crucifix found in Bosworth 
churchyard. Roman lachrymatories, very fine. Memorial of 
Charles I., formerly in the possession of the Digby family (bronze). 
Two oval triptychs. Roman fibula found in Leicester. Early British 
bone ornaments and celt. Fragments of bronze from Leicester. 
Roman scissors found in Leicester. 

By the Rev. A. Pownall : Facsimile of the death warrant of Mary 
Queen of Scots. A fine collection of English coins. Kemmeridge 
coal money. Dish of Palissy ware. Impression of the Great Seal 
of England, temp. Edward III., 1327-1377. Cross of the Order of 
S. Benedict. English, Roman, and foreign coins and medals. 
Medal of Queen Anne. Mite of James I., 1603. Coins found in 
the neighbourhood of Lutterworth. Medal of Augustus Adolphus. 
Sword ploughed up at Naseby. Roman Stylus. 

By Dr. Goodacre : Views of ancient buildings in Leicestershire. 
Dixon's Geology of Sussex, London, 1850, 4to. Purchas's Direc- 
torium Anglicanum, 1858, 4to. Father Tiber. 

By T. B. Goodacre, Esq. : Model of the Portland vase. Model of Coton 
font. Bronze key, fourteenth century, found in a field near High 
Cross, in 1859. Armlet, dug up at Newton. Portion of a Roman 
composite millstone. Bronze patera. Pocket book, with clasp, and 
portrait of the late Queen of France. Ring, supposed to have been 
a Queen's pledge, from Henrietta Maria, to some one for money bor- 
rowed. Model of the Warwick vase. 

By the Rev. T. Sankey : Breeches' Bible. Latimer's Sermons. Ancient 
missal. Early newspaper. 

By the Rev. H. K. Richardson : Ancient album, on vellum, with water 
colour paintings. Venetian glass of the sixteenth century. Silver 
medallion of Charles I., on tortoiseshell. 

By the Rev. H. Cockin : Alabaster statues of S. Andrew and S. Catherine 
from Glastonbury Abbey. Ancient kettle and lamp. Ladies' dresses. 
Incense pan. Mounted drinking horn. Earthenware mug, bearing 
the inscription " A. Pope." 

By the Rev. M. Cockin : Snuffers and stand, formerly in the possession 
of the Company of Soap Makers. Agate handled knife and fork. 
Facsimile in lithograph of certain rolls brought from Herculaneum. 
Box of lava from Mount Vesuvius. Silver plate of the seventeenth 
century. 

By T. Watson, Esq. : Charter of Philip le Lardiner to his father, of 
messuage and land at Melton, near York, 1286. Charter of the 
twelfth century, granted by John de Deane to the monks of Combe 
Abbey, of the mill at Wlwich (Willey). Pistol barrel from Naseby. 

By the Rev. T. Cox : Needle book used by Queen Elizabeth. Ancient 
watch belonging to a Queen of Bohemia, taken as spoil in battle. 

By the Rev. E. Woodcock : Brass rubbing of Sir Roger de Trumping- 
ton, 1289 ; of Richard de Buslingthorpe, 1289 ; of a knight from 
Croft Church, 1360; of Lawrence de St. Maw, from Higham 
Ferrers Church, 1337; and of Robert Braund, merchant of Lynn, 
with his two wives, 1364, the feast of peacocks at the bottom. 

By T. Nevinson, Esq.: Brass rubbings of Abbot Delamere, from S. 
Alban's Abbey, and of various brasses in Stoke D'Aubernon, Cob- 
ham, and other churches. 



THE MUSEUM. 



67 



By the Rev. J. E. Colyer: Rubbings of brasses, viz. : Thomas Crawley, 
Archbishop of Dublin ; Thomas Goodrick, Bishop of Ely ; Adam 
de Bacon, Henry Sever, priests ; Sir John de Creke and lady, Westly 
Waterless, 1320; Sir Robert Staunton and lady; Philip de Byschoppe; 
two rubbings from a monument in Wehnore Church to the memory 
of Captain Hodges, who was killed at the siege of Antwerp, 1563. 

By Mr. Mills : Madrigal book, dedicated to Lord Feilding, 1637. Por- 
tion of a waistcoat worn by James I. 

By the Hon. Mrs. Richardson : Testament and Prayer Book, 1628, 
24mo. 

By the Rev. R. Willan : MS. Bible of the twelfth century. 

By Mr. John Deakins: Theory of the earth, by Thomas Bunet, 1584. 

Leicester Castle, by James Thompson, 1865. Book of Devotions 

{temp. James I.) Quarle. Speed's England and Wales. Facsimile 

of the death warrant of Charles I. 
By Mr. Warbley : Watercolour drawing of the house in which Latimer 

was born. 

By Mr. H. D. Dudgeon : Sketch of Foston Church. Sketch of Dun- 

kelk. Drawings of Kelso Abbey. 
By T. Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. : Ancient carving of the Crucifixion, dug 

from under the altar of S. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. Arm plate of 

Sir Thomas (afterwards Lord) Audley. 
By W. Footman, Esq. : Oriental dagger, with silver sheath. 
By W. Elton, Esq. : Russian helmet, plate, bullet, and part of the wall 

of Sebastopol. 

By Mr. J. C. Styles : Pieces of China from the old hall of Lubbenham, 

where Charles I. slep: prior to the battle of Naseby, supposed to 

have been used by that monarch. 
By W. Johnson, Esq. : Gold ring found at Cropwell Butler, with an 

inscription in Norman French. 
By H. Rodgers, Esq. : Ring found at Gilmorton, having an inscription, 

"the King's gift" (Charles I. to some royalist). 
By J. S. Shackleford, Esq. : Silver seal. Arms of the Shuckburgh 

family. Sword used at Edge-hill by Sir Richard Shuckburgh. 

Sword ploughed up at Naseby. 
By the Rev. P. Wilson : Metal struck to commemorate the death of Sir 

Thomas Overbury. 
By W. G. Ashby, Esq. : Horns used in calling in the cattle of Naseby. 

Horse shoe and twelve bullets found at Naseby. 
By G. C. Neale, Esq. : Carving in ivory, triumph of Neptune. Cannon 

ball from Naseby. 
By G. A. Ashby, Esq. : Encaustic tiles from Naseby Church. 
By Mr, Hunt : Sword and crossbow from Bosworth Field. Sword from 

Naseby. Ancient church key. 
By — Arnold, Esq. : Roman sword, dug up in Watiing Street Road. 
By Mr. Walter Ivens : Ancient images and lamp. Jewish inkstand 

and penholder. 
By the Hon. C. L. Butler : Coins from Caves' Inn. 
By Mr. Kilpack: Nichols' Leicestershire, Guthlaxton Hundred. Cannon 

ball from Naseby. 
By Mr. Tomlinson : Bible, 1626. 

By the Churchwardens of Lutterworth: Fox's Book of Martyrs, 



68 



LK ICKSTE RSI 1 IRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



1631. Altar cloth and candlesticks stated to be of Wycliffe's time 

from Lutterworth Church. 
By M us. Evans : Silver coffee pot and sugar bason. Apex stone from 

Lutterworth spire, which fell in 1703. 
By Mr. Johnson: Various models. 

By Mr. S. Hales : Two ornaments from the Emperor of China's summer 

palace. 

By Mr. Superintendent Deakins : Two monumental brasses formerly 

in Lutterworth Church.* 
By George Holyoake, Esq : Cannon ball found in Lutterworth Field. 
By Rev. E. Elm hirst : Mediaeval fetterlock. 
By Mrs. Bonsor : Lady's dress. 

By Mr. C. J. Lea: Cornice for nave roof of Middlehurst Church. Boss 
and moulding, forming panelled roof from Astbury (temp. Henry 
VIII.). Decorative drawings for S. Alban's Church, Rochdale. 

By Mrs. Gamble: Needlework, 1655. 

By Miss Newcombe : Needlework. 

By Captain Ashby : Seal ploughed up at Broadmore, near Naseby. A 

twenty shilling piece found at Naseby. 
A series of the publications of the Arundel Society ; the Rev. T. James. 

Mr. Hollier (Hinckley), also exhibited various articles. 

In the afternoon, the Rev. E. W. Woodcock, of Thurmaston, 
read a short Paper descriptive of the numerous rubbings of monu- 
mental brasses adorning the Town Hall, to a large and attentive 
audience. The following is an epitome of his address: — 

THE BRASSES OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 

I have the pleasure this afternoon to address you on the subject 
of Monumental Brasses — what I have to say will, I must premise, 
chiefly refer to those of the fourteenth century. The subject 
without that limitation would, even if an outline only were at- 
tempted, be too considerable for the time to which I am restricted. 
Brasses, I venture to hope, will for all future time remain a matter 
of interest in this country : they are records of English men and 
English women, who have long passed away, of whose habits and 
feelings we know but very little. This is especially true of the 
brasses of this period, for in the fourteenth century oil painting 
had hardly become understood, and printing was unknown. The 
sovereigns on the throne of England during the time of which I 

* It should be recorded that the two monumental brasses mentioned above as 
being formerly in Lutterworth Church, were stolen from thence on the night of 
Sunday, 28th August, 1854. The thief was afterwards captured and convicted. The 
brasses had been broken to pieces, but thanks to Mr. Superintendent Deakins and 
his police, every piece has been recovered — some being found at Atherstone, some at 
Nuneaton, Bedworth, Hinckley, and on the road near High Cross ; the result being 
that both the brasses as perfect as when they were stolen (except the fractures) were 
exhibited in the Museum. It is due to Mr. Deakins that all interested in such 
matters should know the care and pains he took in the matter. T. N. 



BRASSES OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 



69 



have been speaking were Edward I., Edward II., Edward III., 
. and Richard II. During their reigns the advance of the people in 
all the arts of life was very great indeed. The great social union 
between the Norman and the Saxon races, fusing them into one 
people, had taken place, and now an England quite different from 
the England of a former age was to appear on the world's theatre, 
and in deeds of arms, and in the more glorious arts of peace, to 
excite the emulation of future ages. The national character in 
feelings and manners was now torined. Law became a science, 
and has left in its statutes so permanent and durable an impression, 
that the first king of the century is well compared to the Emperor 
Justinian. Again at this period, John Wycliffe, Rector of Lutter- 

1 worth, translated the Bible into English, aud it is remarkable 
how easy to be understood is his language after the lapse of time, 
his undying work may be entirely comprehended by any educated 
person ; it, at the Reformation, formed the basis of the different 
translations of the Bible current, and therefore of the authorized 
version now in use. Thus the statutes and the language of the 
fourteenth century still influence us, and prove a permanent bond 

\ of union between us and our forefathers five hundred years ago. 

I Nor should the deeds of arms of this time be passed over; the 
spirit of Orecy and of Poictiers has never ceased to animate 
Englishmen. The feudal system, which in the fourteenth century, 
to a considerable extent prevailed, has indeed long passed away, 
yet not, the chivalrous feeling which led to victory, and enabled 
Englishmen to triumph over very great odds. The deeds of arms 

i under Lord Clyde, in India, prove the race to be undeteriorated, 
and that if occasion again occur, the descendants of the conquerors 
of Crecy would show themselves the same breed of men. 

Consider, then, that you see on the walls of this Hall figures of 
those who lived in our land, to whom it was very dear — if my 
description is imperfect, " eke out our performance with your 
mind" — remember that these brasses are representations executed, 
generally, long before the death of the person, and were subjected 

j to contemporary criticism so as to ensure correctness. 

For facility of description I will divide the brasses into those of 

I knights, of ladies, of merchants, and of ecclesiastics. Begin with 

J knights firstly, because they are the earliest specimens of brasses 
now remaining ; the very first is, indeed, only some twenty years 

* before a d. 1300. I call you to mark it well — the figure of Sir 
John D'Aubernon, from Stoke D'Aubernon Church: then next it 
that of Sir Roger de Trumpington, a.d. 1289, from Trumpington 
Church, Cambridgeshire, and on the opposite side of the room Sir 
Robert de Septvans, from Chatham, Kent — these two last are cross- 

I legged. They were both connected with the crusade. 

Mr. Woodcock proceeded to describe the other illustrations of 
knights suspended on the walls, showing the change in the style 



70 



LK\C ESTEKS 1 1 1 HE MICA 1 IT ECT U UAL SOCJ ETY. 



and fashion of their armour during the century, fully describing its 
various parts, uses, and ornamentation. I now come (he con- 
tinued) to the brasses of ladies :— 

Unfortunately there are very few existing to show the female 
costume in the first half of the century. You see before you Lady 
Alyne de Creke, a.d. 1325, Westley Waterless, Cambridgeshire, 
wife of Sir John de Creke. The dress of the period may be 
stated thus: — The hair was parted on the forehead, and confined 
at each side of the face, usually in plaits; a wimple covered the 
neck, and was drawn up over the chin, and generally fastened 
across the forehead, which was encircled with a fillet, ornamented 
with jewels. Over the head a veil was thrown, which fell over the 
shoulders. The under dress was a kirtie, over this a gown, 
above all, sometimes, as in this instance, a mantle fastened in 
front of the shoulders, by means of a cord. The two wives 
of Robert Braunch, from S. Margaret's Church, King's Lynn, 
Norfolk, exhibit the female costume at a later period in the 
century, and enable you to judge of the magnificence of the dress 
of the time. These ladies wear wimples and veil, as before de- 
scribed; long flowing robes, lined with fur, gathered up under one 
arm, with tight sleeves, reaching to the elbows, and hanging down 
from thence in lappets ; an underdress, beautifully embroidered 
with scroll work and birds, is visible at their feet, and its tight 
sleeves appear beneath those of the upper robe. Maud de Cobham, 
from Cobham Church, Kent, a.d. 1330, is a specimen still, later in 
the century, and exhibits the singular coiffine, the reticulated head- 
dress, which is a marked characteristic of this time. The other 
portions of the dress of ladies underwent less change. The kirtie 
had close sleeves reaching usually to the knuckles, and buttoned 
underneath as far as the elbow, and sometimes to the shoulder. 

As for the brasses of merchants, we have only one to exhibit; 
but it is on the whole the most magnificent specimen of the brasses 
which still remain in England. I refer to the large one of Robert 
Braunch, and his two wives, a.d. 1364, this you observe placed on 
the w 7 all on my left hand. It measures nine feet by five feet. 

In the tabernacle, over each figure, are five niches ; in the centre 
one, the Deity is represented with the soul of the deceased on the 
lap; and in the others four angels — each shaft of the canopy con- 
tains four male and female figures, in varied costume. At the 
lower part of the brass is a representation of the " Peacock feast." 
At the table sit nine men and three women. The first figure is 
made prominent by a more ornamented cap, and by having in front 
of him a man kneeling on one knee, and placing before him a 
peacock in a dish. On the table are viands of different sorts, 
drinking vessels, etc., etc. Standing at the ends of the table are 
musicians playing on the violin, the guitar, and others blowing 
trumpets. 1 would remind you that Lynn, in early times, was a 



THE EVENING MEETING. 



7 5 



much more important place than at present; being, in the four- 
teenth century, a principal emporium for wool, then the great 
staple of the kingdom. Mr. Boutell, in his " Monumental Brasses 
of England," maintains the principal figure in the Peacock feast 
to be King Edward himself. Jf so, Robert Braunch commemorated 
an important event in his life — the entertaining the King in his 
mayoralty, which was in 1349 or 1359. 

The dress of this great civilian, is a close fitting tunic, reaching 
below the knees, with pockets in front ; with tight sleeves reaching 
to the elbows, and there hanging down in long lappets ; the legs are 
clothed in tight hose ; and the feet in shoes laced at the sides. 

The reverend gentleman then referred to brasses representing 
ecclesiastics, many beautiful rubbings of w r hich adorned the walls 
of the hall, showing Bishops, Abbots, and Priests in the varied vest- 
ments of their orders. He described these in a clear, brief, and 
scholarly manner, and finished his interesting and instructive ad- 
dress by claiming for this part of archaelogical science the attention 
of all present, showing the ease with which it may be followed, and 
the great help it is in the elucidation of the, at least, personal appear- 
ance of the people of the past. 

At the close of Mr. Woodcock's paper Mr. Bloxam described 
many of the Anglo-Saxon and Roman antiquities from the Watling 
Street, brought by himself, Mr. Marriott, and other gentlemen for 
exhibition ; he also called attention to a probably unique copy in 
two volumes, of the first edition of that favourite boy's book, 
Robinson Crusoe, printed in 1719. In the British Museum may 
be seen one volume of this edition, preserved under a glass case. 
The Rev. Canon James followed by calling attention in a brief 
and elementary manner to the many architectural and archaeological 
objects of interest in the room, pointing out especially the interest- 
ing relics and works of art forwarded for exhibition from Newnham 
Paddox, by the Earl of Denbigh, and the very beautiful specimens 
of ecclesiastical decorations drawn and coloured by Mr. J. C. Lea, 
of Lutterworth, which from the happy combination of colour and 
form called forth many expressions of hearty admiration. 

At half-past five the members and friends of the society dined 
in the large room of the Denbigh Arms Hotel, the Rev. J. P. 
Marriott, the President of the meeting, in the chair. The Rev. 
J. O. Stuart occupied the vice-chair. After grace was said, and 
the Queen's health drunk, the company returned to the Town Hall 
to take part in 

THE EVENING MEETING. 

This was advertised to be open at half-past seven o'clock ; at that 
hour the room was crowded by a very numerous assembly, com- 
prising a goodly number of ladies. Very many were disappointed 
in consequence of being unable to obtain admittance. 



n 



I , K I ( ' KST K IIS f l 1 RE A LlC H LTECT U RAL SOCIETY. 



The President (the Rev. J. P. Marriott, of Cottesbach), in 
opening the meeting spoke of the great pleasure it gave him as a 
looker on, as a resident in the neighbourhood, and as a member of 
the Society, to preside over its meeting that evening. After 
making some remarks upon the objects and working of the Society, 
he remarked, that speaking of its architectural department, he 
observed from the drawings exhibited that the attention of its 
members was directed almost exclusively to ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, he ventured to hope that domestic architecture would receive 
more of their attention, more especially cottage architecture : he 
had himself erected cottages on his own property, the plans for 
which he would liked to have submitted to the Society, and to have 
profited by the suggestions and advice he would then have gained. 
He also alluded to the large and interesting collection of drawings, 
articles of antiquity, and general interest brought together, and 
which the present meeting had been the means of bringing out, 
and to the papers then about to be read. The Chairman then 
called upon Mr. M. H. Bloxam, F.S.A., to read his Paper on 

LUTTERWORTH CHURCH AND THE WYCLIFFE 

RELICS, 

which he proceeded to do as follows : 

In that trite and well known passage of the Roman philosopher, 
the Movemur nescio quo pacto, &c, where he treats of the inde- 
scribable emotions of the mind in those localities, endeared to us 
by the remembrance of celebrated men, we feel the force of his 
remarks. We muse in silent contemplation of those of other days, 
on whom our admiration is fixed. We gaze, not without emotion, 
on any relic of the past connected with them. The spots where 
they dwelt, where they laboured, their last resting places, we 
regard with more than the natural eye. We make pilgrimages to 
many places simply from the associations attached to them, and in 
these days of rapid locomotion, we pass hurriedly by, yet within 
sight of others we cannot stop to examine. 

I cannot readily forget the first time I passed by Corbie, a small 
town near the railway on the road from Amiens to Dooai, how I 
looked out, first on one side, then on the other, for a glimpse of 
the towers of the church — how at last between the trees and across 
the glade 1 caught a momentary glance of the object I was looking- 
for, and then all disappeared from sight. 

A few years afterwards I made my pilgrimage thither. No 
stately buildings drew my attention ; for of the once great and 
celebrated Benedictine Abbey, founded at this place, a small por- 
tion only of the Church remains. The Conventual buildings, with 



LUTTERWORTH CHURCH AND WYCLIFFE RELICS. 



73 



scarcely an exception, had been destroyed: some portion imme- 
j diately antecedent to my visit. It was then the associations of the 
place which carried me there. The remembrance of two of old 
time, Paschasius Radbertus, who raised or originated the great 
religious controversy of the ninth century, and whose opinions 
were opposed by Bertramus, perhaps better known to us as 
Bertram the Priest, both monks at the same time of this once 
famous and royal Abbey of Corbie. 

Would the ruins or site of the ancient Abbey of Cisteaux in 
France, connected in our minds with S. Bernard, the great reformer 
of monastic discipline in the twelfth century, and the great re- 
ligious writer of his age, be by us passed by unheeded and 5 un- 
noticed? 

Does not Salisbury call to our remembrance Jewell, the author 
of " The Apology" and of " The Defence of the Apology of the 
Church of England ;" Louvain in Belgium of his great opponent 
Harding, and at a later period, of Jansenius ; Bishopsbourne in 
Kent, of Hooker, whose "animated bust," his "vera effigies," 
I graces the wall of that hallowed church, in which the remains of 
him, not to be forgotten, are buried ? In memoria eterna erit 
justus. 

But to go no further than your own county. Do we not connect 
Thurcaston with Latimer ; Ibstock with Laud ; Drayton w 7 ith 

| George Fox ; and last, not least, Lutterworth with WyclifTe ? 

We indeed find in this town no ancient remains of domestic 

\ architecture of the fourteenth century, not even of the hospital 
founded in the reign of King John, to carry us back to the time of 
Wycliffe, who, born as is said in 1324, was incumbent of this 
parish during the last ten years of his life, from 1374 to 1384, 
during the latter part of the reign of Edward III., and early part 
of that of Richard II. Wycliffe died at this place and was here 
buried. 

The Church of Lutterworth is, then, the only structure now re- 
| maining coeval with his time. Whatever may have been the 
structure of the original church at Lutterworth — one, I think, of 
not very high antiquity ; but architectural fragments of which, in 
all probability, lie concealed in the foundations of the present 
\ w 7 alls — it is enough for us to know, from an examination of its 
present architectural features, that the shell of the present 
; structure, at least of the tower, nave, and aisles were built in the 
I fourteenth century, during the life, but before the incumbency of 
Wycliffe, and probably some time between the years 1330 and 
1360. The tower, with a belfry staircase projecting at the north- 
west angle, which has been on the exterior much disfigured by 
compo, had formerly a lofty spire, destroyed by tempest in 1703. 
The upper stage of the tower was rebuilt in the tasteless pseudo- 
Gothic style of the early part of the eighteenth century. The nave 



74 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



is divided from the aisles on each side by a range of four double- 
faced pointed arches, with chamfered edges and hood-mouldings 
over, which latter give great relief. These arches spring from plain 
octagonal piers, with moulded caps. The south wall of the south 
aisle contains five windows, three of them of two lights, each with 
flowery tracery in the head ; the other two of two lights each with 
rich flowery tracery in the head of one, whilst the mullions of the 
other simply cross in the head. All these windows have hood- 
mouldings over, without which they would look bare of relief. The 
south porch is modern. At the south-east corner of this aisle is a 
diagonal buttress containing a niche for an image. The east 
window of this aisle is a somewhat rich specimen of a decorated 
window containing four principal lights, and flowing foiled tracery 
in the head. The east window of this aisle is of the same period. 

The north aisle contains in the north wall three windows of two 
lights each, with tracery in the head and hood-mouldings, over a 
plain pointed doorway with a hood-moulding over, of the fourteenth 
century, a west window of the same period, and a well-designed 
east window of three lights, with flowing tracery in the head. 
These are all the architectural features I can confidently pronounce 
to be anterior to the age of Wycliffe, and in existence during his 
incumbency. For the age of the chancel is somewhat doubtful, 
whether it be of, or subsequent to, Wycliffe's time. The little 
circular trefoiled headed doorway in the south aisle was, I think, in 
existence during his incumbency. Of the windows I am not sure ; 
from the disposition and angular character of the tracery, differing 
from the flowing lines of an earlier period, I should assign these 
features to the early part of the fifteenth century, which would be 
subsequent to the age of Wycliffe. 

The east window has been very injudiciously blocked up. But the 
five principal vertical lights were subdivided by panel work. This 
window has a hood moulding over, and above this is a stone es- 
cutcheon, or shield bearing the arms of Ferrers, Gules, seven 
mascles voided, or. On either side of the chancel door is a 
window with three principal lights with angular tracery in the head. 
In the north wall of the chancel are windows similar to those in 
the south wall, and in the north wall of the north aisle, near the 
east end, over a sepulchral recess, the masonry of which projects 
externally, is a window with tracery similar to that of the windows 
in the chancel ; by which 1 should imagine that the chancel was 
built by the person whose recumbent effigy, with that of his lady, 
lies within this sepulchral recess, on a high tomb in the north 
aisle. 

And now, as to the interior of the church. The original high 
pitched roof of the nave appears to have been removed in the 
fifteenth century, the walls on which it rested carried up, and the 
clerestory windows, five on each side, obtusely arched, of three 



LUTTERWORTH CHURCH AND WYCLIFFE RELICS. 



75 



lights each, and cinquefoiled in the heads, added. The present roof 
of the nave, of a more obtuse or depressed pitch than the original 
roof, is a good specimen of the wooden roof of the fifteenth 
century, and now constitutes one of the most interesting architec- 
tural features in the church. 

It is divided into five bays by tie-beams, supported by upright 
wall pieces, from which spring curved braces, the spandrills be- 
tween which and the tie-beams are filled with open panel work, 
whilst a kind of embattled crest runs along the upper edge of the 
tie-beam. Between the tie-beams each bay is subdivided by 
moulded purlins and common rafters also moulded. 

The chancel arch is of the fifteenth century, and the piers or 
responds from which the arch springs, as also the soffit of the arch, 
are panelled — an unusual architectural feature in this part of the 
country, though common enough in Somersetshire, and some other 
of the south-western counties. 

The chancel roof is plain and depressed, and was probably 
constructed in the latter part of the fifteenth or early in the six- 
teenth century. It is divided into three bays with moulded wall- 
plates, purlins, and rafters. 

Of the present internal fittings of the church and their ar- 
rangement, it is impossible to speak in any — the slightest — terms 
of commendation. 

The simple yet graceful and ornate architectural features, which 
the fittings of Wycliffe's and of the succeeding age presented, 
appear about a century ago to have been ruthlessly swept away, 
and the present tasteless and miserable arrangement of boxes or 
pews made, as Fuller quaintly says, " high and easy for folk to sit 
or sleep in," and "worthy of reformation," was adopted. For 
"the church was beautified in 17b'l with a costly pavement of 
chequered stone, new pews of oak, and everything else new, both 
in church and chancel, except the pulpit." 

The pulpit was removed from its ancient and appropriate posi- 
tion in the north aisle about a quarter of a century ago, and set up 
in the centre of the nave, with clerk's desk and reading pew 
massed together like a huge graduated excrescence. At the same 
time, I suppose, the galleries were constructed. With these altera- 
tions the church has been knocked about, and is now in a state of 
semi-dilapidation, whilst the west end of the church has been 
parted off for vestries and receptacles for rubbish, the walls of the 
chancel panelled round, in 1761, where they should not have been, 
hiding most probably features of architectural interest, perhaps the 
very stone seat or sedile occupied by Wycliffe. What a slur upon 
his memory ! 

The proper restoration of this church is simply a work of time 
whether it be effected in the present or next generation. Wycliffe 
in his age as a Church Reformer led the van. Will you, in this 



76 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



age of church restoration, be content to follow in the wake ? The 
high pews and galleries will come down, and the pulpit be removed 
from its present unsightly position. We have but to walk across 
the fields to Misterton, barely a mile distant, to see the effects of 
such a change. Compare the two churches together: "Look here 
upon this picture and on this." 

I must now draw your attention to the monument or high tomb, 
in the recess in the north wall of the north aisle near the east end, 
with the two recumbent effigies thereon. The tomb itself is hid 
from sight by one of those unseemly high pews I have described. 
It is, however, engraved in outline in Nichols' Leicestershire, and, 
as far as I can judge from the representation there given, is a 
monument of about the middle of the fifteenth century, It certainly 
is not the monument of William Feilding and Jane Prudhomme 
his wife, to whom Nichols assigns it, for he flourished in the reign 
of Edward III., though I find he was alive in the early part of the 
reign of Richard II., a.d. 1380. Of whom it is the monument is 
yet matter of conjecture. There are, however, two families, to one 
of whom this monument is likely to belong, namely, to one of the 
Feilding family, Sir John Feilding, Knight, son of William 
Feilding and Jane Prudhomme, and who married Margaret 
Purefoy. I know not when they died or where they were buried, 
but as they were the father and mother of Sir William Feilding, 
Knight, who was slain at the battle of Tewkesbury, in 1470, and 
was there buried, they probably died about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, with which date the monument would agree. 

Or it might be a monument of one of the Ferrers' family, 
anciently lords of this manor, and patrons of the Advowson of the 
church ; and if so, I should assign it to Sir William Ferrers of Groby, 
who in 1414 obtained a grant of a market and fair to Lutterworth, 
and who died in 1444, and to his lady. To this worthy knight 
and benefactor to Lutterworth I would ascribe the rebuilding of 
the chancel early in the fifteenth century, as the arms of Ferrers 
over the east window of the chancel would imply, probably at or 
about the same period as the grant of the market and fair was ob- 
tained, and as the window over this monument is an insertion made 
when the chancel was rebuilt, and in the style of the windows of 
the chancel, such fact is in favour of the assumption that this was 
the tomb of a Ferrers. Yet it is in what is called the Feilding 
aisle, and the claims of both families are in my mind conflicting. 
Perhaps some one, more interested in, and connected with Lutter- 
worth than I am, may work out this interesting problem. 

The effigies on this tomb are of alabaster, and represent an 
esquire or knight, for there is no distinctive mark of cognizance 
between them, and his lady. He appears bareheaded, with short- 
cropped hair, and face close shaven, attired in a long gown or coat, 
belted round the waist and buckled in front. The sleeves of the 



LUTTERWORTH CHURCH AND WYCLIFFE RELICS. 



77 



gown are wide and loose, and it appears to be worn over armour, 
• of which the vambraces, coverings for the lower arm, and coudes 
or elbow plates, and broad or square-toed sollerets, with which the 
feet are covered, are visible. The hands are bare and conjoined 
on the breast in attitude of prayer, and the feet rest against some 
animal, now much mutilated. The head reposes on a double 
cushion supported by angels, the heads of which have been 
destroyed. There is a peculiarity about this effigy I have not met 
with in any other ; that is, it appears to have over the defensive 
armour not a surcoat, or a byclas, or a jupon, or a tabard, but the 
civilian or layman's gown or coat of the period I suppose it to be, 
namely, of about the middle of the fifteenth century. 

The lady is represented cumbent on the left of her husband, 
clad in a long loose gown, with a mantle over, fastened across the 
breast by a cordon with pendant tassels, the cordon being affixed 
on either side to a lozenge shaped fanail. The sleeves of the gow n 
are full, but drawn up and cuffed at the wrists ; the veiled head- 
dress is worn, and the head reposes on a double cushion supported 

j by angels. The period to which this monument may be fairly 
assigned is some time in the first half of the fifteenth century. The 
costume of both effigies may be fairly ascribed to that period. 

There have been and are some monumental brasses in the 
church. Most of them have disappeared, but none of them appear 

| to have been of earlier date than the fifteenth century. 

Much painted glass formerly existed in this church, especially 

j in shields, containing the armorial bearings of theFeildings, Ferrers 
and others. At present not a single fragment of these ancient 
memorials of benefactors to this church is to be found ; all have 

I been ruthlessly swept away. 

This church contains a variety of articles, which, for years past, 
I know not how many, have been regarded as relics of Wycliffe. 
These are — the pulpit in which he is said to have preached, his 
arm chair, his table, his altar candlesticks, a portion of his gow 7 n, 
and his portrait — a copy of that in the possession of the Earl of 
Denbigh, painted by a Mr. Feilding, and presented by him to the 
parish, in 1786. The original of this portrait is, by the kind per- 
mission of that noble earl, with other interesting portraits from his 

I valuable collection, and for which we ought and must all feel deeply 
indebted to him, now in your local museum. 

Now this is a critical age, and we naturally inquire whether these 

i relics are genuine ? Is a single one of them of YVycliffe's era? I 
should have been deeply pleased could I have met with a single 
article which I could ascribe to his age ; but with the exception of 

j the shell of the tower, substructure of the nave, and aisles, T can 
find no single article of furniture or fittings of his time. To take 
them seriatim, the chair and table are so palpably articles of furni- 
ture of the seventeenth century, that the veriest tyro in arcluvo- 



78 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY, 



logical lore would never think of assigning them an earlier period. 
Not so the pulpit ; but is this of Wycliffe's age ? Certainly not. 
When the chancel was rebuilt in the early part of the fifteenth 
century, or when in that century the clerestory was added to the 
nave, and the present roof placed thereon, the church was seated 
with open benches, probably like those in Misterton Church, or in 
Claybrook Church. The chancel screen, rich and costly, was at 
that time constructed, as was also the pulpit. 

Fragments of the chancel screen, or what I presume to have 
been such, are worked up at the back of the organ loft, nearly 
hidden from view. The architectural details of this screen, as well 
as of the pulpit, are clearly those of the fifteenth century. In fact 
I do not know a single church in the kingdom which contains an 
original wooden pulpit of the fourteenth century, as this has been 
supposed to be, and the few stone pulpits we have of that age, or 
earlier, exist in the yet remaining or ruined refectories of con- 
ventual foundations. 

The sounding board to the pulpit, now in the vestry, is an addi- 
tion of the seventeenth century, about two hundred years old. 

Then as to the very curious fluted altar candlesticks of wood 
and gilt — both rare and curious they are— but not of the age of 
Wycliffe, for they are a pair of altar candlesticks of the early part 
of the seventeenth century, or time of Charles the First. At the 
Reformation, when lights were generally abolished from our 
churches, the two on the communion table or high altar, as it was 
called, were retained for the express signification that Christ is the 
very true light of the world ; and these continued till the Puritan 
Party in the House of Commons, in 1643, passed an ordinance 
for the removal of altar candlesticks from our churches. In the 
general destruction these appear to have escaped, and as historical 
relics I hope they may long continue to be taken care of. If not 
unique, they are the only pair of wooden candlesticks of that 
period I have found remaining. 

Then there is a portion of a vestment, kept with such great care 
and reverence in a glass case, never to be opened, and like the 
blood of S. Januarius, to be looked at but not examined. For we 
judge of it under great disadvantages from its partial concealment. 
Now if this fragment is that of a vestment, there were only two 
vestments, or service habits of the Church of Rome, to which it 
could belong, viz., the cope and the chasuble. The latter would be 
the vestment worn by Wycliffe every time he officiated as priest at 
the celebration of the Eucharistic Office, the former only in choral 
services and in processions. Now the cope had sometimes orphreys 
down the sides in front, in which figures of saints were sometimes 
worked ; but not those of angels ; and I never knew an instance 
of a chasuble worked as this fragment is. My own opinion, and I 
cannot sufficiently examine the fragment to be positive is, that it is 




fr WYCLIFFE RELICS^ 
One Candlestick ami Table. 




WYCLIFFE RELICS. 



f 



LUTTERWORTH CHURCH AND WYCLIFFE RELICS. 



79 



the portion of an altar frontal of the fifteenth century, some of 
Which are still preserved in our churches, the angel being repre- 
sented as it would have been in the preceding century, or time of 
Wycliffe. Having thus expressed my opinion, formed under a 
very partial examination, I am content to leave this point for the 
future criticisms of others. 

Lastly, as to the portrait. Is that not of Wycliffe, that vener- 
able bearded old man ? Alas ! I am afraid t must attempt to 
dissipate all preconceived and cherished notions which have long 
prevailed respecting it. 

Wycliffe, as a priest of the church before the Reformation, was 
required by the discipline of the church to be close shaven, both 
as to his chin and his cheeks, and if you examine the brasses and 
sculptured monumental effigies of the fourteenth century, of priests 
in this country, which are numerous, you will not find one repre- 
sented in the manner portrayed by this portrait. Again, the cap, 
the costume, the gown, the ruff, encircling the wrist, as represented 
in this portrait, are, together w 7 ith the long beard, semblances of 
the costume and appearance of one of the Reformers of the six- 
teenth century, when the fashion of letting the beard grow among 
the reformed clergy crept in. This painting is clearly of that 
period, and the date of it I should fix as somewhere between 1540 
and 1570. As to its being a realistic portrait of Wycliffe, or of 
his age, it certainly is not. It may be an ideal portrait of him in 
the costume and appearance prevalent in an age at least a century 
and a half after his death. There is, or was, forty years ago, a 
portrait somewhat similar to this in the collection of the then Duke 
of Dorset, at Knole, in Kent, bearing also the name of Wycliffe. 
Whether it remains there still I know not. 

Now I can show you a much more realistic portrait, as to costume 
and general appearance, than that this painting represents. It 
exhibits a priest of Wycliffe's time vested for the service of the 
church, namely, in the alb, stole, maniple, and chasuble. When 
not so vested his ordinary clerical habit would have been a long 
cassock, or coat, the toga talaris with a hood, the caputium, 
attached to it, and hanging down behind. 

Is there then no relic of Wycliffe's time ? Yes, there was one 
disposed of lately in London, and I could have wished it had been 
secured for the Church of Lutterworth. Why we reverence the 
memory of Wycliffe is not so much on account of his theological 
opinions, on many of which grave differences might arise, but from 
his translation of the Holy Scriptures, or at least portions of them, 
into the vernacular, the language of Chaucer and of the author of 
Piers Plowman. 

Now in the late sad dispersion, which ought never to have taken 
place, of the library of Archbishop Tennison, on the first of July 
last, amongst the MSS. was one of the fourteenth century, con- 



80 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



taining portions of certain books of the Old Testament translated 
by John Wycliffe, whether in his monograph, which 1 think not 
unlikely, or simply a transcript made in his time, I cannot say. It 
was a small folio volume, and, though fragmental, was purchased 
in public competition by a well-known London bookseller, Mr. 
Lilly, for £150. 

I have now trespassed upon your patience more than I ought to 
have done, and my remarks may not have been so palatable as I 
could have wished : but it is the province of the antiquary " to 
search out truth," whether " in academic groves," or amid objects 
of long cherished interest presented to his notice. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Bloxam's paper, the chairman invited 
discussion upon its contents There was an apparent reluctance 
on the part of some of the audience to give up their long-cherished 
faith in the "Relics" of Wycliffe, yet no champion appeared to 
take up the glove thrown down by the learned lecturer; one gentle- 
man, however, created much amusement, by enquiring whether, 
after demolishing all they had for so long connected with Wycliffe, 
Mr. Bloxam would kindly inform him whether in his opinion the 
Reformer had ever existed, or had been in Lutterworth ? 

Mr. Bloxam replied he believed Wycliffe's name would be found 
on the episcopal register of the period as priest of Lutterworth. 

The President then requested the Rev. Canon James to read 
his paper upon 

THE BATTLE OF NASEBY. 

A large plan of the ground, and of the position of the troops on 
both sides, was suspended behind the reverend gentleman to illus- 
trate his paper. He proceeded at length to describe the progress 
of the battle in a lucid, popular, and interesting address, inter- 
mingling what he read with extemporaneous explanations, and was 
listened to with great and unbroken interest to the conclusion. All 
the spots identified with the incidents of the battle were mentioned, 
the associations connected with them detailed, and the lesson to 
be derived from a contemplation of the causes and the effects of 
the great struggle then carried on, were pointed out with much 
force and perspicuity. 

The Rev. H. K. Richardson proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Bloxam and Canon James for the reading of their papers. The 
depth of thought and amount of learning required in the produc- 
tion of these papers, he said, was not to be conceived, except by 
any person who had been engaged in similar labour. He felt 
reluctance to admit that the relics said to be those of Wycliffe 
were not genuine, but to use an ancient axiom — the truth must 
prevail. Mr. Richardson, after further observations, concluded by 
proposing the resolution. 



THE EXCUESION. 



Si 



Mr. James Thompson said with regard to the portraits with 
. the beard, it was evident that there was only a "hair's breadth" of 
difference between Mr. Bloxam and himself, but he feared that was 
fatal to the genuineness of the portraits. He had been alike 
interested and mortified ; for he had felt himself deprived of all 
his cherished beliefs in the Wycliffe relics, one by one, and came 
to the conclusion that he had not a leg to stand upon. But he felt 
that there was a higher pleasure in obtaining the truth; and 
archaeology was here of essential service in correcting mistakes 
and in even setting the historian right. After adverting to the 
variety, value, and interest of the articles laid on the tables, and 
the rubbings and drawings fixed on the walls, Mr. Thompson said 
he most cordially seconded the vote of thanks to the gentlemen 
who bad favoured them with two very interesting and instructive 
papers. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill then proposed, and the Rev. J. M. Lakin 
seconded, a vote of thanks to the Chairman ; which that gentleman 
acknowledged. 

Mr. North (Secretary), said it was always desirable upon occa- 
sions like that to avoid the scattering about of too many compli- 
ments, but they must not disperse without allowing him in the 
name of the Society to thank the chairman and the good people of 
Lutterworth and its neighbourhood for their very hearty welcome, 
■ and the hospitable reception they had given to the Society, upon 
that its first visit to their town. The museum collected within 
those walls was one of great interest and value, and reflected the 
highest credit upon all concerned in its formation ; its inspection 
had afforded the greatest pleasure to the numerous visitors. It 
had been the Society's good fortune to add several names to their 
list of members that day, and he trusted that upon their second 
visit to Lutterworth, which he hoped was not very distant, they 
would be again welcomed by the very many who had shown them- 
selves to be their friends, but who would ere then have become 
members of the Society. 

The meeting broke up about ten o'clock. 



THE EXCURSION. 

At ten o'clock the following morning two coaches, with four horses 
in each, and several other vehicles were at the door of the Denbigh 
Arms Hotel, to convey the members and their friends to the various 
places named in the published time and excursion table of the 
Society. The quiet town of Lutterworth was all alert, and the 
sight of these reminders of the days when railways were unknown, 
and the coachman and guard were in all their glory of scarlet coat 

g Vol, II. 



82 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



and ringing horn, coupled with a glorious sun overhead, and a 
breeze fresh and invigorating, prepared all for the enjoyment of a 
day, the successful carrying out of the programme of which depended 
entirely upon that most fickle of all mistresses, the weather. That, 1 
however, was most propitious, and as the large party, numbering 
between sixty and seventy ladies and gentlemen, crossed the river 
Swift, on their way to Cave's Inn — the Roman Tripontium — many j 
were the congratulations upon that most important, and always 
much talked of, subject. j 
Upon the arrival of the party at 

CAVE'S INN, 

Mr. Bloxam remarked that he differed from many most able 
authorities in his opinion as to the ancient Roman station, Tri- 
pontium ; he believed, for reasons which he was not then prepared 1 
to enter into, even did time permit, that Cave's Inn was the site of 
that station, and not, as was generally thought, Lilbourne. He j 
might shortly through the public press, give the reasons which he 
thought strong enough in warranting him in coming to that con- 1 
elusion. I 

LILBOURNE 

' f 

was the next halting place named in the time table ; after a hasty 
inspection of the church, Mr. Bloxam led the way to the high j 
mounds of earth close by, which he stated had generally been 
supposed to be in some way connected with the Roman station, 
Tripontium ; indeed, Stukely, Burton, and others had stated Lil- 
bourne to be the locality of that station, but Mr. Bloxam, as just j 
stated, hopes to show that Cave's Inn is the real site. The mounds 
close by the church, he stated to be marks' not of British or Roman | 
occupation, but the proofs of the existence of a mediaeval castle. 
The word Tripontium he stated to be a compound word, partly 
British and partly Latin, signifying the Town by the Bridge. 
A drive of three miles brought the excursionists to 

STANFORD CHURCH, 

where they were welcomed by the venerable rector, who had 
hospitably provided wine, &c, for those who would avail themselves 
of his invitation. All were much pleased too, to meet the Rev. Gr. j 
A. Poole, of Welford, who gave much valuable information respect- 
ing the church, and the very beautiful and interesting stained glass > 
therein preserved. The following is an abstract of his remarks : — 
The history of the Church of S. Nicholas, Stanford, is extremely 
simple ; for the whole is of one style, and so nearly of the same 



THE EXCURSION. 



character, that it would be difficult, merely from architectural 
characteristics, to say which are the earliest portions. Moreover, 
at the time to which the church must be referred (that is the first 
half, or to speak more exactly, the second quarter of the fourteenth 
century), this lordship, as well as the advowson of Stanford, was in 
the possession of the Abbey of Selby : so that we are not led to 
look for indications that any particular portions of the church are 
to be assigned to any person out of the abbey. There is, however, 
a tomb with a recumbent figure, under a recessed arch in the south 
aisle, which probably indicates the resting place of the founder of 
a chantry in that aisle. There is nothing elsewhere to lead to a 
doubt that the abbey was at the whole charges of the erection of 
the church. But, however this may be, it is certainly one of the 
most pleasing examples of the decorated style, without being 
remarkably rich, that w 7 e have in the neighbourhood. The interior 
is especially good in effect, chiefly perhaps from the slenderness of 
the piers, which are without capitals, the chamfers of the arches 
being continuous from the point of the arches to the ground: a 
character particularly adopted in the succeeding or perpendicular 
style. The font is coeval with the church. The miserable reredos 
shutting out half of the east window, and the fittings in the chancel 
generally, ought to be destroyed. The rood-screen, and a little 
piece of screen-work across the tower arch, were brought, not 
many years ago, from Lutterw T orth. The pulpit cloth is of crimson 
velvet, richly embroidered with white silk, and has a curious history. 
It was worked by Lady Rowe, and presented to this church in 
thankful commemoration of the escape of herself and her husband, 
Sir Thomas Rowe, from a storm at sea, on their return from Turkey, 
from whence they precipitately fled to avoid the Sultan's advances 
to Lady Rowe. The monuments consist of a very perfect series 
commemorative of the Caves, from Sir Thomas, who purchased the 
lordship and advowson off Henry VIII. at the suppression of 
abbeys, to the late Otway Cave, Esq., M.P., son of Lady Braye, 
the present owner. But by far the most interesting object in the 
church is the painted glass, the greater part of it coeval with the 
fabric, but presenting specimens in Perpendicular also, and Cinque- 
cento with a number of armorial devices, down to a comparatively 
recent date. Of the decorated or original glass the most ancient 
is that in the head of the east window, which is assigned to the 
reign of Edward II., or the beginning of the next reign, by the 
several shields of arms. There are, 1. England, with a label, 
probably for Edward III. when Prince of Wales. 2. France, and 
8. England; France and England being both borne by the King 
of England. 4. England, with a label for Thomas of Brotherton, 
Earl of Norfolk, half-brother of Edward II. Beneath this are 5. 
the arms of Wake, for Thomas, Lord Wake. 6. Warren, probably 
for Plantagenet, Earl of Surrey. 7. Bohun, Earl of Hereford. 



84 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Next in order of date are the figures in the north and south 
chancel windows. The decorated glass in the heads of the aisle 
windows follow, being all from 1340 to 1360. The upper parts of 
the east window of each aisle are especially beautiful, but the two 
lower figures in each window are not of the same date, being 
probably from the east window of the chancel, the lower part of 
which is now destroyed. 

The Perpendicular glass, which is of the early part of the 
fifteenth century, is scattered throughout the windows of the nave 
aisles. It is not of singular merit. In the east chancel window is 
a large quantity of Cinque-cento glass, appropriated by the arms 
of the Caves, who have held the property since the time of Henry 
VEIL To the Cave family belong all, or almost all, the coats 
which appear in great profusion in the aisle windows. 

This glass has been minutely described by Mr. Winston in that 
number of the churches of Northamponshire, published by the 
Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, to 
which the student of the history of glass painting may be referred 
for a fuller account. A copy of this description kept in the church 
would be a great boon to the wandering ecclesiologist. 

Upon arriving at 

SIBBERTOFT, 

the company quickly assembled in the school-room — courteously 
placed at the disposal of the Committee by the Rev. the vicar, and 
the Rev. Dolben Paul, to partake of a good substantial cold 
luncheon there prepared for them. The room was tastefully deco- 
rated with flags, &c, and the whole arrangements, after a ride in 
the open air for four hours, appeared to give general satisfaction. 

After grace was said, and the company had received a kind 
invitation from Canon James, to refresh themselves with tea at the 
vicarage upon their arrival at Theddingworth, they walked to 

NASEBY FIELD, 

headed by that gentleman. They halted upon the high ground 
above Broadmore — where the fiercest conflict took place — having 
the ground occupied by the Parliamentarians before them, and 
Naseby Church upon the boundary line. The Rev. Canon James 
having mounted one of the carnages, proceeded to give a summary 
of the address he had delivered the previous evening, the interest 
attaching to which was considerably enhanced by the fact of its 
being delivered upon the very spot where the exciting incidents 
related took place. Soon all were again seated, and passed on 
through a beautifully wooded undulating country, to 



THE EXCUESION. 



85 



THEDDINGWORTH, 

where they inspected the perfect gem of a restored church, under 
the guidance of its esteemed vicar, Mr. James. As this church is 
better known than the others we have referred to, we need only to 
be reminded of the almost sacredness of its restoration, not a stone, 
not a bit of timber, not a time mark, not a trace of the ancient 
usages of the church have been removed, or obliterated, where by 
any possibility they could be retained. And whilst all the ancient 
portions have — where possible — been preserved, everything modern 
is of the very best kind, both as to material and workmanship. 
The floor tiling, designed by Lord Alwyne Compton, is most 
beautifully simple and chaste in design and colour, the carving of 
the seat ends, and screens to the side chapel or chantries will all 
bear the minutest inspection, and will satisfy the most fastidious 
critic. The pulpit and low screen dividing the nave from the 
chancel are of carved Leicestershire alabaster, and the minor 
fittings of the church are well worthy of imitation. The architec- 
tural features of the fabric are very interesting, this small church 
containing within itself specimens of almost every style of archi- 
tecture, from the Norman down to the Elizabethan. 

This was a fitting close to the proceedings, having visited the 
sites where Imperial Rome raised the standard of supremacy, the 
churches where Papal Rome (in days by-gone) rivetted the atten- 
tion, and held spell-bound the consciences of the neighbouring 
rustics, the church where the first reformer, in all probability, first 
read from his own translation the Word of God in a tongue under- 
stood by the people, it was fitting that the duty of to-day with 
respect to the Houses of God should be pressed upon the conscience, 
and brought before the eye, not by speech or lecture, but by 
example : and surely that could not be better done than by seeing 
that one to whose courtesy and scholarly attainments all were so 
much indebted during the two days' proceedings at Lutterworth, 
carried out in his own person, and in his own church, the principles 
and views he had for so many years enunciated with respect to the 
restoration of churches, and their internal arrangements for a decent, 
and orderly, performance of divine service. 

Having availed themselves of Mr. James's hospitality, the party 
returned, some to Lutterworth, some to Leicester by way of Market 
Harborough. 

The Society may be congratulated upon the success of this 
meeting. It was not only appreciated by the members and more 
educated, but it afforded much gratification to the poorer and 
working classes; this was evidenced by the fact of there being 
more than six hundred visitors to the museum on the second day — 
itbeingfound impossible to admit all applicants on the first day. 



81) 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



25/// November, 1801. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The minutes of the last Meeting having been read, the Sub-Com- 
mittee appointed to carry out the arrangements for the General 
Meeting lately held at Lutterworth, reported the entire success of 
that Meeting, and that twelve new members were there elected. 

Resolutions relating to the proposed publication of the past 
Transactions of the Society, and of the Heyricke Papers were 
passed, and the final arrangements referred to the Publishing 
Committee. 

The following new members were elected, the Rev. J. M. Latin, 
Gilmorton ; the Rev. J. S. Lievre, Little Ashby ; the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Denbigh, &c, &c. 

A note was read from Lord Denbigh, requesting the Secretary 
to convey to the Committee the satisfaction which his lordship had 
derived from the resolutions passed at their Meeting (respecting 
the Lutterworth exhibition), and the pleasure which it afforded him 
to enrol his name among the members of the Society. 

Mr. Frederick Jackson, architect, of Nottingham, presented 
to the Society, through Mr. North, a proof copy of his plan of 
Nottingham and environs, beautifully engraved in copper from his 
own survey during a period of ten years. The evident accuracy 
and beauty of this plan excited much praise, and the Society 
expressed their obligations to the donor for .the gift of a copy of a 
document, which must be of great local use and value. 

Mr, Hunt, Thurnby, exhibited what appeared to be an orna- 
mented steel binder, found in a wall at Scraptoft. 

Mr. G. C. Neale showed a Portuguese or Spanish carving in 
ivory, being a portion of a triptich, representing the following sub- 
jects.^ — 1. Our Saviour treading on a skull and serpent. 2. S. John 
Baptist, bearing a book and lamb. 3. S. John the Evangelist bearing 
a chalice, from which is issuing a serpent, in allusion to the tradition 
related by S. Isidore that an attempt being made to poison S. John 
in the cup of the sacrament, he drank of the same, and adminis- 
tered it to the communicants without injury, the poison having by 
a miracle issued from the cup in the form of a serpent. 4. S. Jerome 
as a penitent before a crucifix, beating himself with a stone. This 
subject forms one of Titian's most magnificent pictures. 

Me. James Thompson called the attention of the meeting to two 
Roman coins (one of Victorinus and the other apparently of Claudius 
Gothicus), which though of little value in themselves, were interest- 
ing on account of the locality in which they were found, which 
was near to the village of Humberstone, in this county. There 
are close to that village clear indications of the existence of a 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



87 



Roman encampment, and Roman coins have upon former occasions 
been found there, which strengthens the idea that the early con- 
querors of this country had certainly a settlement, if not an 
encampment, in that neighbourhood. Mr. Thompson further 
exhibited a Book of Common Prayer, dated 1662, illustrated by a 
number of curious engravings. Guy Fawkes is represented with 
his lantern in the cellar, through the walls of which a ray from the 
All-seeing Eye darts upon him. In the corner of the engraving is 
represented his execution, he being under the hands of the execu- 
tioner, who is carrying out the barbarous custom known as " quarter- 
ing." The execution of Charles I., and many other historical and 
scriptural subjects, are quaintly and graphically depicted. This 
edition is a copy of that unanimously subscribed by both Houses 
of Convocation on the 20th December, 1661. Immediately after 
the Restoration, Charles II. issued a commission, empowering 
twelve of the bishops and twelve Presbyterians "to consider of the 
objections raised against the Liturgy, and to make such reasonable 
and necessary alterations as they should jointly agree." But 
Baxter, according to Wheatly, " would not so much as allow that 
our liturgy w r as capable of amendment, but confidently pretended 
to compose* one of his own," which Wheatly designates as " an 
indigested heap of stuff." The conference broke up without 
coming to any definite arrangement; the subject w r as then con- 
sidered by the whole clergy in Convocation, and the Book of 
Common Prayer, as now used by the Church of England, was the 
result. 

Mr. Thomas Cave sent for exhibition an ancient pair of nut- 
cracks. They were found under the centre root of an elm tree, 
five feet in the earth, near Towcester. One handle terminated in 
a hook — perhaps for picking out the walnut, which, when closed, 
fitted into an opening in the opposite handle. They were rudely 
decorated. 

Mr. Latham exhibited (through Mr. Thompson) a copy of 
the funeral procession of Queen Elizabeth. This interesting docu- 
ment is, according to a description endorsed upon it, supposed to 
have been drawn by the famous Wm. Camden, Clarencieux, King 
of Arms, and represents the entire procession, giving the costume 
of all who composed it, with the different banners of the Princi- 
palities of the Crown, &c, &c, the whole arranged according to 
the strict rules of precedence as laid down by the officers of the 
Heralds' Office. This drawing (being many yards in length) 
excited much interest. 

Mr. G. H. Nevinson produced an ancient hunting knife and 
fork of three prongs, fitting into each other: handles of silver, 
inlaid with mother of pearl, representing dogs in pursuit of a li n e 
It was said to have been found with a cannon ball on B OS worth 
Field. If so, it probably was a relic of the skirmish which took 



SS LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

place there during the civil wars. It would scarcely be of an 
earlier date, for although table-forks in solitary instances are men- 
tioned as being in existence as early as the eleventh century, still 
they were not even in common use in the .sixteenth century, and 
so late as the seventeenth century their use was made a subject of jl 
joke by the dramatic writers, and a recent writer informs us that a j 
divine, even at that comparatively recent date, declared that the 
use of forks was a tacit insult to Providence, who had given us 
fingers. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill laid upon the table a quantity of rude 
masses of baked clay, which he supposed to be Roman handbricks, 
and upon which he favoured the meeting with the following re- 
marks : — The handbricks or props which I have brought to-day 
for your inspection, were found in the parish of Orby, Lincolnshire, 
during the month of August last. I believe them to have been 
used in the manufacture of hardware of some sort or other. The 
extent of country in which they are found is very great. The- 
parishes of Orby, Ingoldmells, and Addlethorpe abound with them, 
and they are met with at Hogsthorpe and Thorpe. There can be 
no question that these parishes have been used extensively as 
potteries by the Romans, and 1 have no doubt there must be many 
remains of that people imbedded in the marsh where the bricks 
are found, oftentimes accompanied with pieces of Roman pottery. 
The Roman town of Burgh joins the parish of Orby, the Roman 
city of Vainona was only six miles off, and there are traces of a 
Roman road passing from Vainona to Burgh, and so along the 
coast, all which tends to prove that the bricks are undoubtedly 
Roman. Now the bricks are found at a depth of from four to 
seven feet; they lie under a marine alluvial deposit, and they 
cross out on the shore at four different points. Much obscurity 
hangs about these remains, and nothing but actually digging 
through the beds of them can throw light upon the subject. The 
marsh was probably deposited upon the bricks after the Romans 
had made their embankment, which goes along the sea coast. In 
digging for the bricks, no tools, nor implements, no arms, no char- 
coal were found ; beds of cockle-shells were frequent, and in some 
cases snail-shells are among the bricks ; some of the bricks are 
found in a black moor-like substance, which may be the ashes of 
whatever substance the bricks were burnt with — straw or dried 
grass — others are in a red powdery brick-dust state. The bricks 
high up in Orby are small, and of a very tender, friable nature ; 
lower down they are of a blacker colour, larger in size and hard, 
whilst those near the sea are very red, not so hard as the blackest 
bricks, and very large, but they are always more or less rounded 
by the action of the sea; they must have supported heavy 
pottery, and of considerable size. (Several bricks of a larger size 
than those upon the table were thrown upon the sea shore at 



REPORT FOR 1861. 



89 



Skegness after the late severe storms ; they are now in the pos- 
session of the Rev. E. Elmhirst, of Shawell.) The bricks indicate a 
progressive manufacture, those far inland being, as I saidjfbefore, 
much smaller than those on the coast. I think all the bricks show 
that they were made with small fingers, probably women and 
young persons. The bricks lie in thin layers, and stretch in some- 
thing like lines from Orby down to the sea, and are found in an 
extent of about five or six miles by one, two, or three miles. In 
searching for the bricks along a marsh dyke, I could feel them at 
the bottom of it, traversing the dyke, at a distance of about thirty 
yards apart. The layer of the bricks appeared to be about 
eighteen or twenty inches in width. A friend told me in digging 
(inland) he found a bone of an animal, a flat piece of brick 
bearing marks of hay or straw on both sides, but not presenting 
any appearance of being part of a vase. In my diggings I met 
with nothing but small pieces of Roman pottery at the old surface 
of the marsh, where the leaves of the water lily, grasses of all 
descriptions, pieces of the thorn, &c, were almost as perfect as 
when the first alluvial deposit was laid upon them which happened 
centuries back. I hope at some early period to make a further 
investigation of these curious remains of the olden time. 



27th January, 1862. 

The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the chair. * 

This being the Annual Meeting of the Society, Mr. North, the 
Honorary Secretary, presented and read the following Report of 
its proceedings for the year 1861 :— 

The Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society have 
much pleasure in tendering for your adoption the Report of the proceedings and 
position of the Society for the year 1861 — the seventh since its formation. 

The Volume of the Associated Societies placed in your hands last year will, your 
Committee venture to hope, so far as the Leicestershire portion is concerned, hear a 
favourable comparison with the contributions of former years. Mr. John Gough 
Nichols' paper upon the Heyricke Letters, so valuable in itself, as illustrating Lei- 
cester, Leicester customs, and Leicester men in the reigns of Elizabeth and James 
L, has called from the pen of Mr. James Thompson the interesting memoir of the 
two Heyricke Portraits, in the Guildhall, Leicester, lately read before you : and has 
further induced your Committee to apply to Mr. Perry- Herrick — the present repre- 
sentative of the ancient Leicester family of Heyricke — for his permission for the 
publication, under the editorship of Mr. Nichols, of the whole series of letters 
written by members of his family during the reigns indicated. To this request Mr. 
Perry-Herrick at once gave a most courteous and ready consent. The only obstruc- 
tion to the immediate publication of this valuable series of local letters and papers 
is the cost of printing a volume which, from its nature, would only command a local 
sale, and that again among the more strictly literary portion of the community only. 
It is, however, earnestly to be desired that a publication of documents so extremely 
interesting, as illustrating local history, local customs, and local progress, and that, 
too, under the editorship, and elucidated by tho notes of so accomplished a Boholai 



90 



LK1CJKSTKRSI I ] RK A LICUITKCTU UAL 



RB INI r. John Gough Nichols, the grandson of tlio historian of this county, should 
not he lost, or oven procrastinated. It is cause of regret that the funds of this 
Society w ill not permit you at once to undertake the responsihility of the publication, 
or even subscribe a hvrge amount towards the cost. The Committee will be glad to 
receive any suggestions, or meet any proposals members of this Society may com- 
municate to them in reference to the work. 

'J 1 lie other Leicestershire Paper placed before you in the last volume is valuable 
as expressing not only the sentiments of this Society, but — your Committee believe — 
the feelings of the country generally, upon the appropriation by the Government of 
Treasure Trove. It is hoped that any further expression of public opinion upon 
that subject will be unnecessary, as the Government has wisely and judiciously 
withdrawn the circular enforcing its claim, and has, at any rate for the present, 
placed it in abeyance, trusting the preservation of such Treasures — metallic leaves 
from the book of history — to the care of the local antiquary, collector, or museum ; a 
confidence which it behoves all members of Archaeological Societies to see is not abused. 

It is not the intention of your Committee to lay before you now, as they did in 
their last Annual Report, anything like a full statement of architectural progress in 
the town and county during the past year. There are, however, one or two works to 
which they must very briefly call your attention. The work of restoration at S. 
Mary's Church, Leicester — brought under your notice last year — has heen further 
aided by the rebuilding — it can scarcely be said restoration, as there was little or 
nothing of the ancient work left to guide the architect in his designs — of S. Ann's 
chapel, through the liberality of the Misses Noble. This venerable church is now 
an epitome of Gothic architecture, claiming and receiving the attention and the 
admiration of all who view the chasteness and extreme beauty of all its parts. 

The excavations at S. Martin's, Leicester, have brought to light many antiquities 
of great interest. Several considerable portions of the foundations of ancient walls 
have been discovered : and, upon removing the earth — in July last — on the north 
side of the church close to the palisading dividing the church ground from the Town- 
hall Lane, the workmen came to a rubble wall of considerable thickness, surmounted 
by a wrought stone platform, upon which stood the bases of two massive Doric 
columns, each about two feet in diameter. These columns, in all probability, formed 
a portion of a colonnade, which, judging from their size and the space intervening 
between — about ten feet — would be one of considerable length. The earth in the 
interior also contained numerous fragments of Roman pottery, and the bones of 
animals and birds. Two coins — the one of Nero, the other of Constantine — were 
likewise turned up ; the truth of the tradition that a Roman temple stood upon the 
site of the present church being thus, it is presumed, unequivocably proved.* Upon 
taking down the tower several fragments of medieval coffins, corbels, and other 
pieces of carved stone were met with in the later portions of it, the builders having, 
apparently — without much respect for the remains of an earlier age — used all the 
available stone within their reach. Owing to an unfortunate dispute between the 
contractors and the London workmen, the works at this church have progressed but 
slowly, now, however, a more rapid progression is visible. 

S. Andrew's Church, Leicester, is near to completion, and as an experiment test- 
ing the adaptation (in the hands of Mr. Scott ) of brick in the erection of an eccle- 
siastical edifice without internal piers, is worthy of the closest inspection and scrutiny. 

_ The very beautiful schools and school-house at Belgrave, from the designs of Mr. 
Gillett, architect, Leicester, were opened early this year: as examples of Gothic 
buildings admirably adapted for the purposes for which they were created, and as 
being at the same time a graceful ornament to the locality, your Committee can draw 
attention to them with great satisfaction and pleasure. The Rev. Canon James (no 
mean authority upon such subjects) publicly, at a late meeting of the National 
Society in Leicester, recommended their style and plan most strongly to all the clergy 
and others interested in schools and school-building. 

Many other works of church restoration in the county have been begun, or com- 
pleted during the year, among which may be named — Stoughton church, the tower 
of which has been taken down and rebuilt with great caret through the liberality of 

* The accompanying plan (a copy of the original plan drawn hy Mr. W. Lindley, clerk of the 
works, and now suspended in the Leicester Museum) will explain the position of the Roman 
masonry. 

+ The manner in which the works were carried on at Stoughton is strongly urged upon the 
attention of all engaged in church restoration. The restoration was a most literal one, the work of 




5. Martin's Church, Leicester. 

}*lc</ii cf Jlontttft Aivliyitittes, discovered, t n ea'crrva J | n , 
for For+Tfirfajrioffis of jVfcv* Tower, ffv . 

July, 1861. 



f 



i 



* 

t 

1 



'I 



7 



R/OMAN ANTIQ,U!T4 E£. 

From.* /S'. Jkfe&rtinte Cfvu.rcJv, I^eicestei** 
<5"e-e, g o • 



WUtli ANA."!' 1 TIC if'RESS XV. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 91 

a member of your Society. Other portions of the church will, as need requires and 
circumstances permit, also receive careful attention. Considerable works have been 
carried on in the churches at Husbands Bosworth, Hathern, Osgathorpe, &c, &c, 
whilst at S. Margaret's, Leicester — a paper upon some architectural features in which 
will be laid before you in your next volume — the works of repair and restoration 
have not been lost sight of. 

The bi-monthly Meetings of the Society have been held as usual during the past 
year : the attendance at the meetings is not so large as your Committee could wish, 
and they venture to urge upon the members the importance of a more frequent 
attendance as a means of interchanging ideas, and communicating information, and 
so strengthening a taste for those particular studies, for the encouragement of which 
this Society was formed. 

The General Meetings and Excursion of the Society were held last year at Lutter- 
worth, when its church and that of Misterton were inspected. The Museum — which 
was rich in antiquarian objects and works of art, liberally sent from both rich and 
poor in the neighbourhood, was most numerously attended. It was open two days : 
on the second day upwards of six hundred persons inspected its varied contents. 
At the public Meeting, on the evening of the 26th of September, Mr. M. H. Bloxam 
read a paper upon " Lutterworth Church and the Wycliffe Eelics ;" and the Bev. 
Canon James one upon " Naseby Field." An excursion was made on the following 
day, under the guidance of those two gentlemen, from Lutterworth to Theddingworth 
via Cave's Inn (the Roman Tripontium), Lilbourne, Stanford, Sibbertoft, and Naseby, 
a full report of which was supplied to, and published in the local newspapers. 

In conclusion, your Committee would congratulate the Society upon the addition 
of many new names to its list of subscribers during the past year : no fewer than 
forty-five gentlemen having enrolled their names as members. They have at the 
same time to regret the loss of a few by death and withdrawal. This addition to the 
members, and consequently to the resources of the Society, has determined the 
Committee in carrying out a project which has many times been brought before 
them, namely, the publication of the past Transactions of the Society. It is hoped 
that the first yearly part will be in the hands of members in the spring of 1862. 

Mr. Bellairs presented a statement of accounts for the past 
year, shewing a balance in favour of the Society : after which it was 

Resolved, the Report now read, and the statement of accounts, 
be adopted «and printed in the annual volume. 

The following noblemen and gentlemen were elected Presi- 
dents :— The Right Hon. the Earl of Denbigh, Sir William de 
Capel Brooke, Bart., Major the Hon. H. L. Powys-Keck, and 
Major Wollaston. 

The following New Members were elected : — The Rev. James 
Noble Bennie, Leicester; the Rev. C. E. Waller, Humberstone ; 
Mr. Arthur Boyer, Mr. C. R. Crossley, Mr. Cornwell, Mr. Samuel 
Clarke, and Mr. J. F. Sarson. 

Among the articles exhibited were : 

By Mr. John Hunt, a Roman Coin found in the Belgrave 
gravel-pit, the inscription upon which was almost obliterated ; it 
was apparently a first bronze of Constantine. Several other 
Roman Coins, among which was one of Carausius, who reigned in 
Britain towards the close of the third century. A Fibula, Hint 
arrow head, curiously formed flints, apparently worked into shape 
for sling-stones all found between Great Dalby and Burrow-on- 



the mason being simply to take down the tower (which was in a dangerous state,) and so to rebuild 
it as to place every old stone in its original position, only inserting m-w stone whore the decayed 
state of the old rendered such u course necessary. 



92 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



the- Hill. A hilted sword found in a drain near Bosworth, Leices- 
tershire, bearing the date near the hilt, " Anno 1670." 

Mr. G. C. Neale exhibited a beautifully-illuminated manuscript 
volume of Prayers, &c, preceded by a Calendar, upon which he 
favoured the meeting with the following remarks : — 

" To the student of Palaeography, or ancient writing, the 
illuminated MS. 1 now exhibit must be deeply interesting. It is 
a French work, and is headed ' Heures de la croix a marines.' It 
dates as far back, we believe, as the end of the fourteenth, or com- 
mencement of the fifteenth century. The volume was one for 
private use, and contains Horse, or prayers, psalms, and religious 
exercises for hours of devotion. It is embellished with twelve 
beautifully executed miniature paintings; the subjects principally 
pertaining to the history of our Saviour, such as the Adoration of 
the Magi — Jesus sitting in the Temple with the Doctors — the 
Flight into Egypt — and the Crucifixion. Each painting is 
descriptive of the subject which it precedes. The margins or 
frames are stellated with stars of gold, and are richly ornamented 
in a kind of Arabesque style with various specimens of mediaeval 
botany. If they be fair specimens of the floral beauty of that age, 
certainly cultivation has triumphed, and made rapid progress down 
to the present day. The wild geranium forms a scroll-work 
pattern in these margins, and in its graceful bendings are intro- 
duced the pink, daisy, columbine, and other flowers. The pansy 
is the small oldfashioned purple and yellow flower found growing 
in our poor uncultivated lands. The grape and the strawberry 
also find a place among these marginal illustrations. In ancient 
illuminated, as in modern writings, the initial letter was the most 
important feature, and was carefully drawn and richly ornamented. 
The gold and colouring here used were evidently put in in a kind 
of paste or body colour, for in passing the finger over it will be 
observed that they rise above the surface of the parchment. In 
the present volume several of the capital letters are historiated, 
contain groups of figures, ecclesiastics in procession, &c. Before 
the introduction of typography, the writers of the age engrossed 
their MSS. with great care and skill. The man of letters then 
condescended to write a clear and legible hand. The affectation 
of bad writing had no existence." 

The Rev. R. Burnaby exhibited two miniature portraits, fitted 
side by side in a small pocket case, subjects unknown. 

Mr. G. H. Nevinson placed upon the table a Roman needle 
and bronze pin found in Leicester, and on behalf of Mr. Pindar, 
exhibited a curious pack of playing cards, upon which were depicted 
the leading incidents connected with the murder of Sir Edmund- 
bury Godfrey, in 1678 ; the famous plot said on the card to be 
" hatched at Rome 1" The execution of the Jesuits, &c, &c, 
were most graphically depicted. The denomination of each card 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



93 



appeared at the corner not coloured, but heraldically lined. The 
Pope's head with triple crown supplied the knave. 

Mr. H. Goddard produced two Forms of Prayer set forth 
respectively in 1694 and 1745, for success to our arms by sea and 
land ; a Roman bone spoon found in Causeway Lane, Leicester, 
together with a vase which is now in the Leicester Museum ; also 
two enamels on copper by Laudin, the one with the legend " S, 
Ignatius de Loiola," the other " Franciscus Xaverius," being the 
work of the early part of the seventeenth century. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill exhibited reprints of Bishop Gibson on 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and Family Prayer. These 
volumes were reprinted under the superintendence and at the 
expense of the Duke of Grafton. 

It was resolved that the General Meeting in the summer of 
1862, be held at Bos worth. 



31s* March, 1862. 

The Rev. G. E. Gillett, R.D., in the chair. 

The following New Members were elected : — The Hon. R. More- 
ton, Lindridge; T. Combe, Esq., M.A., F.R.G.S., Oxford; Mr. 
Wm. Musson, Leicester; Mr. Fredk. Goodyer, Leicester; and 
Mr. W. Ingram, Bel voir. 

Mr. C. J. Lea, of Lutterworth, exhibited, through Mr. North, 
one of his outline drawings of a series of mural decorations he is 
now at work upon for a new church at Rochdale, dedicated to 
S. Alban, the protomartyr of England. Mr. Lea has sent to 
the International Exhibition now in progress in London, a screen 
showing the whole of the decorations from the floor to the cornice 
of one space between the windows on the north side of the chancel. 
The portion sent to the Exhibition is about twenty feet high, by 
four feet wide, and shows the proposed scheme for the whole of 
the decorations, which consist of drawings depicting the principal 
events in the life of S. Alban. The whole of the subjects will fill 
up all the available space on the chancel walls between the windows, 
the figures not going higher than the springing of the window 
arches. The wall space below will be line diapered, with emblems, 
&c, occasionally introduced. That part of the wall above the 
windows and figures will be filled with conventional foliage, diaper- 
ing, &c, and the roof will be richly coloured and gilded. The 
richly carved stone canopy to sedilia, as well as the carving to the 
chancel arch and organ screen, will also be richly gilded. The 
whole of the drawing and colouring of the designs is the work of 
Mr. C. L. Lea and his assistants. 



94 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 

Mr. North remarked that Mr. Lea had lately secured the 
extra colour prize offered by the Ecclesiological Society. The jj. 
exhibition of designs took place in the Kensington Museum, and 
there were twenty-two competitors. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill exhibited a small coin of Constantinus, 
found at Medbourne, and a shilling of Charles I., found between i, 
Cranoe and Glooston. 

Mr. Fetch, of Melton Mowbray, exhibited, through Mr. Jacques, 
some Anglo-Saxon antiquities, found about two years ago, with a 
number of skeletons, upon high ground on the north side of that . 
town. They consisted of a number of beads, of different sizes and 
materials, and the remains of a knife; pottery was also found, but, un- 
fortunately, the workmen being ignorant of its value, did not attempt 
to preserve any vessels, or remains of vessels, which came in 
their way. Since then other operations have been carried on upon j 
the land, and although every care has been taken to examine the 
earth, and to search for relics, nothing beyond several skeletons 
has been found. These, however, and the peculiar geological 
formation of the ground, are not without considerable interest, as 
will be seen from the following extract from a valuable communi- | 
cation, addressed to the Secretary by Mr. Ingram, of Belvoir, who 
was at Melton to watch the working of the ground a fortnight ago : 
— " I may tell you that I was first told of the discovery of some 
interesting Anglo-Saxon remains at Melton, by the late Mr. Bate- 
man, of Derbyshire, who came up to Belvoir two years ago to 
assist me in opening some tumuli at Saltby, and in conversation j 
on the antiquities of the locality, mentioned the circumstance, and 
begged me to carefully watch any further excavations, as discoveries 
of great interest were more than probable. A few weeks ago, 
Mr. W. Adcock, whose co-operation I had secured, very kindly j 
wrote to tell me that the brickyard workmen, in moving the surface I 
soil to reach the substratum of gravel and clay, had reached some 
human remains, and I took the first opportunity of going to Melton, t 
I found, on my arrival at the brickyard, which is situated on the j 
hill which rises to the north of the town, that the' men had removed 
about eighteen inches or two feet of the upper soil of the meadow, 
and had partially unbared seven skeletons. Mr. Fetch, the owner 
of the place, very kindly placed his men at my disposal, and 
directed them to use the utmost care in disinterring the remains. 
Although employing the greatest care, 1 found it impossible to 
secure a perfect skeleton ; the bones were far advanced in decay, 
and crumbled or broke when handled. The porosity of the soil, 
and the nearness of the remains to the surface, which, exposing 
them to the varying influence of the weather, would help to account 
for their destruction. When the soil was scraped from the bones, ] 
a fair idea was gained of the stature of these ancient denizens of 
our country. One frame indicated a man fully six feet in height, 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



95 



and the large bones, well developed head, perfect and complete 
teeth in square massive jaws, told of a powerful, well grown man ; 
one more slender frame, with large projecting teeth, and a some- 
what receding forehead and thick skull, induced me to connect it 
with the Celtic race. I think also from the inferior size, and greater 
fragility of some of the skeletons, that some of the remains were 
those of women and children. After noting the peculiarities of six 
skeletons, in unbaring what appeared to be the seventh, a head only 
was discovered, possibly that of a malefactor (Traitor Saxon?). 
In one or two instances, stones were placed beneath the head : no 
vestige of coffins could be discovered, and the conclusion that no 
coffins or cerements were used, is strengthened by the fact that the 
heads in several instances had been bent forward, (owing probably 
to a small grave,) and rested on the breast ; in every instance, the 
right arm had been placed across the lower part of the person, a 
further indication that the bodies were interred in a state of nudity, 
natural delicacy would thus place the arms. The disposition of 
the bodies was east and west, the head being towards the west ; 
the interments appear to have been made with system, the bodies 
lay in rows three or four feet apart. No mounds or tumuli existed, 
to indicate a place of sepulture. The surface of the field was laid 
in ridges and furrows, and the inhabitants of Melton have doubtless 
participated in the benefit of the vegetable products of the soil, 
enriched by the bodies of the founders of their town. 

" To pursue a search for beads, amulets, or other relics which 
the former excavations produced, it w 7 as necessary to remove the 
bones ; the earth beneath the spot occupied by the necks and arms 
was carefully examined, and passed through a sieve, but nothing 
was found ; this as you may imagine, was a great disappointment ; 
but one which those engaged in antiquarian researches are not 
unaccustomed to meet with. Extension of the brickyard is still 
in progress, and many more bodies will probably be discovered, 
and perhaps something that will give a clue to the date of the 
interments. Mr. Fetch possesses an interesting string of beads, 
some of them fragments of fish bone or shell, others of stone or 
spar, like the blue John spar of Derbyshire, and others of coloured 
pottery, these I think sufficiently identify the remains as those of 
Anglo-Saxon times. — (These were now exhibited.) — Mr. Fetch 
gave me a small spear head, found with the bodies formerly dis- 
covered, of which I send you a sketch. The spot is full of interest. 
For the sake of gravel and clay, a deep cutting has been made, 
and the section exhibits two interesting epochs in geological history, 
and one in modern. At the bottom of the cutting the lias clay 
formation is revealed with its gryphea, belemnites, and saurians, 
remains telling us that once a wide spread sea, teeming with life, 
swept over what is now a fair landscape. The next formation which 
is superimposed on the lias is the drift (northern or boulder) which 



<)(> LEIOESTEESHIRE AltCIIITECTUBAL SOCIETY. 

rushed over tlie lias after its elevation, and destroyed the huge 
animals which occupied the country at that period; the power and I 
duration of the current is evidenced by the deep accumulation of I 
largo stones, borrowed from the formations it passed over, and its 
far spreading and destructive action is exhibited by the bones of 
elephas, elk, bos, which have been found in the gravel bed ; this 
is the second page in the history of this slice of earth. The third 
is found in the shallow layer of alluvial soil which rests on the 
surface, and in which repose the bones of our early ancestors. (I 
omitted to mention that the shallowness of the graves was probably 
owing to the occurrence of the gravel bed, between two and three 
feet below the surface ; rude people with inferior tools would not 
be able to break up the compact bed of stones.)" 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Ingram for his interesting 
communication. 

Mr. G. C. Neale exhibited watercolour drawings of Skeffing- 
ton Church (interior) and Billesdon Church (exterior) before their 
recent restoration. 

Mr. Sarson exhibited a Roman coin — inscription undecypher- 
able — and a bronze ring found in S. Nicholas Street, Leicester. 

Mr. G. H. Nevinson exhibited several broadsides formerly 
among the papers preserved in the magazine, Leicester; these, 
however, with a cartload more, were removed as worthless about 
thirty years ago. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill read the following Paper upon the 
Langtons of Lincolnshire, which he illustrated by two worked 
pedigrees of that family. 

THE FAMILY OF LANGTON. 

The ancient and distinguished family of Langton derives its name 
from the pretty village of Langton, situated upon the South Wolds 
of Lincolnshire, between three and four miles from the town of 
Spilsby. At a very early period this family appears to have been 
divided into at least three branches, from which circumstance some 
degree of confusion exists in the details which have come down to 
us respecting it. In the county of Lancaster one portion of the 
family settled; they possessed the parish of Newton for many 
years. Leland speaks of Newton thus: — "On a brok a little 
poore market whereof Mr. Langton has the name of his Rarony." 
Camden speaks of the Langtons of Haughton Tower, Lancashire ; 
and we find in Blome's Britannia, in his list of Lancashire gentle- 
men, the name of Abraham Langton of Lowe, who was a 
descendant of the Barons of Newton. In Gregson's fragments 
part 2 p. 278, an extract from Mr. Percival's papers makes 
Langton to be Baron of Newton and Macerfield. Stowe, in his 



THE FAMILY OF LANG-TON. 



97 



survey, gives an epitaph concerning this family. The Langtons 
were also Barons of Walton. 

Another branch of this family settled some three centuries back 
in the county of Somerset at Newton Park, and another portion 
of them at a later period took up their residence at Teton in 
Northamptonshire. The pedigrees of the Lincolnshire and 
Northamptonshire families I have now the pleasure of laying before 
you. (See pages 103 and 104.) 

The first person worthy of note descended from the Lincoln- 
shire family was Stephen de Langton, who, like the Greek poet of 
the olden time has had various places assigned to him for his 
birth, yet I see no reason to despise the tradition which has been 
handed down from age to age, that he was born at Langton by 
Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, and I am confirmed in this opinion by 
Dean Hook, Britton, &c, although Weever, in his Funeral Monu- 
ments, says he was of an ancient family in Leicestershire, and 
Martin Tupper claims him as a Surrey man. Stephen de Langton 
was educated in the University of Paris, where he distinguished 
himself as a student, and was very much esteemed there by the 
King of France and all the nobility for his great learning. He 
became Chancellor of Paris, and was afterwards created by the 
Pope a Cardinal under the Title of St. Chrysogonus (so called, I 
suppose, from his having an excellent voice, vide Juvenal, 6, 74). 
Matthew of Westminster speaks of Langton as a man of deep 
wisdom, elegant person, faultless morals, and a fit and sufficient 
person as far as man can be to govern the Universal Church. A 
contest having taken place about the election of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in the room of Hubert Walter, King John insisted that 
his favourite minister, John de Gray, Bishop of Norwich, should 
be elevated to that see, but Pope Innocent determined that 
Stephen de Langton should be consecrated, which took place at 
Viterbo, June 17, 1207. Upon this King John drove the Monks 
of Canterbury out of the kingdom, and confiscated their goods ; 
John Harding (cap. 142) mentions the circumstance as follows: — 

Bishop Hubert of Canterbury tho died, 
Whereof King John unto the Convent sente, 
To chose his Clarke,* which they refused and denied, 
"Whereof the Kyng was wroth in his entente : 
For they disobeyed the lettre which he sente, 
For they had chosen Mayster Stephan Langton, 
An worthy Clarke, of all disposicion. 
Whom Kyng John then wold not admytte 
For Eomayn Bull, ne for Prelates prayer, 
But poisoned some and some to death commytte, 
Some he exiled, and their even clere, 
And all personnes and prelate in fere. 
He then put out, and seazed theyr benefice 
Through all the lande, as his mortal enemyes, 
The Bomysh Byshophe cursed him openly ; 
And all the realme fully did interdite 
That sacraments none therein should occupie. 
H * John Gray, Bishop of Norwich. VOL. II. 



98 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



It was in the year of Grace, 1213, that this open struggle ora- 
menoed between one of the ablest priests that ever wore a tiara, 
and the meanest and basest king that ever disgraced the English 
throne. This rupture between the Pope and King John led to the 
compulsive conduct of the barons afterwards. Langton was a true 
patriot, for he, together with six other bishops, formed the associa- 
tion which resisted the tyrannical proceedings of King John, and 
ultimately obtained Magna Charta. It was Langton who at the 
meeting of the heads of revolt at London, August 25th, 1213, 
suggested the demand for a renewal of the Charter of King Henry 
I., which demand was persevered in, until 1215, when Magna 
Charta was obtained. According to Mat. Paris, Stephen de 
Langton crowned Henry III. at Westminster, 17th May, 1320. 
It was in this year he removed the bones of Thomas a Becket at a 
vast expense, with great magnificence in a golden chest ; so great 
was the expense of the translation of Becket's bones, that neither 
he nor four of his successors were able to recover the debt he cast 
his church into. (Godwin de Praesul Ang.) In 1222 Langton 
held a solemn council at Oxford, at which many regulations were 
made for the reformation of the Anglican Church. It should not 
be forgotten that it was through the resolution of Langton that he 
induced the young King Henry to give a third ratification of 
Magna Charta. This celebrated prelate died July 9th, 1228, at 
Slyndbn, Sussex (the favourite retirement of the Archbishop), and 
was buried at Canterbury ; his tomb is singularly fixed in the wall 
of St. Michael's Chapel, and is marked with a sculptured cross at 
the top. He bestowed much upon his palace in Canterbury, and 
upon a " faire Horologe" in the south cross aisle of the Cathedral 
(Godwin). 

Langton is said to have been the first who divided the Bible 
into chapters. He wrote commentaries on most of the Books of 
Scripture, of which there are many MS. copies in our public 
libraries. Archbishop Parker says that Langton wrote many 
things elegantly and judiciously, and in particular the History of 
the Reign of King Richard the First. One of the earliest miracle 
plays (a Theological Drama) is supposed to have been the pro- 
duction of the Archbishop. 

He bore for his arms — Quarterly Gules and Or, a bend argent, 
or according to Parker, 

Per pale, Azure and Gules, a bend, or. 

Simon de Langton was the only brother of Stephen Langton ; 
he was elected to the Archbishopric of York, but taking part with • 
his brother against the King, the Pope, at the King's instance, 
made void the election. Matthew, of Westminster, says that the 
King was afraid that if Stephen, being Archbishop of Canterbury, 
bore rule in the southern provinces, and his brother Simon, being 
made Archbishop of York, governed the northern districts, as they 



THE FAMILY OF LANGTON. 



99 



would then be the two chief prelates of England, every thing would 
be regulated by their will, and one would be supported by the 
other. Simon was not a man who had much favour with the 
people, but through his brother's patronage he obtained the arch- 
deaconry of Canterbury, and in favour to him Stephen de Langton 
much amended the archdeaconry. With the consent and con- 
firmation of the Chapter, he annexed and united to it not only the 
parishes of Tenham and Hackington, but the whole jurisdiction of 
the diocese, with an exception and reservation only of some causes 
and churches. (Vide this instrument in Battersby's Somner 
Appendix, No. IX. A.) Louis, the French Dauphin, also in 
recompense of the disappointment, caused by the loss of the 
archiepiscopal see of York, constituted him his chancellor of 
Dauphiny (M. Paris). Simon de Langton founded a hospital for 
poor and infirm priests in the parish of St. Margaret, Canterbury. 
This was valued at £28. 16s. Id. in the 28th of Henry VIII., and 
was dissolved 17th Elizabeth. He built a mansion at St. Stephen's, 
Hackington, in which successive Archdeacons of Canterbury lived 
for the space of three hundred years afterwards. He also built 
and beautified the Parish Church of Hackington. (Antiq. Rep. 
122, 3.) 

William de Langton is the next person worthy of remark be- 
longing to the aforesaid family. He was the sixteenth President 
of Magdalen College, Oxford (from 1610 to 1620), and was dis- 
tinguished for his profound learning. He married Mary, daughter 
of Sir W. Stonehouse, Bart., of Radley, co. Berks. He died in 
the year 1626. 

Peregrine Langton, another descendant of the same family, 
was remarkable for his benevolence and hospitality. He died 
February 19th, 1766. The local papers of the day speak of hiin 
as follows:* — "Last week was interred in the family vault the 
remains of Peregrine Langton, Esq., in whom all the poor within 
reach of his benevolence have lost a most humane and generous 
benefactor, and his friends and acquaintance lament a cheerful 
companion and a shining example of every virtue." 

Next to him comes the celebrated Bennett Langton, the intimate 
friend and companion of Samuel Johnson. He was born at 
Langton in the year 1737, where he was privately educated; from 
whence he removed to Trinity College, Oxford. By his diligent 
pursuit of learning he became well skilled in the Greek language. 
In 1764 he was chosen a member of the Literary Club, which 
consisted of the most brilliant men of the day, and he had the 
good fortune to number among his most intimate friends, Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Burke, Garrick, Beauclerk, Goldsmith, Wharton, 
aud Chamier. George III. appointed Bennett Langton to the 
Professorship of Ancient Literature in the year 1785, as a fit suc- 
cessor of Johnson. To Mr. Langton Dr. Johnson left his Polyglott 



100 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Bible ; and once, speaking of him to Boswell with affectionate 
regard, exclaimed, " The world does not bear a worthier man than 
Bennett Langton." In Boswell's Life of Johnson a great number 
of the Doctor's letters to Mr. Langton are printed, and several 
pages of Mr. Langton's recollections of the memoranda of the 
learned sage. Johnson died in 1784, and Langton soothed the 
last years of that great man by the most pleasing and affectionate 
attention. Johnson is said to have seized Langton's hand a short 
time before he breathed his last, and to have exclaimed, " Te 
teneam moriens deficiente maim." Dr. Bennett Langton died in 
1801, aet. 64. He was the last survivor of the original members 
of the Literary Club. He married Mary Do wager Countess of 
Rothes, daughter of Gresham Lloyd, Esq., by Mary Holt, his wife, 
great niece of Lord Chief Justice Holt. His grandson, John 
Stephen, was celebrated for his scientific researches ; he obtained 
a patent for preventing dry rot in timber. John S. Langton was 
born 1794, and died at the early age of 37, in 1833. The present 
owner of the estate is Bennett Rothes Langton, who was born in 
1840. 

William Henry Powell Gore Langton, M.P. for West Somerset 
from 1851 to 1859, is a descendant of William Langton, of the 
above named family. William Langton married Dorothy, daughter 
of John Littlebury, Esq., who was the son of John Langton (ob. 
1530) by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Wm. Quadring, Esq. 
Wm. Gore Langton married, 1846, Anna Eliza Mary, only daughter 
of the late Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

The arms of Gore Langton, of Newton Park, are : — Quarterly, 
first and fourth grand quarters. Quarterly, first and fourth ar. ; 
three chevrons gu. Second and third arg. ; a cross moline sa. for 
Langton. Second and third grand quarter, gules a fesse between 
three cross crosslets, fitchee, or. 

Gervase Holies visited Langton Church, and left the following 
notes respecting it : 

Ecclesia sanctorum Petri et Pauli Apostolorum 
In insula Boreali 
Fenestra 

Ealeonem tibi do pia virgo mei memor esto 
Effigies viri gestantes Falconem 
Tumulus Lapideus. 
Hie jacet Elizabetha uxor Jobn Langton, Arm., et filia 
W. Quadring. 
Arm. quae obiit 4 die Maie, a.d. 1524. 

(N.B. — The top of this tomb is still in existence, having been 
placed as a flooring slab in the body of the church, which was 
rebuilt some years back in the Palladian style of architecture. It 
is greatly worn, and it is a pity that it is not taken up, and restored.) 



THE FAMILY OF LANGTON. 



101 



Fenestra Australia 
Effigies scorum Petri et Pauli Apostolorum. 

A plain cross. 
Quarterly, sa. et arg. ; a Lend or, Langton. 
Impaled, three Fleuvs de lis, in chief, a lion passant. 
A fesse Nebule between three roses. 
In insula Boreali. 
Hie jacet Eich. Ligh, generosus servus, Dom. reg. Hen. 8. 
Hie jacet Johannes Wortes, istius ecclesise Kector, qui ob. 6 Sep., 1582. 

The registers of Langton Parish commence in the year 1558. 

At Langton (in Leicestershire) was born the celebrated Walter 
de Langton, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. He was conse- 
crated to the see in 1296. He was Lord Treasurer of England, 
and was in great favour with Edward I., King of England, who, in 
the thirty-fifth year of his reign, granted liberty of free warren to 
him at West and Thorpe Langton. Bishop Langton was deprived 
of his office of Lord Treasurer for no other reason than his having 
reproved the Prince (Edward II.), and refused him money for his 
extravagance during his father's lifetime ; no legal proceedings, 
however, were resorted to in this case. Bishop Langton was a 
great benefactor to Lichfield Cathedral, having built the stately 
and sumptuous Lady Chapel there, at an immense expense. He 
also gave plate, jewels, copes, and vestments of great value to the 
Church, and procured thereto many charters and great privileges. 
The bishop died November 16, 1321, and was buried in the Lady 
Chapel of his Cathedral. 

There was also a Thomas de Langton, who was Bishop of 
Winchester from 1493 to 1500, in which year he died of the plague, 
having been previously elected Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
chapel dedicated to him is on the southern side of Winchester 
Cathedral ; it is profusely enriched with carvings in oak of armorial 
subjects. Amidst the ornaments Bishop Langton's motto, " Laus 
tibi Christi," is frequently repeated. The rebus of his name — " a 
musical note called 'long,' inserted in a 'tun,'" occurs on the 
groining, amidst a profusion of others. Near the centre of this 
chapel is the Bishop's tomb, originally extremely elegant, but now 
entirely deprived of its ornaments. Whether this Thomas de 
Langton was born in Leicestershire I know not. 

John de Langton was presented to the rectory of Langton in 
1306, by Sir Thos. de Latimer, but he resigned the living in 1337. 
A second John de Langton w r as presented to the living of Church 
Langton by the Archbishop of Canterbury and others, November 9, 
1440. He was twice Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, 1437 and 
1444, and also Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge, from 
1428 to 1447. He resigned the living of Langton in 1446. 

The Langton family spoken of by Weever, and possibly 
descended from the Lincolnshire family, held lands at Hemington, 
in the parish of Lockington, in Leicestershire. At Church 
Langton, in this county, we find that in the 2nd of Henry V. 



102 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



(1-114), Thomas de Langton held lands there, and from Wyrley 
and Burton mention is made of a monument in Langton Church. 
This, I am sorry to say, has disappeared, although there are 
persons living who remember its position in the church. The 
monument had the following arms and inscription : — 

1. Azure, an eagle displayed with two heads, or, a bend sable — Langton. 
2. Argent, on a band sable, five bezants, or — Palmer. 

Of this family was John de Langton, a Carmelite Friar in 
London. Bale styles him " Bacchalaureus ordinis Carmel," and 
Tanner says of him " Scholas frequentavit et inter supremos theo- 
logios merito commemoratus est." This John de Langton, when 
Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury, and other prelates, as- 
sembled with King Richard II. at Stamford, in 1392, condemned 
the heresy of William Crump, a Cistercian Monk of Ireland ; he 
wrote a book called the Trial of Henry Crump, D.D. ; another 
against the errors of Dr. Crump ; and also a book concerning the 
ordinary acts of the Carmelite Friars. He died 1400. 

The family of Langton, at Teton, Northamptonshire, was 
probably an offshoot of the family of Langton, of Langton by 
Spilsby. 

Upon the north side of the Parish Church of Ravensthorpe 
(Northants) is a marble table with — 

Arms Quarterly, sab. and or; a bend arg., Langton, 
Impaling arg. on a cross, five bezants, Stratton. 
Crest of Langton two winged serpents, V. interwoven and erect on their tails, V. 

In this place rest the remains of 
Thomas Langton, of Teeton, Esq., who died August 21, 1662, aged 70 years. 
And also of Elizabeth, the wife of Thomas Langton, Esq., who died Sep. 2, 1762, 

set. 60. 

The aforesaid Thos. Langton was High Sheriff of Northamptonshire in the year 

1735. 

Mention is made of a Robert Langton, LL.D., who founded a 
school at Appleby, . Westmoreland ; nor should be forgotten 
William de Langton, Dean of York, who died 1375, the marble 
slab of whose tomb is still in existence at York Cathedral, which 
has been placed on the tomb of Archbishop Thomas Rotherham, 
second founder of Lincoln College, Oxford. 



1341 



THE FAMILY OF LANGTON. 103 

;Mgm nf IFmigta, ^inrnlnajiire. 



John Langton=j=dau. of Sir John Green, Knt. 



William de Langton =f=dau. of Eoh. de Tateshall. 

r J 

William Langton =y= — 

I 

John Langton =f= dau. of Sir Eoh. Aske, Knt. 

r 1 

John Langton =j= dau. of — Hardingshead. 



William Langton =p — 

I 1 

John Langton =f= Dau. of Wm. de Bray toft. 

I 1 

John Langton =p Dau. of Sir John Fitz Symon, Knt. 

I 1 

John Langton =f= Dau. and Heir of Momby. 



John de Langton =j= Jane, dau. of Sir Nicholas Tarn worth, Knt. 
1 1 

Sir Thomas de Langton, Knt. =j= Anne, daughter of Sir Symon Kochford, Knt, 

l J 

John de Langton =y= Eliz dau. of — Portington. 

I 1 

Thomas Langton =f= Margaret, dau. of — Harington. 
I 1 

John Langton =j= Catherine, dau. and coheir of John Meeres of Saltfleet. 
I 

John Langton, oh. 1530 =p Eliz. dau. of William Quadring. 

r 1 1 

Alexander *=p Cicely dau. of John Bitteshy. William =p Dorothy, Dau. of John Littlehury. 

I ' From this gentleman is descended the 

John Langton, oh. 1572 =p Kose, dau. of John Littlehury. [Langtons of Newton Park, Somerset. 



John Langton, oh. 1583 =f= Anne, dau. of L. Palmer of Burgh. 



r 1 n 

Sir John Langton, Knt., Eliz. dau. Wm. Dalison. William » 
oh. 1610. ob. 1626 

I ' set. 64. 



Mary, dau. of Sir W. 
Stonehouse, Bart. 



William Langton =f= — President of Mag. Coll, Oxon. 

I 1 

\ George Langton, ob. 1695, set. 78 =j= — 

I ' 

George Langton, ob. 1727, set. 80 s=p Mrs. Mary Tindale, of Westminster, 1684. 

! | 1 

Bennet Langton, ob. 1769, sat. 73 =f=: Diana, dau. of Edmund Turner. 

' i -J 

Bennet Langton, LL.D. ob. 1801, set. 64 =i= Mary, Dowager Countess of Eothes. 

\ I ' 1 

George Langton =f= Eliz. dau. of Thos. Mainwaring. Peregrine ^Elizabeth A. Massingberd 
t , 1 r 1 

| John Stephen Langton =p Alice Armstrong. Algernon Langton Massingberd =f= Caroline, 
ob. 1533, set. 37. dau. of 

I 1 P 1 W.Pierce 

j George Bennet Langton =j= Marianne Brackenbury. Algernon = 



Bennet Eothes Langton, born 1840 = Lucy Katharine, dau. of Langhorne^urton, Rector 

of Somersby, 1684, co. Lincoln. 



104 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



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Publications of the 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. 



Its Transactions (Illustrated), Parts I., II., III., IV., with 
Index, completing Vol. I., 3s. 6d. each ; or Vol. I. bound 
in cloth antique, price 16s. 

Keports and Papers of the Associated Societies (Illustrated) 
for the years 1850 and 1855, 4s. each; and for the years 
1861, 1864, and 1865, 5s. each. 



Leicester: Crossley and Clarke, 



1 1 




Now Ready, 

(Foolscap Quarto, 254 Pages, with several Illustrations, on fine toned paper, cloth 
antique and red edges, price £1. Is.; a Cheaper Edition price 10s. 6d.) 

A CHRONICLE 

OF 

The Bhuvth trt §♦ lattin, 

IN LEICESTER, 

DURING THE REIGNS OF HENRY VIIL, EDWARD VI., MARY, AND ELIZABETH, 

WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF ITS MINOR ALTARS 
AND ANCIENT GUILDS, 

Compiled from Original and Contemporaneous Documents. 

BY THOMAS NORTH, 

Honorary Secretary of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. 



**• The Profits will be expended upon the Eestoration of S. Martin's Church, 
Leicester. 

Leicester: CROSSLEY AND CLARKE. 
London: BELL AND DALDY. 



SOME OF THE OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

illustrates in a very interesting manner the social and ecclesiastical condition of 

England at the time of the Reformation, and for some time after Guilds are of the highest 

antiquity, but their history has never yet received the attention from English antiquaries which it 
deserves. Mr. North's is a valuable contribution towards such a history. — Notes and Queries. 

Mr. Norih is enabled to shew to the present inhabitants of Leicester the ecclesiastical doings 

and prevailing manners of our town a dozen generations back Has done his work carefully 

and judiciously. He has produced a book abounding in interesting memories of past times. — 
Leicester Advertiser. 

We are always rejoiced to find an antiquary and a scholar building up local history out of local 

records Mr. North has worked up this material into his history with great skill The 

volume is not only ably compiled, but handsomely got up. Its special public may be within the 
shire of Leicester, but there is matter in it that may interest antiquaries beyond those limits. — 
Athenaeum 

will add a little more to the antiquarian evidence respecting ornaments. The account 

of the religious guilds attached to the church is, however, the most interesting part of the volume. 
Mr. North has taken great pains with the book.— Guardian. 

All who would encourage the preservation of a knowledge of the past, whether as a beacon to 
guide us in the future, or as a subject of pleasing retrospect, will find Mr. North's book a record 
complete and faithful, as far as it proposes to go, of the matters to which it relates, and is worthy 
a place in the library for perusal now and hereafter. — Leicester Chronicle. 

We would strongly recommend Mr. North's book as one in which they will find great store of 
information, well digested , and arranged and presented in a most attractive form.— Worcester Herald. 

Lovers of archaeology will hail with delight this handsome little quarto all this and much 

more equally worth the study may be gathered from Mr. North's interesting pages We 

earnestly recommend those interested in such matters to read the book for themselves. — Church 
and State Review. 

Amusing for the drawing room, a thoroughly furnished handbook for the ecclesiologist, and 
precious to the conservator of parish memories.— Leicester Journal. 

The contents include the uses of the sacring bell, thurible, the veil, holy fire, incense, 

monstrance, ostensorium, pax, piscina, censer, chrismatory, corporale, cruets, Easter sepulchre, 
&c, &c— Building News. 

Some of its contents— the symbolism of the altar-stone, candles on the altar, the paschal 
candle, the corporale, the brass eagle, the eulogia, or holy loaf, the roodloft, holy water, the pax, 
symbols of the evangelists, &c. — Stamford Mercury. 

a very trusty and instructive monograph he places before us, throwing light and interest 

over a transition period of English history. It is of much more than parochial vaJ-^. It illumines 
the broad story of our country — Newcastle Daily Chronicle. 

This beautifully-printed volume consists of extracts from early churchwardens' accounts and 
from records of ancient guilds which possessed chantries in the old Church of S. Martin, 
Leicester, together with copious annotations in which Mr. North explains the ancient ritual of the 
church, the furniture and the ornaments of the fabric and the officiating clergy, and the origin and 

history of the town guilds Mr. North's interesting volume does not, however, consist of dry 

extracts such as we have indicated, but is made up independently of these with pleasant discus- 
sions, and with much information which just now is assuming importance. This information he 
has contrived to present divested of all dryness, and attractive by means of the skill with which he 
has arranged his materials. — Churchman. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OP 

THE LEICESTERSHIRE 



SOCIETY. 

VOL. II.— PART 2. 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE. 
1867. 



Price Three Shillings and Sixpence. 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

THE LEICESTERSHIRE 



Architectural artbr ^rc^bgical 

SOCIETY. 

VOL. II.— PART 2. 




LEICESTER : 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE. 
1867. 




V . Cnntoite. 



> 
I 



PAGE 

Monthly Meeting, 26th May, 1862 . . . . . . . . 105 



Holy Wells, by Mr. Vincent Wing ( with Illustration ). . . . 106 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 20th July, 1862 . . . . . . . . Ill 

Excuesion to Bosworth Field, 6th August, 1862 . . . . 112 

Kieby Muxloe Castle, by the Bev. Prebendary Trollope, M.A., F.S.A. 112 

The Battle of Bosworth Field, by Ditto (with Illustrations) . . 115 

Stoke Golding Church, by Ditto . . . . . . . . 147 

Evening Public Meeting in Leicester, 6th August, 1862 . . 151 

S. Martin's Church, Leicester, by Mr. E. Koberts, F.S.A. . . . . 151 

On the Llfe and Times of Letitia, Countess of Leicester, by Mr. 

Edward Levien, M.A., F.S.A. . . . . . . . . 155 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 29th September, 1862 . . . . . . 167 

Ancient Stained Glass in Stockerston Church, by Mr. G. C. Bellairs 

(with Illustrations) .. .. .. .. 168 

Latimer's House at Thurcaston, by Mr. James Thompson . . 169 



iv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Notes upon Allexton Church, Leicestershire, by tlie Kev. J. H. Hill 172 



Bi- Monthly Meeting, 21th November, 1802 .. .. .. 175 

Annual General Meeting, 20th January, 1863 . . . . 178 

Report for the year 1862 . . . . . . . . . . 178 

Town Crosses, by Mr. K. W. Johnson . . . . . . 182 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 30th March, 1863 . . . . . . 186 

Genealogical Notices upon the Family op Tailbois, by the Bev. J. 

H. Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 25th May, 1863 . . . . . . 199 

Wigston's Hospital, Suggestions for preserving, by Mr. Thomas 

Nevinson (with Illustration) . . .. .. .. 200 

The Jewry Wall, Leicester, by Mr. Henry Goddard . . . . 202 



LEICESTERSHIRE 



ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY, 



May 26th, 1862. 

The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society : 
the Rev. John Fisher (Leicester), Mr. E. J. Simons (Manor House, 
Ullesthorpe), and Mr. Foxton (Leicester). 

- Mr. G. H. Nevinson exhibited a small silver coin of Hadrian, 
(a.d. 117 to 138), found near the Fosse Road, by Leicester. The 
coin of this reign is important in number, variety, and artistic skill, 
and interesting to English collectors from the fact of Hadrian 
himself having visited Britain. 

Mr. Hunt (Thurnby) showed a spur apparently of the time of 
Henry VIII., with a star-like rowel upon a somewhat short neck, 
that form having superseded, about the time indicated, the very 
long neck spurs previously in use. That gentleman also produced 
a number of small Roman coins found in Leicester, also a farthing 
of Charles I. (?) which from its poverty of execution and baseness 
of metal, proved the truth of Humphrey's remarks upon the 
attempted introduction of copper farthings in this reign — " The 
farthings being of course below their intrinsic value, caused endless 
discontent and disturbance." 

Mr. James Thompson exhibited various articles of consider- 
able interest, which he explained in the following remarks: "In 
laying before the Society to-day two articles of a date approaching 
the close of the seventeenth century, I am aware that their anti- 
quarian interest is less than that of objects of more ancient 
character, but the dagger and sconce which I exhibit to-day for 
Mr. Henry Goddard are worthy of inspection. The dagger has a 
crown engraved upon it, and a crowned head stamped upon it, and 
it bears on one side, near the hilt, the inscription "god save king 
i Vol. II 



8 



106 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

james, 1686." The sconce, or candlestick, has a hook to hang 
against a wall. It is curiously wrought with scroll ornaments. 
It bears the initials R.B.P., and the date 1684. It has been used 
very much as the sconces represented in Mr. Wright's work on 
Mediaeval Manners and Customs were used, and would seem to 
have been placed in some public room or large apartment. Two 
other things which I bring to-day belong to Policeman Hart, who 
has entrusted them to me for exhibition. The one is a black urn 
of Roman character, probably an unguent jar. The other is pro- ! 
bably a mortar or handmill, which was found near Mountsorrel. j 
The urn was found in removing the earth to make a cellar in 
Lower Brown Street, Leicester. Both should, I think, be placed |t 
in the Leicester Museum. I here take the opportunity of saying J 
that Policeman Hart has proved himself very serviceable in J 
watching over and preserving antiquarian remains found at inter- 
vals in making street excavations in Leicester. He has an intelli- 
gent and discriminating appreciation of the remains discovered, 
but I regret to learn that he has experienced annoyance and 
obstruction in the prosecution of his endeavours. I am sure that 
the Watch Committee of the Borough would, if they were aware 
of the fact, check the annoyance to which Hart is exposed, and 
allow him to act in future as he has done hitherto, with advantage 
to the Museum and to the antiquarian gratification of the public, 1 
in respect to local excavations and discoveries." 

Mr. Vincent Wing (Melton Mowbray) contributed the follow- j, 
ing paper upon 

HOLY WELLS, 

which was read in that gentleman's absence by the Secretary, Mr. I 

North: — ' 

The subject of Holy Wells, it is submitted, is worthy of the j 

consideration of our Society ; and in the hope of provoking more } 

extensive research, the following brief paper has been drawn up. I 

As the archaeologist attempts to retrace the history of them to [ 
their origin, the mind is carried back to a remote antiquity, but 

can only conjecture the source in which they have had their com- j 

mencement. In pursuing the inquiry, however, we enter upon a ( 

flowery path in which poetry and fancy afford the richest sensa- j 

tions of romance ; for both the classic and the modern muses I 
garnish their choicest strains of narrative with conceptions drawn 

from the sacred spring or venerable holy-well. We are at once j 

reminded of the nymphs in the imagination of the ancients, and j 
the many fanes or grottoes with their streams hard by, whose 
mysterious waters were the reputed baths of deities, and the 
subjects of so many fictions. It is not inadmissible to suppose 
that these notions and mysteries which have been transmitted so 



HOLY WELLS. 



107 



extensively have, like others widely disseminated, had their com- 
mencement in obscure traditions and perversions of some important 
realities: the marvels of the Jordan, or of Siloam and Bethesda, 
may have been the prototypes to produce the counterfeits of 
ancient story. Then the superstitions of the heathen, we know, 
were often adopted, and would easily be grafted on the practices of 
an unenlightened age of the church's history. The mind of the 
vulgar clings with tenacity to resorts for gifts of healing, or com- 
munication from unseen spirits ; and the teaching of a better faith 
would not escape the mixture of such delusion. Hence, not only 
has the pagan sprinkling of holy water been introduced in the 
middle ages, but localities of streams or fountains have been con- 
fided in for a mysterious presence and supernatural virtues. In 
fact wells of heathen fame have been transferred to saints in many 
instances. The legendary history connected with our subject 
bears us to the very extreme of poetic license ; and the faith in it 
has been more than excessive. How many of our English towns 
owe their names, or the terminations of them, to their sites, which 
were selected from the supposed guardianship that accompanied 
the sainted wells that they could boast of. Not only does the city 
of Wells derive its name from its own St. Andrew's, but we may 
infer that the Chad wells, the Holwells, the Barwells, the Eastwells, 
and others of our own county even, had their high repute for 
healing or benedictory attractions ; and the streams which once 
lured the pilgrim to devotions and works of supererogation, may 
still be found to luxuriate upon, with pensive contemplation of the 
past, and thankfulness for the brighter light that has dispersed the 
fogs of superstition. Frequently has mediaeval art enshrined the 
sacred spot, and the structures have been singularly picturesque. 
One laments on this account that, from their delicate construction 
and the deadness of archaeology in later times, so few now exist to 
illustrate the artistic skill and the romantic fancy of our forefathers. 
Still the imagination is aided by some solitary remaining examples; 
and with them, and the knowledge of what was once attributed to 
the patron saint, we may bring up visions of the past, and place our- 
selves for the moment amongst these exquisites of bygone times. 
The most remarkable relic of this description is that existing at 
Holywell, in North Wales. We may suppose that this has escaped 
• the ravages of time and an ultra-protestantism through the appeal 
made by its great beauty, and the durable character of the stone- 
work. The notable legend of St. Winifred may possibly have 
secured for it a continued veneration ; for a lingering faith in what 
had once been paramount in the traditions of a simple people is 
not easily extinguished ; and the Golden Legend, published in 
1512, would be treasured and appealed to as the exponent and 
verification of the story. If any one present has not seen the 
building, the small engravings now exhibited will give an idea of it. 



108 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



When a spring or stream had gained repute for celestial occupancy, 
it was a practice to choose a site upon it for a baptistery ; and 
probably most holy wells have been thus honoured, or, at least, 
have served the purpose of furnishing the water for administration of 
baptism in the immediate district. But besides this common use, the 
superstitious reliances on the saints of these springs for various helps 
have been remarkable, and the powers of cure imputed to them were 
innumerable. Each well was commonly in repute for its own 
specific virtue, and this will often give an interest in tracing the 
origin of their names. Even to the present day the Wishing-wells 
perpetuate the absurdities of these superstitions; where the drop 
of a pin is supposed to gain the wish that accompanies it. But 
leaving the puerilities of the present and the grosser delusions of 
past ages, there are aspects in which we may look back upon 
the history of these things with more favour ; for benevolent in- 
tentions and pious devotion are seen in a manner to command our 
admiration. There are numerous examples of baptistery and 
hermitage remains in Cornwall. In many cases the hermit's cell 
has been built near the sacred spring on some cliff, or sea com- 
manding eminence, or even insulated rock, that at the tempest's 
howl the recluse might be engaged in watching the dangers of the 
seafaring adventurers, and ply his earnest intercessions in their 
favour, or aid in restoring the half-drowned mariners. Such self- 
sacrifice and devotion to the vital interests of others is worthy of 
perpetuated remembrance, if only to provoke to equal zeal the 
professors of a purer faith. The river Lene at Nottingham had a 
fame of great antiquity: the hermitages which were upon its bank, 
not long ago, showed carvings of details of Norman architecture. 
Other holy wells, with the hermit's oratory, have had their sites 
remarkable for their extreme seclusion, as being favourable to 
ascetic sentiment, and some for the impressive scenery surrounding 
them. In this brief notice of the subject, no elaborate research 
after existing examples is undertaken. Their design and a general 
view of them only are aimed at To give an account of the many 
relics of this class, with their history, traditions, and supernatural 
attributes, the imputation of which still lingers in some instances, 
would be more laborious than valuable. One ruin of a Well- 
chapel, however, may properly be brought into especial notice, as 
it is but little known, and its charms are so extraordinary. In the 
beautiful vale of Clwyd, near the Cefn rocks, there remains a small 
cruciform chapel. It was in the form of a Greek cross, the four 
limbs being equal ; the walls of the three eastern limbs of the 
cross area are yet standing, and the western portion has enough 
remaining to show what the fabric was when entire. The well is 
in the nave, or more properly the western limb, and the wall 
enclosing the well is still in good preservation to the height of 
some eighteen inches above the flooring. There is happily 




Gcvou~:vd JPlcvrv of Cefru JSapbistery Chapel 





S.JB.. A-rvas 




*Aniiqiribie& fowid ztv JLeic&sber. 
(see page 



HOLY WELLS. 



109 



sufficient to show the curiously elegant design of this baptistery, 
as we may suppose it to have been, the bases of the shafts 
. and other details being tolerably perfect. The enclosure of the 
well is angular, presenting in plan a kind of asterisk, and from 
each inner and outer angle has risen a slender and elegant pillar, 
thus encircling the fount with a double colonnade, which, with the 
main walls of the building, would support a ribbed and groined 
roof with intersections and ramifications, resulting altogether in 
a singular display of taste and beauty. But trees are growing in 
the midst of the building, and their roots threaten speedy destruction 
of the chapel walls. Its claims for preservation should be earnestly 
pressed upon the present owner. If there be such a thing as 
aesthetic religion, this must have been its most favoured residence : 
we may contemplate its power to captivate as visited in the summer, 
with the scorching sun imparting relish for the shade under a canopy 
of verdant splendour. Embosomed as is this sacred fane in really 
enchanting scenery, where the gurgling, pellucid stream, and rocks 
of fantastic shape and singular richness do their utmost with the 
crowded trees of various foliage to make the glen unrivalled in its 
charms and sweetness — the woodland songstress holding perpetual 
festivity, and the darting finny tribe bespeaking an enjoyment of 
] fairy tale rather than of ordinary existence — here the calm retreat 
and gorgeous scene must have imparted an unearthly sensation 
most potent for reverie and religious abstraction. In our observa- 
tions, however, we would not cater for mere fancy and romance, 
nor by any means commend the lurid and sickly conceptions of 
ascetic life : the visitant of such an earthly paradise may advance 
in holy contemplation to the really sublime and beautiful, and not 
less rational than devout, concentrating his affections upon the 
great Parent of creation, let the loveliness of nature evoke blissful 
effusion to the God of nature, who is a God of love. To this 
little baptistery chapel attention is particularly invited. A ground 
plan is herewith presented to show the arrangement.* 

At the close of the proceedings, Mr. James Thompson called 
attention to a discovery made that morning of a human skeleton 
at the Bow Bridge, Leicester. The remains consisted of a skull, 
shoulder bones, ribs, leg and thigh bones, and other osseous 
particles, together with the skull of a horse, and the horn of an ox. 
The human remains were laid before the Society, with a view to 
their inspection. One of the members present being a medical 
practitioner (Mr. J. Hunt, Thurnby), the bones underwent an 
anatomical examination. The conclusion arrived at was that the 
skeleton was that of a man of early or middle life, certainly not 
more than thirty years of age, of short stature and slight frame. 
They were found in the mud close to the north side of the bridge 
* Kindly reproduced in anastatic drawing for this volumo by Mr. Bull. 



no 



LEIC ESTERSHIEE ARCHITECT URAL 



just removed, at the depth of about three feet below the bed of the 
river. It would appear that the earth had been carried away, and 
a considerable hollow formed, since filled up with mud, at the 
spot indicated, and there the bones found a resting place, a short 
distance below the level of the foundations of the piers of the 
bridge. Tradition and history both relate that the remains of 
Richard III., when taken up from their grave in the church of the 
Grey Friars, Leicester, were carried away by the multitude, and 
thrown over the Bow Bridge into the river. This tradition or fact 
is still sufficiently strong to cause an impression in some quarters 
that the bones now discovered are those of the unfortunate monarch, 
though there are numerous reasons why such a fact is highly 
improbable. The skull and other bones bore not the slightest 
appearance of having been struck or fractured, whereas Richard's 
body was " hacked to pieces." Richard died aged thirty-five. 
These were stated by competent judges to be the remains of a 
young man, certainly not more than thirty years old; neither is it 
at all probable that the bones of Richard, supposing them to have 
been thrown over the bridge exactly over the spot where these 
were found, would not have been more scattered, when the lapse 
of time is considered between his burial in the Grey Friars and 
the desecration of his tomb. This discovery, however, is sufficiently 
curious to elicit many and various remarks and opinions. It was 
therefore recommended that the bones should be preserved for 
further examination by anatomists, and those who might be in- 
terested in the matter.* 

* The following paragraphs from the Leicester Chronicle not only give an 
interesting account of the Old Bow Bridge, but also relate m the above-mentioned 
discovery. 

" The readers of this paper resident in Leicester are aware that the old bridge on 
the western side of the town, known as Bow Bridge, has recently been taken to 
pieces, stone by stone, and entirely removed, in order to make way for a new bridge, 
more commodious for foot-passengers, and affording a wider waterway below for the 
stream, in case of periodical inundations. Bow Bridge was historical. It was that 
over which Richard the Third, with his army, rode to the neighbourhood of Bosworth, 
and where, striking his spur against the parapet, tradition tells us an aged woman 
cursed him and told him that when he next came that way his head should strike 
where his heel had struck. The ancient fabric had five semi-circular arches. It 
was about six feet wide, with niches at intervals, on both sides, in which persons on 
foot could stand aside while wagons or other vehicles crossed. Below the niches 
were piers, with cut- waters on the outside. The bridge was probably constructed in 
the twelfth century, previous to which there would be a ford ; the road having been 
in all likelihood formed as early as the Roman times, as a via vicinalis, or branch 
way from «the town to the Fosse Road passing by Danett's Hall. In its lower 
masonry it was the same structure as that over which the host of Richard marched 
to the fated field of Bosworth ; but of late years the parapets have been altered, and 
i a kind of patchwork of brick has been added to various portions. 

" During the progress of the work the stream has been stopped and boards have 
been thrown across the channel, north and south of the site of the old bridge; so 
that the bed of the old river has been left comparatively dry, and earth has been 
removed to make way for foundations. 

" The bed of the channel does not seem to have been deep — not more than six or 
seven feet below the surface of the adjoining banks, leaving ordinarily from three to 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Ill 



July '20th, 1862. 
The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the chair. 

The following New Members were elected : Sir Alexander B. C. 
Dixie, Bart., Market Bosworth Hall; The Rev. J. M. W. Piercy, 
Slawston ; The Rev. John Spittal, Leicester ; Mr. J. J. Douglas, 
Market Haiborough ; Mr. Alfred Cooper, Leicester. 

Mr. North (Honorary Secretary) reported that the arrange- 
ments for an Excursion to Bosworth Field in conjunction with 

four, or at most five feet of water above the bottom of the channel. The nature of 
the soil here was of course muddy and filthy, being a deposit formed when the water- 
ways near the town were the receptacles of all its refuse matter from manufactories 
and other places ; but this surface deposit being penetrated, the gravel presented 
itself. It was found that stakes and faggots had been laid below the piers of the old 
bridge ; and in one part, near the eastern end, while the workmen were digging in 
the bed of the river, in a part where the ground had evidently been at some early period 
excavated to some depth, and the black, muddy, slushy soil had settled in its place, 
they discovered a human skeleton. Apparently thrown into the water back downwards, 
the skull was lying face upwards, the knees drawn towards the head. This was 
about eighteen inches north of the east pier of the old bridge, and extending three 
feet backwards, at right angles to the bridge. The skeleton lay about two feet six 
inches below the bed of the stream, in the black deposit occupying the space which 
the gravel originally and naturally occupied. Near the bones were found the skull 
of a horse and the horn of an ox, with other bones of an animal. 

" The remains were carefully picked up by the navvies, placed in a basket, and 
carried to the Borough Surveyor's office. They were afterwards taken to the Town 
Library, and there exhibited. On Tuesday, Mr. Lankester, surgeon, of this town, 
very obligingly complied with a request to examine the bones minutely, with a view 
to determine the sex and probable age of the individual of whose bodily structure 
they had once constituted the framework. The inspection took place in the Borough 
Surveyor's office, where Mr. Lankester re-arranged the whole skeleton, finding it very 
nearly complete. His conclusions are embodied in these notes : — 

4 Having examined the human bones discovered in excavating the foundation of 
the old Bow Bridge, I find them to represent an almost perfect skeleton, there 
being only three of the vertebrae, and the smaller bones of the hands and feet, 
wanting. I have no hesitation in pronouncing the individual to whom the exhumed 
bones belonged to be about twenty years of age, and, I am inclined to believe, of the 
male sex ; though, owing to a partial mutilation of the pelvis, this point is somewhat 
difficult to decide upon positively. From the small size of the bones, I infer that 
the subject under notice must have been somewhat below average height, and of 
weak muscular development. 

< H. LANKESTER, 
\ ' Surgeon.' 

'May 29, 1862.' 

" In order still further to elucidate the mystery connected with the discovery, the 
skull was on Wednesday laid before a gentleman temporarily resident in this town, 
who has for many years studied phrenology, and who is the author of a work on 
the subject, widely circulated in Germany. The report of tbis gentleman is that 
the skull is that of a young person, of inferior intellectual development, who pos- 
sessed some constructive skill, with large animal propensities : and that the skull 
would not have remained a century in the place and soil where it was discovered. 

" The remains have probably been drifted by the current, at some by-gone period, 
from the place where the body fell, or was thrown into the water, to the bole of soft 
earth in which they settled near the pier of the bridge. It is not improbable thai 
the person who thus perished was either thrown in violently or was a suicide." 



112 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the British Archaeological Association, the Northamptonshire and 
Lincolnshire Societies, and the Leicester Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society, on the 6th August were completed. 

Mr. Goddard exhibited an urn or vase found near Danett's 
Hall, Leicester. He also shewed a ring holding a pair of tweezers, 
an ear-pick and a tooth-pick forming a good specimen of an Anglo- 
Saxon lady's chatelaine. These relics of the domestic life of the 
Anglo-Saxon ladies (which proved they paid considerable attention 
to their personal appearance), were found near the Butt-close Lane, 
Leicester. Also a small vessel of Roman pottery, — an unguent- 
arium, — also found in Leicester. ( Vide Illustration, p. 109.) 

Mr. Hunt produced several English and Roman coins. 



August 6th, 1862. 

EXCURSION TO BOSWORTH FIELD. 

A large number of carriages containing members of this Society, 
of the British Archaeological Association (then holding its congress 
in Leicester), of the Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire Archi- 
tectural Societies, and of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, assembled in the Market Place, Leicester, at Ten o'clock. 
The first place visited was Kirby Muxloe, where all dismounted to 
inspect the ruins of its ancient castle. 

The Rev. Prebendary Trollope, M.A., F.S.A., read the 
following Paper upon 

KIRBY MUXLOE CASTLE. 

It will not be necessary now to search into the more remote history 
of Kirby Muxloe, because our object in coming here is an archi- 
tectural one, viz., to inspect a charming old specimen of ancient 
brickwork, that is well worthy of study ; so that we need confine 
our attention only to the features of the building now before us. 
Happily, its date is known from the evidence of a grant made to 
William, the historically famous Lord Hastings, by Edward IV., 
and dated April 17th, 1474, wherein he gives leave to his cham- 
berlain, the said Lord Hastings, to wall in and enclose his manor 
house of Kirby Muxloe with a stone wall, to fortify and embattle 
it, as well as to inclose and impark two thousand acres of land and 
wood, with the appurtenances of his demesne at Kirby Muxloe, 
together with the right of free warren. 

Sir Ralph de Hastings was the first of the family possessed of 
this place, who acquired it by his marriage with the heiress of the 
Herle family ; and here William Lord Hastings is traditionally 



KIRBY MUXLOE CASTLE. 



113 



reported to have brought the notoriously lovely Jane Shore, after 
the death of Edward IV., whose extraordinary beauty had capti- 
vated him as well as his late Sovereign. 

The situation of this edifice is low, owing to the custom pre- 
valent during the fifteenth century of encircling all residences of 
importance with a single or a double moat, over which were thrown 
drawbridges connected with gatehouses and portcullises. Throsby 
in his Leicestershire Views, — always quaint, — is quite himself in 
the description he gives of Kirby Muxloe, when he says that "it 
something resembles a place of annoyance," and that " one of its 
towers is making hasty strides towards complete annihilation," 
whence, I presume, we may infer that the towers of Kirby Muxloe 
were formerly in the habit of sallying out on certain bellicose and 
most dangerous expeditions ! But, however this may have been, 
w T e are quite sure that its features have, considering all things, 
waged a very successful battle with the elements, and are glad that 
so much of the original fabric still remains, notwithstanding the 
neglect it has long experienced at the hands of man. The whole 
is of red brick, relieved by some diapering on the principal front, 
composed of bricks of a darker tint, and stone dressings. 

It will be observed that much of the good effect of this bit of 
brickwork is produced by the use of thinner bricks than those now 
commonly used; the mortar also forming wide joints between the 
bricks is of an admirable quality, being still so sound and fresh 
that it is hard to believe in the date when it was undoubtedly 
made and applied. The plain but substantial vaulting over the 
newel staircases and elsewhere is also worthy of attention. 

Having approached the' entrance of the Castle, which is de- 
fended by a formidable gatehouse that still remains in a fairly 
perfect state, and passed over the moat where a drawbridge was 
placed in former days, the lateral grooves and deep slit above for 
a portcullis will be seen, and then the tremendous hooks, — three on 
either side of both ends of the gatehouse archway, that formerly 
supported equally massive folding doors. 

Between these are doorways, one on either side of the archway, 
opening into small rooms, one of which was, no doubt, the porter's 
lodge ; over the archway was a large room, perhaps used as a 
state dining hall, approached by two newel staircases on either 
side, within octangular turrets, which also gave access to several 
other smaller rooms. At the angles of this front of the Castle 
were formerly two towers of considerable dimensions and three 
stories high, connected by stout walls with the central feature, 
already described. One of these towers alone now remains — that 
on the south-west side. It contained three principal rooms, one 
over the other, each supplied with a fireplace and chimney ; the 
lower one perhaps served as a hall, or guard room for the servants, 



114 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

the one over it as the lord's hall, or principal living room, and the 
uppermost as his " solar," or sleeping room. 

Adjoining each of these is a small chamber and closet within, 
a second smaller tower applied to the larger one, while another 
similar feature contains the staircase, also built of brick. The 
doorways here are neatly constructed of chamfered and moulded 
bricks; but perhaps the most interesting features are at the base 
of this tower, and at other points of this the principal facade, — < 
viz., circular apertures with sight-slits above them, evidently for 
the use of small pieces of artillery in the defence of the Castle, 
should it be necessary. Two of these are at each of the three ex- 
posed angles of this tower, and others command the approach 
to the gatehouse. A brick vaulting, of a plain character, originally 
spanned the gateway entrance similar to that still to be seen in 
several of the adjacent rooms, and a vaulted recess in the curtain 
wall to the left of the entrance, whose outer wall has been broken 
away, is worthy of notice, because its use is not evident. Such 
was the character of the western facade of Kirby Muxloe Castle, 
forming one side of a quadrangle, the others being composed of 
strong and lofty walls, relieved and strengthened by towers at the 
angles and in the centres of each wall ; that in the northern one 
having formed an internal feature, so as not to interfere with the 
external run of the wall to which it is attached, but those in the 
eastern and southern sides project beyond the walls with which 
they are incorporated, and appear to have been of an oblong plan, 
as was the south-eastern angle tower; but the north-western one 
consisted apparently of a square tower to which were attached 
two smaller flanking towers, or turrets, as far as we can judge from 
the evidence of the remaining foundations. 

The next stage was 

MARKET BOSWORTH. 

The church was visited, and it was briefly described by Mr. E. 
Roberts, F.S.A. ; at the hall (by invitation of Sir A. B. C. Dixie, 
Bart.) the visitors inspected some curious and interesting pictures 
and fire-arms ; all then adjourned to the Dixie Arms Hotel, where 
upwards of two hundred ladies and gentlemen partook of luncheon. 

Shortly before three o'clock the bugle summoned all to the 
carriages, which proceeded to Ambian Hill, overlooking the Battle 
Field. Here the visitors found an immense concourse of people 
assembled to hear an account of the stirring scene once enacted 
upon the spot where they were assembled. A large platform had 
been erected for the members of the different societies present. 
It was handsomely decorated with appropriate banners and with 
evergreens. Large flags, too, marked the more specially interesting 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWOKTH FIELD. 



115 



historical sites on the field. A silver-gilt facsimile of the crown 
of Richard III. adorned the front of the platform. 

Major WoLLASTON, of Shenton Hall, the President, having read 
a letter from Earl Howe regretting his inability to be present, said 
he had been requested to preside there that day, and he had great 
pleasure in doing so. He had also very great pleasure in wel- 
coming the visitors to that historical hill ; and he begged more 
especially to welcome those gentlemen who were paying them the 
compliment by coming from a distance to discuss the merits and 
demerits of all they had to show them. No one had a right to do 
that better than himself, who was a resident upon the spot and one 
of the principal proprietors of those celebrated acres. Their 
friends, whose pilgrimage was already extended, were no doubt 
anxious to proceed with their peregrinations as soon as possible ; 
he would therefore lose no time in introducing the Rev. Canon 
Trollope, who intended to fight the battle of Bosworth over again. 
He would, no doubt, give them a most instructive lecture upon the 
important and historical events which occurred there some three 
hundred and seventy-seven years ago. He might say to those 
gentlemen who came from a distance, that they frequently now 
saw an exciting scene upon that hill, when it was covered with red 
coats ; but they were not soldiers of the Queen, but soldiers of the 
chase. He would say that the hill had never witnessed such an 
array as that he now saw around him, — so many celebrated and 
learned characters ; and certainly the hill had never seen so many 
soldiers of the Cross since the memorable day of the battle of 
Bosworth. He begged to call upon the Rev. Prebendary Trollope 
to come forward to explain to them the important events that 
occurred there during that action. 

The Rev. Prebendary Trollope then read the following 
Paper : 

THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 

A fair and an unmistakeably English scene is spread out before 
us; falling away from the grassy eminence on which we stand, the 
rich pasture fields below, watered by little streamlets, and inter- 
sected by a canal, are dotted with sheep and oxen that are fattening 
in perfect security, while all else besides speaks of peace and 
prosperity. In front is a modest farmstead, yonder is the quaint 
old hall of a country gentleman, and nestling under its beneficial 
influence is an evidently well-cared-for village, while over both is cast 
the holy shadow of a house of prayer, as if to bless the hands that 
raised it to God's glory, as well as those that worship therein. 
That village is Shenton, with White Moors on the left, just on the 
other side of the little river Tweed, beyond which is Atherstone : 
over a curving ridge behind (to the right) is Bosworth, two miles 



116 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



distant; nearer and more directly in our rear is the village of 
Sutton Cheney, with that of Stapleton a little more to the south 
east; below, on the left, is Ambian Wood, and beyond it, another 
ridge, with a break in the middle, near Dadlington, above which 
rises the beautiful spire of Stoke Golding ; while below is the far- 
famed Redmoor Plain, about two miles long, one mile wide, and 
containing some fifteen hundred acres of land. 

But still more immediately around us is another, and yet a 
happier evidence of national tranquility ; for I see a mighty mass, 
composed of the various classes that together constitute England's 
population, met together for a peaceful purpose, and so entirely 
destitute of all mutual fear, that the most formidable weapon 
among them is a walking-stick ! 

We came not here, however, simply for the purpose of looking 
upon a fair and peaceful scene of the present day, but to bid it 
form the groundwork for a picture of the past, and then to people 
it with the shadows of those whose earthly passions and aspirations 
have long since ceased to agitate themselves or to trouble others — 
to summon, as it were, the quiet dead before us, in order that they 
may rehearse the actions of their lives — to cause them once again 
to draw their bows, to grasp their bills, to brandish their swords, 
to charge with their lances, as they did in life, after the manner of 
the heroes of Val-halla, and then again to allow them to repose 
amidst those elements from which, in imagination, we have invited 
them temporarily to arise. 

Now then let us ascend the stream of time, back — far back, 
until we reach a recess partly concealed by parasitical weeds, that 
hang and wave about it so as partially to hide its true character, 
and partly obscured by the natural mist that more or less thickly 
broods over so many portions of the past. 

Now let the rushing years roll by like winged wheels that are 
far swifter than those of any railway trains, for still the comparison 
of " as quick as thought" holds good ; one century has passed away, 
two, three, and then seventy-seven j^ears, so as to take us back to 
the date of 1485; and what do I see? Still the main features of 
the first scene remain the same; there rise the ridges that always 
partially encircled Redmoor Plain ; there is Bosworth spire behind 
us on the right, and its graceful sister of Stoke Golding on the left, 
and there is the Plain itself sloping towards Shenton; but an older 
church and an older hall is there, and not a single fence breaks the 
wide intervening expanse of pasture land, nor is an ox, or a cow, 
or a sheep to be seen, for all have been hurried off ; the farmstead 
is gone, and in its place, a little below, is a cottage with a small 
enclosure belonging to one Hewit, but he and his family have fled; 
the wood on the left is gone, the canal is gone, but on the other 
hand the overflowing of a little spring on Ambian hill side forms a 
minute tributary to the Tweed after it has emerged from a break in 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWOETH FIELD. 



117 



the high ground by Dadlington, and from want of care has been 
allowed to create a morass below, as indicated by the rank vege- 
• table growth springing from its surface, whose brighter green 
contrasts favourably with the sun-burnt grass of the plain around 
it, during the autumnal season. 

Such is the scene in thought before me, and now as to the 
actors that require to be put upon it ; they are numerous, for the 
sloping plain below is filled with thousands of armed men, mounted 
and on foot. There are nobles and knights, lance-men and archers, 
pike-men and bill-men, arquebusiers and bombardiers, there are 
standards and banners, gay surcoats and glittering armour, there 
is shouting and the sound of trumpets, for a battle is about to 
commence between a larger and a smaller body of troops ; but 
before the archers discharge their first volleys, let us mark who 
are the principals in the coming contest, and enquire what they 
are about to fight for. 

On one side is Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and on the 
other Richard III.; the one a claimant of the Crown of Englaud, 
the other its defender. 

Henry was the posthumous and only child of Edmund, Earl of 
Richmond, and Margaret, daughter of John, Duke of Somerset. 
From his earliest years it was his lot to experience misfortune, 
captivity, and exile, through his dangerously high position. When 
only four years of age, Pembroke Castle, one of the strongholds 
of his uncle Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, and where he was 
born and spent his first years, was taken by storm ; after which 
event he remained a prisoner in the hands of Lord Herbert, the 
captor of the castle, for nine years; then, through the temporary 
defeat of Edward IV., young Richmond regained his freedom, and 
Pembroke his estates, when both appeared at King Henry's court ; 
on which occasion that monarch is reported to have gazed on 
Richmond with the greatest interest, and to have expressed his 
belief that the young lad before him would one day wear the crown 
of England that had sat so heavily on his own brow. But towards 
the end of March in the following year, when Edward IV. was 
advancing triumphantly towards London after his victory at 
Tewkesbury, Pembroke and his nephew retreated with precipita- 
tion to Wales; there Roger Vaughan, the first emissary of the 
freshly enthroned king, who w r as sent to seize the two earls at 
Pembroke, was himself surprised, and executed by the elder earl's 
order; while a second attempt to capture them proved equally 
futile, for after Pembroke Castle had been closely beleaguered for 
eight days by a force under Morgan Thomas, they were rescued 
from its walls by David Thomas, a brother of Morgan's, who 
escorted them in safety to Tenby, whence they embarked for France. 
A storm however arising, the illustrious fugitives w 7 ere driven upon 
the shore of Brittany, and they were forced to land at St. Malo, 



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LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



one of the seaport towns of Francis, Duke of Brittany, who 
promised to protect them. Hearing of this mortifying escape, 
Edward IV. immediately endeavoured to persuade the Duke of 
Brittany to give up the two earls, and especially the younger one, 
to him, he being now more than ever anxious as to this point, from 
his well founded jealousy of one who, since the death of the late 
king and his son Prince Edward, had become the representative of 
the house of Lancaster; but the duke refused to comply with his 
request, although on the other hand he took good care to detain 
the young prince in his custody. 

Four years later, viz., in 1474, King Edward again endeavoured 
to gain possession of Richmond's person by means of bribery and 
false assurances, when he sent the astute Stillington, Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, and two others as ambassadors to the court of the 
Duke of Brittany, with instructions to spare no gold in effecting 
that object, and to meet any scruples on the duke's part with a 
false statement that the king of England only desired Richmond's 
presence in this country for the purpose of ending the rival claims 
of the houses of York and Lancaster by the marriage of Henry 
with the Princess Elizabeth of York. In the first instance this 
mission was successful, the Duke of Brittany commanding the 
young prince to be conducted to St. Malo, whence he was to 
embark for England. The result was readily forseen, and the 
poor victim of Edward's jealousy was compared by Hall " to a 
sheepe betraied into the teeth and claws of the woolfe," while 
Richmond himself, knowing full well that death awaited him on 
the other side of the channel, on the way to the sea was stricken 
with an attack of fever, the consequence of his fearful anticipations. 
But a deliverer was at hand in the person of John Chenlet, one of 
the duke's counsellors, who, most opportunely returning to Brittany 
at this time, boldly remonstrated with his master, plainly pointed 
out to him the certain consequences that would follow the English 
prince's extradition, and put before him the consequent dishonour 
that would attach to his name as the betrayer of a guest to whom 
he had promised security. Thus urged, the duke despatched his 
treasurer, Peter Landois, to St. Malo, with instructions to regain 
possession of Richmond's person, who, finding his custodians still 
at that port waiting for a fair wind, contrived to carry off the sick 
young prince secretly, and placed him in an adjoining sanctuary. 
Great was the wrath, great were the protestations of the English 
ambassadors, in reply to which Landois provokingly observed that 
they ought to have taken better care of their charge ; but, in the 
end, he comforted them with the assurance that Richmond would 
be watched and prevented from escaping from Brittany as heretofore. 

From this time Richmond chiefly resided at the port of Vannes 
and at Elven Castle in Brittany, and, seeing no hope of earthly 
promise before him, he seriously thought of taking orders, for 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



119 



which he began to make preparation by studying the best Latin 
and French authors; but in 1483 when Edward IV. died, and the 
Duke of Brittany's engagement had consequently ceased to hold 
good, Richmond was free ; nor was it long before a bright hope 
was placed before him of being called on to mount the throne of 
England. Discontented with Richard III., the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, the Earl of Devon, Sir Thomas St. Leger, and others made 
overtures to Richmond through the medium of Morton, Bishop of 
Ely, and eventually engaged to supply him with money and troops 
for the purpose of attacking Richard and hurling him from the 
throne, on condition that he would promise to marry the Princess 
Elizabeth, and thus unite the houses of York and Lancaster, 
which had for so long a time been most disastrously at variance 
with each other. Accordingly, by the aid of English gold, in two 
months' time Richmond raised five thousand men in Brittany, and 
embarked with them from St. Malo in forty ships, October 12th, 
hoping to arrive in England before the 18th, when the Duke of 
Buckingham had settled to raise his standard ; but, a storm arising, 
the voyage was so unexpectedly prolonged, that when Richmond 
reached the southern coast of England, he found Buckingham a 
fugitive, his Welsh troops dispersed, as well as those that had been 
raised in Devonshire and Cornwall, while the king's forces swarmed 
on the coast, so that he was compelled to return to Brittany without 
attempting to strike a single blow. 

Alarmed at this formidable intended attack upon his crown, 
King Richard then adopted the same course that his predecessor 
had taken, by endeavouring to bribe the Duke of Brittany to 
deliver up Richmond into his hands. At that time Landois 
virtually governed Brittany, in consequence of the duke's weak 
condition of body and mind; Richard's agents therefore applied 
to him, and with success, so that the life of Richmond was thus 
again greatly endangered ; but, fortunately for him, the Bishop of 
Ely having been made acquainted with this project through some 
of his friends at the English court, instantly sent off Christopher 
Urswick from Flanders (where the bishop was then residing) to 
Vannes, for the purpose of warning Richmond of his danger, who 
adopted the following clever mode of escape from the machinations 
of his enemies. First he asked permission of the French king to 
be allowed to enter his territory in safety, together with his friends, 
which was graciously granted ; then, taking advantage of the Duke 
of Brittany's accidental stay near the French border, on pretence 
of congratulating him on his returning health, he ostensibly sent 
the Earl of Pembroke and some of the most important of his 
adherents towards the Duke's residence, but with secret orders to 
slip off suddenly into France on their way ; next, stating that he 
was about to pay a visit to a friend in the neighbourhood of Vannes, 
he also left that town accompanied only by five attendants, so that 



120 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



no suspicion of his intentions arose ; then, entering a wood, where 
he disguised himself as one of his own servants, and keeping to 
byways, he succeeded in crossing the border, an hour before his 
Breton pursuers, and thus disappointed them of their hoped for 
prey. Proceeding to Angers, he there rejoined Pembroke and his 
friends, and soon after, by the Duke of Brittany's order the re- 
mainder of his followers — three hundred in number — were per- 
mitted to join him in France. At Angers he was kindly received 
by Charles VIII. of France, with whom he went to Montargis, 
where another most valuable adherent-joined him, viz., John, Earl 
of Oxford, an experienced commander, who had lately escaped 
from confinement in the castle of Ham,* through the connivance of 
Sir James Blunt, his custodian, who also himself together with Sir 
John Fortescue, came with Oxford to Richmond. From Montargis 
the whole party proceeded to Paris, where many persons, flying from 
England, offered their services to Richmond, including Richard 
Fox, afterwards Bishop of Winchester. Then he was strongly 
urged by his friends in England to make another attempt to secure 
the English crown for himself, who at the same time supplied him 
with a large sum of money through the agency of Brereton, a 
clever follower of his step-father, Lord Stanley. Notwithstanding 
his desire, however, to comply with such a request, he found con- 
siderable difficulty in raising the troops necessary for a fresh in- 
vasion; but at length, chiefly through the influence of Anne de 
Valois, the sister of the King of France, Richmond not only got 
together two thousand Normans under his command, but obtained 
a loan from King Charles that was almost as essential as the troops. 
At this time a fresh move was made by Richard in England, and 
one that would have been most damaging to Richmond had success 
attended it. Perceiving the great advantage his rival had in his 
projected alliance with the Princess Elizabeth — whose right to the 
throne was stronger than either his or Richmond's, — and seeing 
clearly enough that his wife was hastening towards the grave 
through consumption, from which she had long suffered, he formed 
the resolution of marrying Elizabeth himself, although she was so 
nearly related to him, or at all events of making both her and her 
mother, the Queen Dowager, believe that such was his intention. 
Strange to say, Elizabeth Woodville, dazzled by Richard's fair 
assurances that he now made to her and to her eldest daughter, 
and forgetful of the deaths of her passionately loved sons by his 
hands, ventured out of sanctuary, and again appeared at court 
with her family, where she fully expected to take a new position 

* This castle is situated in the marshes bordering the Somme, in French Flanders. 
It was built by the Comte de St. Pol in 1470, and still bears his motto " Mon mieux." 
In later years it has become famous as having been the prison of Prince Jules de 
Polignac, and other ministers of Charles X., and still more recently from the im- 
prisonment there of the present Emperor of the French, after his reverse at Boulogne 
in 1840. 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



121 



before long as the queen mother of Richard's second wife. Hence 
she wrote to her son, the Marquis of Dorset, then a refugee in 
France, urging him to desert Richmond's cause, and to resort to 
her at the English court. In accordance with her instructions 
Dorset attempted to fly from Paris towards Flanders, and great 
was the alarm amongst Richmond's adherents when this surprising 
fact became known, because, should he reach England, being fully 
acquainted with all their designs, they consequently could scarcely 
expect success ; therefore, by the French king's authority, an armed 
party was sent after the h\yjng marquis under the command of 
Humphrey Cheny, who caught him near Compiegne, and com- 
pelled him to return with them to Paris, where he was thenceforth 
carefully watched and detained. 

The next incident connected with the history of the period was 
the siege of Ham Castle, Oxford's late prison, and where the 
garrison had declared for Richmond. This stronghold Richard 
determined to recover, accordingly he sent out a large force from 
Calais for that purpose ; but the garrison, although weak, stoutly 
resisted, and upon application for aid to Richmond, he sent Oxford 
with some troops to their assistance ; w 7 hen Thomas Brandon by 
his order entered the castle so as to reinforce the garrison, and 
subsequently obtained terms for all who composed it, whereby they 
were allowed to retire honourably with their baggage to Paris, and 
thus to augment Richmond's little army that he was preparing. 

Encouraged by this successful recovery of Ham Castle, and 
deceived by the false news that the French king was tired of Rich- 
mond's fruitless applications to him for assistance, King Richard 
recalled his fleet from active service, and dismissed the greater 
| part of his forces, simply bidding his subjects on the coast, and 
especially the Welsh, to keep a good look-out seawards, and to 
announce any alarm of invasion by means of lines of beacon-lights 
duly prepared. 

In the mean time the cause of Dorset's intended evasion became 
known to Richmond, and had hastened his hostile preparations, so 
that advancing, by Rouen, to the mouth of the Seine, he had already 
begun to collect a little fleet there, when again the great necessity 
of speed on his part became still more apparent, for on the coast 
he heard of Queen Anne's death and of Richard's intention of 
marrying the Princess Elizabeth at once. Fully expecting, there- 
: fore, that he would thus irretrievably lose his own hoped-for bride, 
i and concluding that he was consequently at liberty to strengthen 
his own cause by forming a new matrimonial alliance, he sent 
j messengers to Sir Walter Herbert, a man of great influence in 
Wales, proposing to marry his sister, Katherine Herbert ; and also 
to the Earl of Northumberland, who had married another sister, 
Maud, for whom Richmond had conceived a tender attachment 
when resident in Wales during his youth. At this critical moment 
K Vol. [1. 



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LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Morgan of Kidwelly,* although Attorney General to Richard III., 
deserted him, and hastened over to Barieur from Wales for the 
purpose of informing Richmond that Rhys ap Thomasf and John 

* Morgan of Kidwelly, of Motlysgomb — now called Muddlescombe — near Kidwelly, 
was a student at one of the English legal Inns, who from his talent as a lawyer acquired 
the favour and patronage of Richard III., that king having made him Attorney General, 
granted him the Stewardship of all the lordships in the duchies of Lancaster and 
Dorset, and bestowed several manors upon him ; yet he traitorously absconded to 
the Earl of Richmond when he was preparing for his invasion of England, brought 
him the encouraging news referred to in thej&ext, and advised him to make for 
Milford Haven as his landing place. Afterwards he was made High Steward of 
Pembroke and of the three Commots of Kidwelly, and was also knighted by Henry 
VII., in return for his services, yet he was probably one of those whom that sagacious 
prince simply rewarded for his adhesion to himself, without placing any confidence 
in them as the betrayers of King Richard. His arms were, Argent, a Lion sable, 
rampant, gardant, armed and langued gules. 

+ Rhys ap Thomas was one of the most influential personages of his period in 
South Wales. He was lord of Carew, Llansadurn, Cilsant, Emlyn, Narberth 
Llangybi, Weobly, Llandeinor, Nant-y-glo, Kidwelly, and Abermarlais. Through 
his mother, a daughter of Sir John Griffith, he was distantly related to Henry 
Tudor, Earl of Richmond, both being descended from one ancestor, Edugvoid, 
Vychan; and through his wife Eva, daughter and heiress of Henry ap Gwilym, of 
Court Henry, he obtained a great increase to his large patrimonial possessions. 
He was Constable and Lieutenant of Brecknock, Chamberlain of Caermarthen and 
Cardigan, Seneschal and Chancellor of Haverfordwest, Ross and Bualt, and Justi- 
ciary of South Wales. Afterwards, through Henry the Seventh's favour, he was 
made Governor of all Wales, a Knight Banneret, a Knight of the Garter, and a Privy 
Councillor. He continued to enjoy the royal confidence in the reign of Henry VIII, 
and died in 1527, aged 76. He, together with his wife, were buried in the priory 
church at Caermarthen ; but when that religious house was destroyed, the remains 
of Sir Rhys and his lady were removed to St. Peter's church in the same town, 
and a monument, constructed with portions of the two originally placed over their 
remains, was erected over their second grave. Sir Rhys is now represented by his 
lineal descendant, Lord Dynevor, whose family name of Rice is derived from his 
above-named noted ancestor. Sir Rhys's principal residence was at Abermarlais, a 
grand old mansion built of brick with stone facings, and famed for its great hall 
panelled with dark oak. It also contained a chapel adorned with painted glass, some 
of which is said now to be at Jesus College, Oxford; and its stabling, forming a vast 
court yard, was on a magnificent scale. Unfortunately all these were swept away by 
the late Admiral Sir Thomas Foley, after he had bought the estate, for the purpose 
of erecting a poor modern residence on the site of the great Rhys's grandest 
mansion. The Garter plate of Sir Rhys ap Thomas is still remaining in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. It is on the Sovereign's side, and in the eighteenth stall from 
that of the queen. His arms were, Argent, a chevron sable, between three ravens 
proper. 

In common with so many others, Sir Rhys was certainly a traitor towards his 
sovereign, and Richmond had reason to doubt him as well as Richard. From 
distrust of his intentions when Richmond's invasion was expected, the king com- 
pelled Rhys to renew his oath of allegiance to him, and demanded that his young 
son should be delivered up to him as a hostage ; but, disconcerted at- this precau- 
tionary and evidently suspicious move on the king's part, Rhys was ready to listen 
to the appeals made on Richmond's behalf by the Bishop of St. David's and the 
Abbot of Talley. His adhesion to the earl followed, previous to Buckingham's 
invasion ; and although greatly alarmed at the failure of that enterprise, he con- 
tinued firm in his determination, and wrote offering his services to Richmond 
through the medium of Morgan of Kidwelly. According to some, Rhys met 
Richmond at Milford Haven at the head of two thousand men, and then marched 
separately by Caermarthen and Brecknock to Shrewsbury, the appointed rendezvous ; 
but probably like the Stanleys, Rhys for a time, from prudential motives, kept apart 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



123 



Savage* were ready to assist him, that Reginald Brayf had raised 
some means for the maintenance of his troops, and urged him 
finally to embark instantly. Richmond had but two thousand men 
with him — chiefly Normans, whose quality was considered doubtful, 
and a few pieces of artillery, the gift of the French king, according to 
the evidence of Philip de Commines ; yet seeing the necessity for 
an immediate attempt on the crown of England, he set sail from 
Harfleur, Sunday, July 31st, 1485, and with the aid of a fair wind, 
arrived at Milford Haven on the 6th of August, without opposition. 
Thence he advanced to Dell, and the following day to Haverford- 
west, ten miles further inland, where he was joyfully welcomed. 
There he received both bad and good news, for a false report was 
spread that Rhys ap Thomas and John Savage had joined the 
king, with all their men, instead of keeping to their promise to 
espouse his cause ; but on the other hand, one Arnold Butler,J 
came to him with an assurance that the people of Pembroke, under 
the earl, his uncle, were prepared to fight under his banner. On 
his way to Cardigan, another false alarm was spread that Sir 
Walter Herbert was at hand with a large force from Caermarthen, 
and with hostile intentions ; but this was found to be without 
foundation, and instead of experiencing opposition, his force was 
increased by small bodies of recruits under two Welsh chiefs, 
Richard Griffith§ and John Morgan. From Cardigan || Richmond 

from Richmond, and hence even then some doubt of his intentions may have been 
entertained by Richmond's followers as well as by himself. 

Having very shortly before protested to King Richard that any foe attempting to 
land in Wales should only cross it over his own body, when Rhys had changed his 
intentions, he is traditionally reported to have ensconced himself beneath a bridge 
when Richmond was passing over it, on his way towards Bosworth, for the purpose 
of casting a sadly tattered veil over the reproachful promptings of his conscience. 
See Lewis Glyn Clothi, Pt. 1, p. 163 : and Do. Historical Sketch, Pt. 2, pp. 30, 31, 
32, also Roscoe's Wanderings through South Wales, — pp. 185, 215, 21b'. 

* John Savage, of Clifton, Cheshire, was nephew to Thomas Lord Stanley, and 
his brother Sir William. In return for his services on Bosworth Field, he received 
the manor of Shepeshed, and the estates of Sir Francis Lovel, besides being made a 
Knight of the Garter by Henry VII. He was killed at the siege of Boulogne in 
1492. 

+ Sir Reginald Bray was made a Knight Bannaret of the Garter, and of the Bath, 
by Henry VII. ; he bore as his device a crown in a thorn bush, in reference to his 
discovery of Richard's crown after the death of that king. He was fully as much 
distinguished for his skill as an architect as for his valour in war ; St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, the beautiful priory church of Little Malvern, and perhaps Henry 
the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster having been erected under his auspices. He 
died August 15th, 1503. 

t Arnold Butler, of Johnston, Pembrokeshire, was an experienced soldier, sprung 
from a branch of the Butlers of Dunraven, in Glamorganshire, whose pedigree is 
given in the Heraldic Visitations of Wales, vol. 1, p. 132. His arms were Azure, 
on afess argent, between three covered cups, or, a Cornish chough proper, 

§ Richard Griffith, or Rhys ap Meredydd, was afterwards honoured with the 
guardianship of one of the three principal standards displayed by Richmond at the 
Battle of Bosworth Field. Heraldic Visitations of Wales, vol. 2, jp. 142: Note by 
Sir S. R. Meyrick. 

|| On his march from Milford Haven, Richmond was gladly and bountifully 
entertained by Dafydd ap Jeuan at Lhoyn Dafydd in the parish of Llandyssilio I 



124 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



sent ofl' letters to his mother and to his principal friends, such as 
the Lord Stanley* and his brother Sir William,f Gilbert Talbot.]; 
and others, informing them that he had determined to cross the 
Severn .at Shrewsbury. There he begged them to meet him ; and 

Cardiganshire. Remembering this, Henry VII., after he had mounted the throne 
by that title, sent a handsome present to his former Welsh entertainer. This con- 
sisted of a Hyrlas, or drinking horn, mounted in silver, and supported by a dragon 
and a collared greyhound, the then royal supporters, standing on a mound ; between 
these apparently, was a shield bearing the royal arms. During the civil wars this 
interesting relic was given to Richard, second' Earl of Carbery, the then military 
commander of the district, by whom it was taken to Golden Grove, Caermarthen- 
shire, where it still remains in possession of the Earl of Cawdor. The horn stands 
about nine inches high, and is eighteen inches long; the horn itself has been 
renewed, but the silver mound and supporters are original. This Hyrlas has been 
engraved as a frontispiece to the Heraldic Visitations of Wales and parts of the 
Marches, published by the Welsh MSS. Society. 

* Thomas Lord Stanley was son of Thomas the first Lord, and grandson of Sir 
John Stanley, to whom Henry IV. granted the government of the Isle of Man. He 
was a faithful subject of Edward IV. and desired to be true to his young son and 
successor, whence he nearly lost his life in the Tower when Hastings fell, whom he 
had previously urged to fly. After Richard III. had usurped the throne, fearing 
lest Lord Stanley's son should raise an insurrection if his father remained in 
captivity, that king soon released Stanley from prison, and sought to win him by 
making him a Knight of the Garter, and bestowing upon him the high offices of 
Lord Steward of the Household, and Constable of England, in right of which last 
office he bore a mace before Richard at his coronation. As, however, he had married 
for his second wife Margaret, the mother of Henry, Earl of Richmond, when 
Richmond became a competitor for the crown, Lord Stanley was naturally looked 
upon with the greatest suspicion ; when, therefore, he desired to retire from Court, 
his eldest son, George Lord Strange, was detained as a hostage ; and as his 
sympathy was with Richmond, when summoned to attend the king at Nottingham 
with all his forces, he pleaded sickness as an excuse for his non-appearance there. 
Eventually he started from Latham Castle with five thousand men, and marching- 
through Newcastle-under-Lyne to Leicester, joined Richmond at Atherstone, whence, 
after a consultation, he preceded him to Bosworth Field, and mainly contributed to 
the subsequent signal victory there, with his own hand placing a crown upon his 
son-in-law's head, and being the first to salute him as King Henry tbe Seventh. 
In return for such great services he was created Earl of Derby, and the office of 
Constable of England was conferred on him for life. 

f Sir William Stanley of Holt Castle, in Denbighshire, and of Ridley, in Cheshire, 
was brother of the above Thomas Lord Stanley. On the accession of Richard III. 
he was appointed Justice of North Wales, in the hope of securing his adherence to 
the usurper; but when Richmond had landed, Sir William having raised some forces 
in North Wales, brought them, together with the flower of Cheshire, from Holt by 
Northwick and Stone to Stafford, where upon joining Richmond, that prince is 
reported to have said, " I am more glade of thee then all the gold of Chrystentye." 
(Harl. MSS. 542, fol. 84.J After the Battle of Bosworth he was made Chancellor of 
the Exchequer by Henry VII., but eventually, having been suspected of favouring 
Perkin Warbeck's conspiracy, he was executed ; his great wealth, that was there- 
upon confiscated, having deepened the king's desire that he should die, notwith- 
standing the value of Sir William's past services. 

$ Sir Gilbert Talbot was the third son of John, second Earl of Shrewsbury. He 
was Sheriff of Shropshire at the time of Richmond's invasion, and guardian of his 
young nephew, the Earl of Shrewsbury, at the head of whose retainers, amounting 
to two thousand men, he joined Richmond at Stafford. He had the command of 
Richmond's right wing at Bosworth, and to him the heroic young Earl of Surrey 
delivered up his sword. He was badly wounded in the fight, but survived it and 
was made a Privy Councillor and a Knight of the Bath, by Henry VII. From him 
are descended the Earls of Shrewsbury and Earls Talbot. 



CHE BATTLE OF BOSWOETH FIELD. 



125 



jtoen, having passed Newtown and Welshpool,* just before he 
reached Shrewsbury two days later, Rhys ap Thomas, with his 
force, joined him, instead of resisting him, on condition that he, 
Thomas, should be eventually rewarded with the governorship of 
all Wales. 

At Shrewsbury, Richmond was at first denied admittance by 
Thomas Mitton,t the chief bailiff of the town, so that he had to 
pass the night at a neighbouring village called Forton ; but the 
following morning, after an assurance from him that he intended 
no hurt to the town or its inhabitants, the gates were opened to 
him. Here the messengers that he had sent to certain of his 
friends returned with a considerable sum of money for his use, and 
with many promises of support. As he advanced, his prospects 
continued to brighten, for, after he had encamped the following 
night near Newport, Gilbert Talbot, a knight of very great renown, 
and then sheriff of Shropshire, joined him there with upwards of 
two thousand men, the retainers of his young ward and nephew, 
the Earl of Shrewsbury. So again, when he arrived at Stafford, 
Sir William Stanley came to him, and after a private interview 
that important personage returned for the present to the forces he 
had raised. The next night Richmond encamped without the 
walls of Litchfield,! and the following morning was permitted to 
enter the town, when he was very favourably received by its in- 
habitants. Lord Stanley, at the head of five thousand men, had 
only quitted Litchfield three days previously, but after the inter- 
view Richmond had had with his brother Sir William, this move- 
ment was probably fully understood. The next march was to 
Tamworth, during w T hich Richmond's army w T as recruited by several 
persons of note, who, deserting from a portion of the royal army at 

* When Bichmond's army halted for the night here, he is reported traditionally 
to have slept at D61 Arddun, a gentleman's seat near Welshpool. Lewis Glyn Cothi, 
Pt. 1, p. 35. 

+ Thomas Mytton's character is a proof that meanness of the most pitiable 
description existed in the 15th, as well as in other centuries, Phillips quoting the 
following details of his conduct as the civic guardian of Shrewsbury, when Bichmond 
demanded admittance into that town. " Maistre Mytton the head Bayley of Shrews- 
bury, a stoute royste gentelman, sayd, he knew no Kynge but only Kynge Bichard, 
whose lyffetenaunt he and his fellowes were, and before he should enter there, he 
should goe over hys belly, meaning thereby, that he would be slayne to the grounde, 
and so to run over hym before he entered, and that he protestyd vehemently uppon 
the oathe he had tacken ; and so the sayd Earle returnyd with hys companye backe 
againe to a vylledge called Forton, 3 myles and a halfe from Shrosberie, where he 
lay that night ; and in the mornyng followyng, there came Embassadores to speak 
with the Baylyff, requesting to passe quyetlye, and that the Earle they re maister dyd 
not meane to hurt the towne, nor none thereyn, but to go to try hys ryght ; and 
that he promysed farther, that be would save hys othe, and hym and his fellows 
harmlys. Upon thys they entered, and the sayd Mytton lay alonge the grounde 
wyth hys belly uppwards, and soe the saide Earle stepped over hym, and saved hys 
othe." 

| " Unto Lychefild they ryde; a harrot of amies came to number the company 
that was with the knyght ; it was a goodly syght; gonnes in LycbfyUI craked; glad 
was all the chevalry that was on Henry's party." Harl. MSS. 542, /of. 34, 



126 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Stony Stratford under the command of Sir Robert Brakenbury, 
offered their services to Richmond ; among these were Sir Walter 
Hungerford and Sir Thomas Bouchier. On this day, August 18th, 
having temporarily left his army, probably for the purpose of 
having a private interview with some doubtful adherents, he was 
overtaken by the shades of night before he could rejoin his troops, 
and losing his way was forced to pass the night at a little village 
near Tarn worth, and only rejoined his army on the following 
morning, when he found that his absence had caused the greatest 
alarm. On the 19th Richmond went forward privately to Ather- 
stone, wdiere he expected to have an interview with the Stanleys, 
whose respective armies were assembled close by. Several knights 
then came and offered their services to Richmond, each with a 
retinue, of whom Sir John Savage, Sir Brian Sandford, and Sir 
Simon Digby were the chief. 

Richmond took up his quarters at the Three Tuns, in Ather- 
stone, a hostelry that still exists, and on the following day, the 
20th, he held a most important council with the Stanleys in a 
small field adjoining Mr. Dugdale's park, now the property of 
Charles Holte Bracebridge, Esq., called the Hall Closes,* when 
their mutual plan of future co-operation was doubtless arranged. 
In the course of the day, Richmond's army arrived at Atherstone, 
and was encamped in a field near the church — called from this 
circumstance Royal Mead in after days, a term which has now 
been corrupted into "Race Meadow," — while the troops under the 
Stanleys marched towards the future battle-field; Lord Stanley by 
way of Lindley, Higham, and Stoke Golding to a spot on an 
eminence beyond it called Gamble's close, Sir William, through 
Shenton, to a position half a mile on the other side of Ambian 
hill. On the 21st, after having heard Mass in the adjacent priory f 

* No more convenient spot could have been chosen for that purpose, these closes 
constituting what was formerly a retired valley about 600 yards from the Watling 
Street, that runs through the town of Atherstone, and is sheltered by red sandstone 
hills that are still shaded by some of the oaks formerly constituting a portion of 
Arden Forest; it is also well supplied with water issuing from a spring, and also by 
a little brook. Here the interview between Richmond and the Stanleys took place, 
referred to in one of the Harl. MSS. (No. 542, p. 31) : " There Lord Stanley lay in 
the dale with trumpets and a goodly company — there they abode all that night. 
Upon Sunday they heard Mass, and in a fair field took their way. The vanward Lord 
Stanley had, Sir William the rere, his son Edward in a wing. Then came Prince 
Henry; it was a goodly sight to see the meeting of the Lord and the King (upon 
a bay courser was the King) a little before night." — Holinshed adds the following 
particulars of this important interview, when speaking of Richmond, saying, " He 
privilie departed again from his Hoste to the town of Atherstone where the Lord 
Stanly and Sir William his brother were abiding. — There the Earl came first to 
his father in law in a little close, and there saluted him and Sir William his brother, 
and after diverse friendly embracings each reavised of the state of the other, and 
suddenly were surprised with great joy, comfort, and hope of fortunate success ; and 
afterwards they consulted together how to give battle to King Richard if he would 
abide, whom they knew not to be far off with a large hoste." 

f This was the church of the St. Austin Heremites of a priory founded in the 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



127 



church, Richmond left Atherstoue, proceeded under the guidance 
of John Hard wick,* (the ancestor of John Burton the historian,) 
along the old Roman Watling Street, and thence diverging north- 
wards at Fen Lane, reached White rnoors, adjoining Redmoor, in 
the course of the day. That spot lies a little to the south of 
Shenton, and on the edge of the Tweed, which in part served to 
defend his position. The king's army was now plainly seen, and had 
it not been Sunday the impending engagement would probably have 
occurred on that day ; but as it was, both armies remained tranquil. 
When night drew on, Sir Simon Digby, at the peril of his life, 
ventured into Richard's camp without detection, and brought back 
word that the king would certainly give battle on the following 
morning. 

Having brought one of the commanders of the forthcoming 
battle upon the field, it will now be well to revert to the history of 
the other, before the engagement begins. 

Richard III. was the fourth and youngest son of Richard, Duke 
of York, by Cicely, daughter of Ralph Nevil, Earl of Westmorland, 
whose mother was Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, the 
fourth son of Edward III. 

He was born at Fotheringay Castle, October 2nd, 1452, and at 
the early age of seven years became a prisoner at Ludlow Castle 

49th Edward III. by Ralph, Lord Basset, of Drayton, who endowed it with twelve 
acres of land. That nobleman also bequeathed a legacy of 500 marks for the 
completion of the priory buildings, by his will, dated Sept. 2nd, 1383. At the 
Dissolution, Henry VILL granted the site of the priory and its belongings to 
Henry Cartwright, to be held by the 30th part of a knight's fee. He sold it to a 
person of the name of Hill, and subsequently it was purchased by Sir John 
Repington, Kt., who built " a fair brick residence" on the priory site, and died in 
1625. 

The nave of the priory church constitutes the present parochial one, but the 
choir was long ago converted into a Grammar School House, which is partitioned 
off from the church by a brick divisional wall. As it was there that Henry VII. 
attended Mass previous to what may be most aptly termed his " crowning victory," 
and as this feature most assuredly ought to be restored to its original use in con- 
nexion with the adjacent church, it is to be hoped that the time is. not distant when 
so desirable an object will be attained. 

* John Hardwick, or Herdwick, was descended from William Herd wick of 
Herdwick, Warwickshire, who, through his marriage with Isabella, daughter and 
coheiress of Walter de Kodvile in 1215, acquired possession of the lordship of 
Lindley. He was a man of small stature, but of great valour, courage, and strength. 
The day before the battle of Bosworth he came to Richmond, when at the " Three 
Tuns," Atherstone, together with a few well mounted retainers, and offered his 
services to the earl. These were thankfully accepted, and Hardwick became the 
guide of the invading army towards Redmore plain. By his advice the ""White 
Moors" was selected as the best spot for the encampment of the army ; from his 
knowledge of the country he secured for Richmond the defensive advantage of a 
morass on his right flank when about to engage with King Richard, and he also 
recommended such a disposition of the troops as placed the sun behind their backs. 
In 1485 John Hardwick was appointed steward of Nuneaton Priory, within whose 
church he was buried after his death that occurred April 13th, 1510. He lefl onlj 
daughters, the eldest of whom by his second wife married James Burton, the great 
grandfather of William Burton, the historian. NichoVs History of Leiceatershvrt, 
vol. 4. p. 646. 



128 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



after the battle of Bloreheath, and a refugee after that of Wakefield, 
in which his father and his brother Rutland fell. From this position 
he was extricated through the success of his elder brother's arms, 
when he mounted the throne of England as Edward IV. From 
him also he received many honours, titles and estates, in return for 
which favours he exhibited much gratitude, and never was known 
to swerve in the slightest degree from the loyalty and fidelity that 
were due from him towards his royal brother so long as that 
brother lived. Deaf to the great Earl of Warwick's persuasions, 
which proved sufficient to seduce Clarence from his allegiance, 
Richard preferred to fly across Lincolnshire with King Edward, 
when fortune drove him from his throne ; and together did the 
brothers seek safety in Holland; together also did they return, 
March 14th, 1471, when King Edward regained his power. Then 
followed the first battle in which Richard was engaged — viz., that 
of Barnet, when, although only nineteen years old, he was entrusted 
with the command of the right wing of the royal army, and bore 
himself most nobly, repeatedly charging against the foe, and fighting 
for six hours until he had lost both of his attendant esquires, and a 
complete victory was secured. But perhaps Richard distinguished 
himself still more in his second battle, fought only three weeks 
later at Tewkesbury, where, as commander of the van, he fell upon 
the enemy with such fury that a complete rout ensued, entirely 
owing to Richard's valour. Two incidents also in his early life 
appear to point to his affection as a brother, and his piety as a son, 
for he it was who escorted his sister Margaret when on her way to 
Holland as the affianced bride of the Duke of Burgundy's son ; 
and who, after having reverently taken down the heads of his father 
and brother from one of the gateways of York, and disinterred 
their bodies at Pontefract, followed their remains to Fotheringay, 
where they were re-interred in a more costly manner. 

In 1473, with the consent of the king, Richard married Ann 
Nevile, the younger daughter of the Earl of Warwick. Two years 
later he was summoned from his residence in Yorkshire by the 
king, for the purpose of aiding him in an invasion of France; and 
when, instead of fighting, the disgraceful treaty of Picquigny was 
made, Richard not only declined to accept any French gold, as all 
the other English commanders did, but reproached the king, 
asking, " what the world would think of the wisdom and courage 
of England, that could cross the sea with such an army and return 
without drawing a sword." Yet, true to his brother still, when a 
war with Scotland became necessary, he assumed the command, 
captured Berwick, and entered Edinburgh in triumph, where he 
remained until all his demands were satisfied. 

On the other hand, Richard has been accused of many crimes ; 
but the number of these has, I feel convinced, been greatly ex- 
aggerated. 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



129 



First, of the slaughter of the young Prince of Wales, when 
taken prisoner at Tewkesbury. It is, however, doubtful whether 
King Henry's son was not slain during the flight from the field 
that was lost to his house ; but should another and a darker version 
of this story be true, viz , that he was slain in cold blood in the 
presence of King Edward when a defenceless prisoner, still, Richard 
is not to be selected for special obloquy, for under the worst cir- 
cumstances, he only took a part in that act in common with King 
Edward, Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Lord Hastings, and 
others, — while this transaction occurred at a time when war to the 
knife was raging between the Houses of York and Lancaster. 

The next evil act attributed to Richard is the violent death of 
Henry VI., when a captive in the Tower, immediately after the 
return of Edward IV. to London, May 21, 1471. There is indeed 
scarcely any doubt but that that unfortunate prince was privately 
executed for the purpose of giving stability to his successor's 
position ; but it was only in after years, when Richard himself had 
left the stage of life, and it w~as found profitable by Tudor writers 
to blacken his character far beyond its real darkness, that King 
Henry's death was attributed to Richard ; and as such an act could 
only have been serviceable to the king, is it not far more likely that 
the royal prisoner in the Tower died by the order of the fierce 
and jealous King Edward, rather than by the hand of his brother 
Gloucester r 

The death of Clarence has also been very commonly laid to 
Richard's charge ; but while no substantial evidence is forthcoming 
against him on that head, it is most unlikely that he should have 
been thus guilty, even had he been thirsting like a tiger for his 
blood. His contention with Clarence as to the respective rights 
of their sister wives had been settled ; and at that time, with such 
a number of heirs to the crown taking precedence of himself, he 
could scarcely have anticipated the possibility of its possession ; 
in addition to which there is reason to believe that he was absent 
from court when Clarence was arrested, judged, and executed; but 
supposing that he had desired his brother's death above all things, 
when that brother was condemned to execution, and both Houses 
of Parliament were pressing for the speedy execution of his sen- 
tence, it is not credible that Richard should have so needlessly 
interposed, and supplied the cask of Malmsey wine, vulgarly 
supposed to have been the instrument of Clarence's death. 

After King Edward's demise, however, a great change took 
place in Richard's character, and the shadow of heinous crimes at 
once began to lower around him, resulting from an ardent and 
uncontrollable desire to possess himself of the crown. 

At first, perhaps, he intended to be faithful to his dying brother's 
charge, when he appointed him as the guardian of his two tenderly 
beloved young sons. But soon, from fear of the Queen Dowagei 



180 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



and her party, should she possess increased power as the queen 
mother of a boy king, and with whom he was already at enmity, 
it was possibly in self defence that he seized the young king and 
some of the queen's principal relations and supporters. Successful 
in this movement, Richard's treason certainly quickly followed. 

Practically he saw only two boys between himself and the pos- 
session of the crown: for, although his elder brother Clarence had 
feft two children, they also were not only young but attainted; and 
although King Edward had left other children, they were daughters 
— also of tender age — while the disastrous results of a minor's rule 
in England during the fifteenth century were fully anticipated ; so 
that Richard was assured of the general preference that would be 
given to himself, as a brave and wise prince of mature age, if the 
crown could be transferred to him. At once was the office of Protec- 
tor gladly bestowed upon him ; but there were great difficulties in 
taking the next step that his ambition led him to crave. Some he 
gained as supporters of his project by bribery, such as Buckingham ; 
some, too noble to be thus perverted, he sent to the block, such as 
Hastings, as well as others too nearly allied to his nephews, the 
young princes, by the natural ties of blood, to have any hope of. — 
such as Dorset, Rivers, and Grey. He condescended also to the 
meanest deeds in the prosecution of his design ; inducing Sir 
Edmund Shaw, the Mayor of London, to address the people in his 
behalf, and two popular preachers, Dr. John Shaw, the mayor's 
brother, and the Provincial of the Augustine Friars, to prostitute 
their sacred office by scandalizing the character of his own mother 
in sermons at St. Paul's Cross, with the hope that he might be re- 
garded, by some at least, as the legitimate heir as well as claimant 
of the throne ; so also when the mayor, the Duke of Buckingham, 
and others came to Baynard's Castle, offering him the crown, he 
affected surprise, and spoke of the great love he bore towards his 
late brother and his sons, before he accepted the much coveted 
and preconcerted proposal. Then shortly followed the commission 
of that dreadful deed on his part that has branded his name with 
indelible infamy, namely, the private execution of those innocent 
boys that had been so confidingly committed to his care by their 
dying father, and his own brother, who had protected him when 
young himself, and had throughout his life ever been a most liberal 
benefactor to him. Thenceforth Richard's life was a troubled one, 
and the crown that he had purchased so dearly brought no joy 
with it, but only a weary load of care. 

True, he was able to repress Buckingham's revolt; true, he saw 
a rival candidate for the throne — in the person of Richmond — 
fearful, in the first instance, of landing on the shore of England, 
or of attempting to strike a single blow for his cause; but what 
was Richard's position when preparations for a second attempt at 
invasion were in progress, during the eventful year 1485 ? At that 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



131 



time he had lost his only son, in whom all the hope of the future 
stability of his throne was centred, and whose premature death 
he mourned over with the violence that characterised all his 
feelings. Shortly after, his wife faded away, through the sure 
although gradual attacks of consumption, with whom, notwith- 
standing the evil reports of his enemies, there is good reason to 
suppose he lived on the most affectionate terms ; and thus, alone 
as it were, he was forced to nominate the young Earl of Warwick, 
the son of his deceased elder brother Clarence as his heir, pro- 
bably for the purpose of defending himself against the claims of 
the Earl of Richmond. 

Then, when he looked forth from his palace upon his kingdom, 
he no longer saw his throne supported by Buckingham, and other 
great nobles of the realm, while of those who nominally still stood 
by him, he had strong reasons to doubt; the nation too — now that 
it had calmly deliberated upon that fearful act enacted in the Tower 
— for the most part condemned him for the cruel murder of his 
nephews. Yet his was a spirit that could not be quelled, especially 
as he had so readily suppressed Buckingham's revolt, and had 
already once repelled Richmond from the shore of his kingdom ; 
while still more recently he had recovered Ham Castle, on the other 
side of the channel, from Richmond's adherents. He was there- 
fore unduly confident in his own strength, should further attacks 
be made upon his throne. 

Early in December, 1484, the king was aware of the continu- 
ance of Richmond's intention to contest with him for the crown, 
from the evidence of the following mandate sent to the Mayor of 
Windsor by Richard, towards the close of that year: 

" R. Rex. By the King. 
" Trusty and well beloved we greet you well. And for as much as wee 
be credibly informed that our rebells and tratours now confedered w th 
our antient enemies of France, by many and sundry wayes conspire and 
study the meanes to y e subversion of this our realme, and of unity amongst 
our subjects ; as in sending writings by seditious persons wh ch counterfeyt 
and contrive false invencons, tydings and rumours to the intent to provoke 
and stirre discord and division betwixt us and our Lids which be as faith- 
fully disposed as any subjects can suffice: Wee therefore will and comande 
you streighthly, that in eschewing of the inconvenients abovesaid, you 
put you in uttermost devoire, if any such rumours or writings come 
amongst you, to search and enquire of the first shewers and uttercrs 
therefore : and y em that ye shall soe find ye doe co'mitt unto sure warde ; 
and after proceed to theyr sharp punishment, in exairole and fearo of all 
other, not failing hereof in any wise as ye intend to please us, and will 
answere unto us at your perills. Yeoven under our signett, at our palace 
of Westm r ye 6 day of December." 

Perhaps the above mandate was issued by the king in conse- 
quence of the arrival in England of the following manifesto: 



139 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



k ' Henry E, of Rich' 1 , before he was k. to his freinds here in Eng d . from 
beyond the seas," 8fc. 

" II 1 trusty wor'p'll and hon'ble good freinds and our allys, I greet you 
well. Being given to understand your good devoir and intent to advance 
me to the furtherance of my rightful claime, due and lineall inheritance 
of ye crovvne ; and for ye just depriving of that homicide and unnatural 
tyrant wh ch now unjustly bears dominion over you : I give you to under- 
stand y l noe Christian heart can be more full of ioye and gladness than 
ye heart of me yo r poore exiled ffreind, who will, upon the instance of 
your sure advertise what powers ye make ready, and what captains and 
leaders you gett to conduct, be prepared to pass over ye sea w tb such 
forces as my nreindes here are preparing for me. And if I have such 
good speed and success as I wish according to your desire, I shall ever 
be most forward to remember, and wholly to requite, this your great and 
most lovinge kindness in my just quarrell. Yeoven under our signett H R. 
" I pray you give credence to ye messenger of y* he shall impart to you." 

In June, Richard having become assured of Richmond's purpose 
of making a descent upon England, issued an address to his people 
from Westminster, June 23rd, 1485, in which he calls upon his 
subjects to resist Henry Tudor, and his attainted traitors ; whom 
he pronounces murderers, adulterers, extortioners, rebels to God, 
honour, and nature; who obey his ancient enemy the French king; 
and under Henry, their bastard leader, begotten in double adultery, 
intend to enter his kingdom, and by conquest despoil his subjects 
of life, liberty, and goods ; to destroy all the honourable blood in 
the realm, and seize their possessions ; therefore he advises every 
man to lift up his hand against them. He tells them the French 
king lends assistance in consideration of Normandy, Anjou, Mayne, 
Gascoign, Guynes, Cassell, Hams, Callis, and the Marches being 
given up, and the arms of France for ever being dissevered from 
those of England ; and that Henry had already bestowed upon the 
enemies of the kingdom, the bishopricks and spiritual dignities, 
with the duchies, earldoms, baronies, and inheritances of knights, 
esquires, and gentlemen ; that the old English laws are to be 
abolished, and those of a tyrant established among the people. 
That Henry Tudor and his wicked followers will commit the most 
horrid murders, slaughters, and robberies, that ever were heard of 
in a Christian country ; every true Englishman, therefore, is com- 
manded to furnish himself with arms, to oppose the rebels, in 
defence] of his wife, children, and possessions ; and the king 
himself will courageously expose his most royal person to every 
labour and hazard, to subdue their enemies, and comfort his 
faithful subjects; therefore he calls forth every man to defend 
his king in battle. — ( Sir John Fenn's Paston Letters J 

But beyond the issue of the first of these proclamations, Richard 
for some time made no extraordinary preparations of a defensive 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



133 



character, thinking that a good look out on the Welsh coast, with 
the provision of a scries of beacons as signal lights, would be 
1 sufficient, in addition to the services of Sir Walter Herbert and 
' Rhys ap Thomas, in whom he thought he might confide in the first 
instance, should an invasion really take place. Just before Easter, 
however, he heard of the desertion of certain persons, which con- 
vinced him that Richmond was about to make a move ; he, there- 
fore, then ordered his navy to protect the south coast ; he called 
upon all men liable to serve in arms to join his standard at different 
points ; and, as he knew not whence the attack might come, he 
arranged a system of bringing intelligence from the coast generally 
by means of mounted messengers stationed twenty miles apart, and 
finally left his metropolis for the purpose of taking up a more 
central position, moving first to Coventry, then to Kenilvvorth, and 
finally to Nottingham, where he awaited the expected attack. 

At length the news reached him that Richmond had landed at 
Milford Haven ; but hearing that he had only brought with him a 
small ill-equipped force, and still trusting to Herbert and Thomas 
for the defence of Wales, he rejoiced to think that his enemy was 
now apparently within his grasp ; nevertheless, he commanded the 
* Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Surrey, Lord Lovell, Lord Stanley 
j and his brother Sir William, the Earl of Northumberland, Sir 
Robert Brackenbury, Sir Thomas Bouchier, Sir Walter Hunger- 
ford, and others, to join him immediately with their respective 
forces ; and now, also, he especially appealed to the citizens of 
I York* for their aid. And there was occasion — for quickly Richard 
j heard his coming foe had, most unexpectedly to himself, reached 
i Shrewsbury, — an event that enraged him bitterly against those 
I who he deemed ought to* have prevented this. Next, the 
king heard through his scouts that the invaders had reached 
Litchfield, and now, being at the head of twelve thousand 
men, he determined to advance towards the enemy. Accordingly, 
he marched to Leicester on Tuesday, August 16th, and arrived 
there on the evening of that day, sleeping, as tradition has always 
reported, at a then fine old hostelry, called the " White Boar."f 

* Richard's appeal to the citizens of York was heartily answered, as appears from 
the records of that city, for on the 8th of July an order was made "for the citizeus 
to be defencihly arrayed;" on the 16th of August, "that John Spon sergeant to the 
mace, should ride to Nottingham to the King's Grace, to understand his pleasure in 

\ sending up any of his subjects within the city of York, for the subduing of his 
enemies lately arrived in the parts of Wales, or otherwise to be disposed ai his most 
high pleasure." And on the 19th of the same month 400 men defensibly arrayed, 
John Hastings gentleman of the mace being captain, were ordered, in all haste 
possible, to depart towards the King's Grace, for the subduing of his enemies. 

i Drake's History of York, p. 20. 

+ This house stood nearly opposite the old free school in the ll i;;li Cross Street, 
Leicester, and was commonly called "King Richard's house," whose cognizance u 
originally bore ; but after the defeat of Bosworth Field, thai sign, according to local 
historians, was torn down by the populace in the exuberenoe of their now hem 
loyalty towards his victorious successor, and thenceforth the house bore the OAUM ol 



134 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



His entry into Leicester must have been an imposing sight. His 

first division marched five abreast, with many a banner flying ; 

then followed a long array of baggage waggons, and probably some 1 

pieces of artillery, termed bombards;* then the cavalry in two 

" The Blue Boar," until the commencement of the last century. Most unfortunately, 
this very interesting relic of mediaeval Leicester, so intimately connected with the 
name of Richard III., was pulled down in the month of March, 1836. Happily, | 
however, a drawing of it had been previously taken by Mr. John Flower, and its 1 
exact dimensions secured by Mr. Henry Goddard, whence a representation of that 1 
portion of the original edifice which remained to the present century was made with I 
the most accurate fidelity. From this a restored view of this portion of the edifice, \ 
as it appeared in the reign of Richard III., has been prepared, on a reduced scale, f 
in anastatic ink by Mr. Joseph Goddard, who in conjunction with his father has kindly 
presented it to the Associated Societies, accompanied by the following notes extracted I 
from a Paper read by Mr. Goddard, senior, before the British Archaeological Asso- {' 
ciation, in reference to The Blue Boar or King Richard's House at Leicester: — 

" The original structure had two wings and a centre, the centre receding from the 
street four or five yards. This centre probably had in the middle a gable, with a 
wide gateway beneath, leading to the rear of the premises and to passages behind \ 
the front rooms. Like the old Inns in the metropolis, the Blue Boar no doubt had \ 
open galleries behind, approached by outside staircases and communicating with the 
several chambers. The principal apartments were in the wings ; of these it was the | 
northern one which was standing in 1836, and which is represented in our illustration. 

" This wing was of two storeys. The front was about twenty-five feet wide and | 
thirty-seven feet high to the apex of the gable. It was a half timbered house of oak j 
and plaster intermixed, built upon a foundation of stone and brick. The lower I 
storey contained one large room about forty-one feet long and twenty-four feet wide i 
within. The front was covered over in great part with a brick wall, on the removal j 
of which the original timbers of the windows (as shewn in the drawing) were exposed. I 
Here there were two wide windows of three lights each, divided by wooden uprights [ 
within the framework, and this was coved on the front edges and grooved to receive ] 
the glazing. The timbers of the house were placed upon blocks of granite, to prevent i 
the damp from rising and decaying them, and were as perfect as when first erected. 
There was originally no doorway in the front, but traces of an original window of | 
four lights (of similar character to those already described) remained in the south j 
wall near the western extremity. In addition to this window was a door near to it, 
which had evidently communicated with a corridor or passage in the rear of the 
main building. On the north side of this lower apartment was a fire-place, having I 
stone moulded jambs, and a moulded projection over the mantel. 

" The second floor overhung the lower storey, the ends of the floor timbers being f 
shown, and the principal ones were supported by brackets. The beam lying over these 
ends was moulded and embattled, as seen in the drawing. The principal feature 
there was a projecting window of five lights, with moulded mullions and tracery of the . 
fourteenth century. This window was also supported on brackets. In the interior the j 
second storey was much like the lower one. The floor was of brick, and here was 
a fire-place similar to the one below, with the exception that it had three courses of 
brickwork between the plinth of the stone jambs and the floor, to serve as a hearth. 

" Above this, externally, was an embattled tie beam and moulding, sustaining a 
gable, having an ornamental barge-board cusped and moulded. The roof of the 
second storey was open to the ridge ; the whole of the timbers were framed and 
pinned together with oak pins. Not a nail or piece of iron of any description was 
used in connection with the building, but the timbers were framed and scarfed 
together in the most ingenious manner without such aids. All the principal beams 
and other parts were decorated with painted scroll-work in black, red, and yellow. 
In addition to the window looking into the street, there was another like that in the 
lower storey already described. The entrance was by a door enteiing from a gallery. 
This door was of a rude description, ledged and composed of three boards, lapping 
one over the other, and was fastened by a wooden latch moved through a finger-hole 
, cut in the door, and by a bolt of wood below the latch. The roof was covered with 
strong Swithland slates." 

* Originally these resembled mortars in form, and discharged large balls of 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



135 



divisions, at whose head appeared the king, in the same suit of 
burnished steel armour, partly gilt, that he had worn at the battle 
of Tewkesbury ; while his helmet was surmounted by a repre- 
sentation of the royal diadem, and the grand white steed that bore 
him, covered with gorgeous housings, was the admiration of all 
beholders. 

Something of his appearance and that of his queen will be 
gathered from the illustration opposite, which has been most 
accurately copied in small from the Rous Roll, a contemporary 
document, by the Rev. Charles Terrot, to whom the Associated 
Societies have been previously indebted for similar artistic illus- 
trations.* 

On Wednesday, the 17th, Richard left Leicester in the same 
stately manner that he had entered it, for the purpose of meeting 
Richmond, who was then advancing towards Atherstone. In the 
midst of a long cavalcade, he marched along the High Street, and 
then issuing out of the west gate, and passing over Bow Bridge, he 
proceeded to Elmsthorpe, where his army encamped for the night ; 
when some of his officers slept in the church, not out of irreverence, 
but from want of accommodation elsewhere. Richard had expected 

stone, but towards the close of the fifteenth century they had become elongated' 
were mounted on wheeled carriages, and discharged iron balls. M. Viollet le Due, 
in his Dictionnaire Raisonne de V Architecture, tome 1, p. 400, says, " Ce ne fut guere 
que sous Charles VII. et Louis XL que les pieces de siege, aussi bien que celles de 
campagnes, furent montees sur roues ; on continua cependant d'employer les bom- 
bardes (grosses pieces, sortes de mortiers a lancer des boulets de pierre d'un fort 
diametre) jusque pendant les pi'emieres annees du XVIe siecle." 

Artillery of various kinds was ordered to be in readiness for the Scotch campaign 
made at the close of Edward the Fourth's reign, which was put under the command 
of Richard, Duke of Gloucester ; a warrant to that effect from the king to William 
Temple commanding the recipient to provide whatever was necessary for " Bumbards 
canones, culverynes, fowelers, serpentynes, et alios canones quoscumque ac pulveres 
sulphureos, saltpetre, petras, ferrum, plumbum, et omnimodas alias stuffuras, pro 
eisdem canonibus necessarias et opportunas." (Foedera, fol. 148. ) 

We are certain that Richmond had bombards with him at Bosworth Field, from 
the evidence of Philip de Commines, who expressly relates that the King of France, 
previous to the earl's invasion, presented him with " une bonne somme d'argent, et 
quelques pieces d'artillerie," (livre 5me, fol. 233 ) ; and from the act of attaiuder 
passed against King Richard's upholders by his successor in the first year of his 
reign, we gather what was the character of the "other means of attack" referred to 
below, — used no doubt on both sides — wherein Henry's opponents were accused of 
opposing him " with banners spred, mightyly armed and defended with all manner 
of armes, as gunnes, bowes, arrowes, speres, gleves, axes, and all other manner of 
articles apt or needful to gef and cause mightie battaille agen our said soverayno." 
The form of field guns of the period is given in the Etudes sur VArtiUcric, vol. '■'■>. 
plates 20 and 27, published by order of the present Emperor of the French ; ami the 
contemporary guns there given, taken from Chai'les the Bold by the Swiss, arc still 
preserved as trophies of their victory over that duke, at Nancy. The form of such ,^ r uns 
dated 1473, is given in a MS. Roy. 18 Ed. V., f. 34, preserved in the British Museum, 
also in the Dictionnaire Raisonne de V Architecture, tome 1, quoted above. Sonic balls 
discharged from such pieces of artillery during Bosworth fight are presenvd in the 
Leicester Museum. 

* And obligingly reproduced in Anastatic Ink for these transactions by Mr. Bull, 
a member of this Society. 



136 LEICESTERSHIRE ARC H ITECT URAL SOCIETY. 

to meet the enemy at Hinckley ; but finding be bad not as yet 
advanced so far eastward, on tbe following day, Thursday 18th, 
the king inarched to Stapleton, and encamped on a spot a little to 
tbe south of the village, called the Bradshaws, where he ordered 1 
intrenchments to be thrown up for the protection of his army. 

Mere Richard remained for two days and three nights awaiting 
the approach of Richmond, during which time he no doubt made 
a careful survey of the surrounding locality, and especially of such i 
a considerable eminence as Ambian hill, only two miles distant i 
from his camp. On Sunday, 21st, hearing that the enemy had I 
arrived at Atherstone the previous day, the king commanded his 
army to advance to a better position, which he had probably selected I 
a day or two before, whereon to make ready for the battle that was 
now imminent. That Sunday night was doubtless one of unrest 
for Richard, yet not from the cause so wonderfully described by .• 
Shakespeare. At this time indeed the king had become habitually ] 
restless, whether awake or asleep exhibiting signs of a disturbed , 
mind and a highly nervous temperament; and no doubt such sleep 
as he had during the last night he was destined to witness on earth 
was disturbed by agitating dreams, although not of tbat array of { 
reproachful spirits who with threatening gestures and fearful male- i, 
dictions pronounced the coming doom of their former murderer, 
until it passed away with the last minutes of night and was mingled 
with the cold grey clouds of coming dawn, — but with unmeaning 
" dreams of divers images like terrible devils, which pulled and 
haled him, not suffering him to take any quiet or rest ;" he, ac- 
cording to his own testimony, having seen dreadful visions that 1 
night, and imagined that he was surrounded by a multitude of ' 
demons. Nor was this surprising, for if Richard had any taint of > 
superstition that occasionally checked the boldness of his nature, 
this alone might have given a dark colour to his sleeping thoughts. / 
According to Burton's quaint phraseology, Richard had been < 
entertained with two unwelcome accidents, the former being a f 
prophecy to this effect, that if he should meet his adversaries in a 
place surrounded by "tons" he should suffer greatly ; the latter, 
that if he should lodge at a place whose name began and ended 
with the syllable " an," he should lose his life, which was bad 
hearing for him, when he was encamped on an eminence then ; 
called " Anbian hill." Again, when passing out of Leicester, a 
blind wheelwright pronounced an oracular sentence indicative of 
the coming loss of Richard's crown and life ; and then, when he 
accidentally struck his heel against a stone projecting from the j 
parapet of Bow Bridge, a spiteful old lady declared still more 
plainly in what condition he would next enter Leicester, namely, 
with his head beneath his horse's back. But supposing that he 
had heard none of those dark vaticinations, which is very probable, 
still there was much cause for anxiety on his part as to the 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



137 



stability of his throne, and his own personal safety. It was 
natural that Pembroke should rise in favour of his nephew Rich- 
mond, but at this time many in whom Richard had reason to 
suppose he might confide had turned against him ; first, Rhys ap 
Thomas had done so, then Gilbert Talbot, next Hungerford and 
Bouchier, still later, Savage, Sandford, Cheney, and Digby ; more- 
over the king had strong doubts as to Northumberland's fidelity, 
and had but little hope of the Stanleys' assistance, although Lord 
Strange, son of the elder brother, was a hostage within his own 
stern grip ; therefore with open traitors in arms threatening him, 
and with secret ones around him so truly indicated by the 
anonymous announcement that had been affixed to Norfolk's tent 
that night, there was abundant cause for anxiety on Richard's 
part when reposing, as well as when he had risen from his 
troubled couch before it was light. Then, suffering in mind, and 
soured by the revolt of those on whom he had conferred great 
benefits, when he issued out of his tent attended by Lord Lovel, 
Sir William Catesby,* and Sir Richard Ratcliffe, finding a sentinel 
slumbering at his post, he savagely stabbed him, observing " that 
as he found him asleep, he left him as he found him." 

Then the light of the 22nd began to dawn, on which day both 
commanders had determined to fight for the Crown of England ; 
and the clank of arms was heard on Ambian hill and the plain 
below. 

The royal camp was soon astir and busied with preparations 
for the coming conflict ; the tents were left standing, and their late 
occupants, after having been duly formed in battle array, were 
ordered to advance down a portion of Ambian hill, while two 
anxious messengers speeded towards Lord Stanley's camp, both 
begging him to join their respective commanders instantly; to 
Richmond's envoy Stanley replied most enigmatically that " he 
would join him at supper time ;" to Richard's Pursuivant — after he 
had added this fearful threat to the end of his invitation, that if he 
did not accept it, his son Lord Strange would forfeit his life — 
Stanley observed, " that it was inconvenient to him to join the 
king then, and begged that officer to tell his master that he, Lord 
Stanley, had other sons besides his elder one !"f Enraged at 

* Catesby was a clever but unscrupulous lawyer. He owed his elevation to 
Hastings, through whom he acquired great influence in Leicestershire; yet when 
he was employed by the Protector to win over that really noble lord, and found that 
his loyalty towards the late king's sons could not be shaken, he most basely recom- 
mended his kind patron's destruction, and hoped to be rewarded with a portion of 
his confiscated estates in return for this act of treachery. So agaiu, when Sir 
Robert Brakenbury refused to become the murderer of the young princes committed 
to his custody as Lieutenant of the Tower, Catesby, together with Sir Riohard 
Ratcliffe, procured a less scrupulous agent who was ready to fulfil King Richard's 
wicked will, in the person of Sir James Tyrel. He was beheaded at Leicester after 
Bosworth Fight by order of Henry VII. 

+ While Lord Stanley was forming, the king sent Sir Robert Brakenburj with 

l Vol. II 



las 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



suoh a reply, which too clearly pointed to Stanley's intentions, 
Richard ordered the. instant execution of the young Lord Strange, 
which would certainly have taken place but for the earnest inter- 
position of Lord Ferrers, through whose counsel it was deferred. 

On the other hand Richmond in a complete suit of armour, 
excepting his helmet, advanced on a fine bay charger for the pur- 
pose of addressing his army. His trust, he said, was in the God 
of justice and of battles, at the same time reminding his followers 
that victory depended on valour, not on numbers, and he concluded 
by bidding them advance in the name of God and St. George. 
Gradually marching forward from the Tweed towards Richard, 
who, from the superiority of his position awaited his enemy's 
attack, he reached Ambian Leys, and there drew up his army in 
battle array, his right flank being protected by a morass, with the 
sun behind his troops, that gave them an additional advantage. 
In the centre of the first line were the Norman archers, under 
Barnard, mingled with Welch and English, all placed under the 
supreme command of John, Earl of Oxford ; the right wing was 
composed of Shropshire men under Gilbert Talbot, and the left of 
Cheshire men, in white hoods, commanded by Sir John Savage. 
The second line, consisting chiefly of Welsh cavalry, was com- 
manded by the veteran Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, with Richmond 
as commander-in-chief, whose principal standards were St. George 
for England, a red dragon for Cadwallader, and another bearing 
the figure of a dun cow, in allusion to the celebrated Guy, Earl of 
Warwick.* When Richmond had reached this point, King Richard 

this singular but dreadful message ; " My Lord, the king salutes you, and com- 
mands your immediate attendance with your bands, or your son shall instantly die." 
About the same time Sir Reginald Bray arrived from Henry, pressing Lord Stanley 
to join him. He replied to Brakenbury, " If the king stains his honour with the 
blood of my son, I have more ; but why should he suffer ? I have not lifted a hand 
against him. ■ I will come at a convenient time." — Hutton, pp. 90, 91. 

* These standards were of a long pennon shape, having the red cross of St. 
George on a white ground nearest to the staff; next to this cross appeared the dis- 
tinguishing emblem of each standard. 

On Richmond's first banner was a representation of St. George, the Patron 
Saint of England, on a red ground. On his second, a red dragon on a white and 
green sarcenet ground, powdered irregularly with red and white roses, across the 
smaller end of which ran diagonally two labels bearing the motto of Dieu et mon 
droit. This device was adopted to please the Welsh, as having been that of Cad- 
wallader, from whom Richmond claimed descent, and in whose person the Welsh 
were led to believe that a British king would again reign in England according to 
certain prophecies of Merlin. On the third standard was the figure of a dun cow, 
on a material called tartan, or tartere, This had no connexion with what is now 
called tartan, but was a rich silk, originally imported from Asia Minor, that was 
formerly called Tartary. In the Inventaire de VArgenterie, made by Estienne de la f 
Eontaine in 1353, the following item appears, — " pour deux pieces de tartaire, l'une 
vert, et l'autre vermeille, prisiees 15 escuz la piece." Chaucer also in his Floure and f 
the Leaf, alludes to this stuff : 

" On every trump hanging a brode bannere \ 
Of fine tartarium, full richly bete, 
Every trumpet his lordis armis here." 



THE BATTLE 0*F BOSWORTH FIELD. 



139 



advanced a little from his superior position, and the battle was 
ready to begin, the first lines of both armies being now within 
bow-shot of each other. 

We may suppose that the care-worn visage of Richard would 
brighten when he looked upon his formidable array of sixteen 
thousand men, and knew that Richmond could not muster half as 
many ; especially when mounting a little hillock, he addressed his 
troops, or more probably his officers, at a spot still called " Dickon's 
nook," lying a little to the south east of the higher portion of 
Ambian-hill, and concluded his speech with these words, " Advance 
forth your standards, and every one give but one sure stroke, and 
surely the journey is yours. And as for me, I assure you this day 
I will triumph for victory, or suffer death for immortal fame." His 
first line, under the command of Norfolk and Surrey, was extended 
to an immense length in a wedge shape on the lower portion of 
Ambian-hill and the adjoining ridge. In the fore-front of this first 
line were 1240 archers.* Behind was a formidable square of pike- 
men, billmen, arquebusiers, and bombardiers, — the last to work 
the few pieces of artillery brought into the field. These consti- 
tuted the main body of the royal army under the king's especial 
command, with wings formed of cavalry, also drawn up in squares, 
the right wing being under the Earl of Northumberland, the left 
under Sir Robert Brakenbury. Now all is ready for Richmond's 
reception before he has had time to reach the king's position 
above, and Richard is longing for the commencement of the 
inevitable battle, for he is yet hopeful of victory, although he 
knows that some have already deserted him, and that many others 
with him are not trustworthy ; still he trusts that the Stanleys 
may continue to remain neuter, and, above all, his undaunted 
spirit relies on the oft tried valour and skill of his own right arm 
for the defence of his throne, so that his appearance was never 
more striking ; his originally handsome face is indeed now marred 
by an evil expression, the result of violence, mistrust, and disap- 

Richmond had a twofold reason for adopting a dun cow as a device, first in 
allusion to his descent from the legendary Guy, Earl of Warwick, through the 
Beauchamps and the Beauforts, which Guy was the renowned victor of 

" A monstrous wyld and cruell beast 
Called the Dun Cow of Dunsmore Heath," — 
and secondly out of compliment to his step-father, Thomas Lord Stanley, whose 
first wife was Eleanor Neville, sister to the great Earl of Warwick. 

After Richmond's victory at Bosworth, and his entry into London, we aiv told 
that " with great pompe and triumphe he roade through the cytie to the cathedrale 
churche of St. Paule, wher he offered his iij. standardes." — Luisdowne MS* 325,/. 
433 ; and Hall's Chronicle. 

* Richard's van is said to have consisted of 1200 bowmen, flanked bj 800 
cuirassiers; his second line of 100 bill-men, empaled with 2000 pikemen; his real 
of 2000 men, flanked by a body of 1500 cavalry on either side, "oast into Bquaw 
maniples." Another writer says, " Kyng Richard had vij score sargeants thai were 
cheyned and lockyed in a row, and as many bumbards, and thousands of morys 
pyks, haggebushes, &c"—Harl. MSS. 542. 



140 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



pointment, but the slight disfigurement of his person and the 
difference in the size of his arms cannot be detected through the 
steel casing that entirely covers him, over which is a surcoat of 
velvet embroidered with England's bearings on the body, and 
again on the sleeves ; immense gilt coudieres and genouillieres 
protect his elbows and knees, cuisses and tuilles of plate armour 
cover the foreparts of his thighs, jambarts his shins, sollerets j 
his feet, gauntlets with deep cuffs his hands, and a bright steel j 
salade enriched with a golden coronet his head. 

It is now ten o'clock, and Richmond has slowly advanced his J 
first line up the acclivity until it is almost within bowshot of the j 
royal army, when at Richard's command the trumpets of the royal 
vanguard sound, directing it to commence the engagement, and 
the archers with their bows ready bent step forward to meet the 
enemy. Then a mighty shout arises, the bombards roar, the 
arquebuses rattle, and the sky is darkened by a cloud of arrows 
from the king's archers, which is almost simultaneously re- 
turned by Oxford's bowmen. At first the discharge is general 
on either side, but afterwards the air is pierced only by fitful 
flights until the quivers are exhausted, and blood has begun to j 
flow. Then, with the exciting exhortations of their respective 
commanders still ringing in their ears, when Norfolk's banner is 
advanced, followed by a similar move on the part of Oxford, their 
respective followers fiercely drawing their swords and grasping | 
their pikes and bills, rush towards one another, and a hand and I 
hand encounter ensues. What a din of arms is heard from the 
clash of so many hostile weapons, and the blows falling thickly 
upon the armour of the combatants ! 

When we look again upon the struggle, we see that the first 
lines of both armies are broken up into groups of eager com- 1 
batants, swaying backwards and forwards from their first position, | 
and that Oxford's weaker force has become in consequence unduly 
elongated ; this, however, is soon apparent to that experienced 
commander, who, alarmed at the too widely extended position of 
his men, by the sound of the trumpet calls upon them to draw in 
nearer towards their standards, lest any should either be sur- 
rounded, or cut off by the enemy. Obedient to the order, Oxford's 
line becomes again more concentrated, but at the same time is 
necessarily shortened ; yet, strange to say, the prudent movement 
on Oxford's part instead of encouraging Norfolk, only startles j 
him, so that, suspecting some strategem, he calls in his men, and 
for awhile there is a pause in the conflict ; soon, however, tempted j 
by the superior length as well as strength of his force, returning 1 
to the encounter he attempts to wheel round Oxford's right flank, t 
when the contest becomes fiercer than before, and the blood of the j 
fallen tinges the greensward with an unnatural and unwonted i 
stain. Now the two chiefs themselves meet in deadly single | 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWOKTH FIELD. 



141 



combat, first with their lances, which shiver against one another's 
armour, then with their swords ; when Norfolk wounds Oxford in 
the left arm, and Oxford, in return, strikes off the visor from 
Norfolk's helmet, but declines to take further advantage of his 
kinsman's and former friend's comparatively defenceless condition; 
nevertheless, the next moment he sees him fall dead at his feet, 
for an arrow, shot by chance, has penetrated Norfolk's brain. 
Frantic at his father's fate, young Surrey, emulating the fierce 
courage of his family cognizance, rushes forward to avenge his 
noble sire's slaughter, and is supported by Sir William Conyers 
and Sir Richard Clarendon, but he is overpowered by Sir John 
Savage and Gilbert Talbot, the leaders of Richmond's wings, and 
his gallant friends are slain ; yet he still rights on awhile, refusing 
to surrender, and with a last effort strikes off the arm of one who 
was attempting to lay hands upon him, but at length he is forced 
to offer his sword to Talbot, with a request that he might fall by a 
noble hand like his, adding that the maxim of the Howard family 
was to support the crown of England, and that he would fight for 
it, though it were placed on a hedge-stick. 

Previous to this incident Richard's cause appeared to prosper, 
but now when the battle had raged for an hour, when Norfolk was 
slain, and Surrey w T as a prisoner, so that it was high time for the 
second line of the royal army to advance, instead of doing so. it 
withdrew at the command of Northumberland, he and his troops 
continuing to be simply spectators of the combat. Then, still 
worse, when the Stanleys might certainly have redeemed the 
fortunes of the day, and the king perceives that Lord Stanley's 
troops have left their position and are advancing from Dadlington, 
what next does he behold ? Does that noble, upon whom so 
much now depends, remember the dangerous position of his son ? 
or does he bear in mind his own blood formerly lost in the Tower, 
and his imprisonment therein, at the Protector's instigation, when 
his friend Hastings lost his head — and therefore will he support 
the cause of Richmond ? Now he sees that it is " convenient for 
him to advance," and now he perceives how he may best "sup in 
safety ;" therefore he joins the right of Richmond's army in openly 
friendly guise, when the cry of " A Stanley ! a Stanley !" is heard 
from that portion of the field, and the hopes of Richmond rise 
high, while those of the king as suddenly decline. Before the 
battle some in whom Richard had placed confidence deserted to 
his advancing enemy ; then, a large body of the troops nominally 
under his command refused to fight for him at a moment of his 
greatest need ; and now Lord Stanley has joined the enemy ; so 
that, in his rage and despair, Richard cries out " Treason ! 
Treason !" Yet, when those who remain faithful to him perceive 
he will shortly be overpowered, and therefore hurriedly bring up 



142 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



a fleet horse on which they entreat him to fly,* so far from having 
desired such an ignominious means of safety, indignantly rejecting j 
the proposal, although some of his subjects have turned traitors, 
and others will not raise their hands in his behalf, never did his 
spirit soar higher, and he is prepared to die in defence of that 
crown which he had bought at so tremendous a price. By blood 
he had grasped it — the blood of his own royal brother's sons, j 
whom he had sworn to protect — and now he is ready to shed his f 
own in the same cause, for he valued the diadem of England I 
higher than his life ; therefore he exclaims, " Bring me my battle- 
axe, and fix my crown upon my head, for by Him that shaped both 
sea and land, King of England this day will 1 die adding, " If j 
none will follow me, I will try the cause alone." Nor did he ! ; 
make that appeal in vain, for when, as tradition says, he had 
quenched his thirst at the well still bearing his name,f he again 
closed his visor, and galloped forward round his right flank towards 
the enemy, a train of gallant knights was ready to follow him / 
wheresoever he might lead. His object and his only hope, now, 
was to encounter Richmond in person, his earnest desire being to 
fight with him until either victory or death should decide their 
respective claims; therefore, putting spurs to his famous white I 
charger, and followed by a stream of noble attendants with lance 
in rest, he rushed like a hungry lion towards the rear of the 1 
enemy's left wing, where it had been reported to him that Rich- 
mond, attended by his standard-bearer and a few guards, was f 
stationed on a slight eminence. After the king gallop three j 
Knights of the Garter — Francis Viscount Lovel, Walter Lord 1 
Ferrers of Chartley, and Sir Richard RatclifFe ; after them hurry 
Sir Robert Brakenbury, Sir William Catesby, Sir Gervis Clifton, 
and others, fighting as they charge. Then fell the aged Braken- 
bury by the hand of Hungerford, who had only a few days before 
gone over to Richmond; next Clifton, notwithstanding Sir John j 
Byron's attempt to save him, dies. And now a gigantic knight 
appears in front — Sir John Cheney — but he is swept from off his 

* " Then to kyng Richard ther cam a knyght, and sayd, ' I hold it tyme for ye to \ 
flye ; yonder Stanly his dynts he so sore, agaynst them may no man stand. Her is 
thy hors for to ryde : an othar day ye may worshipe wyne.' He said, ' Bryng me 
my battail axe in my hand, and set the coronet of gold on my hed so hye; for by 
hym that shaped both sea and land, kyng of England this day will I die." — Harl. 
MSS. 542. 

t According to an article in the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, vol. 3, p. 41, i 
quoted by the Rev. John Jones in his Historical Sketch of the wars between the 
Roses, and forming a preface to the works of Lewis Glyn Cothi, it was a cup of wine 
that Richard drank, which seems more probable than that he should have adjourned \ 
at such a moment to a spring. "Richard seeing himself betrayed, and that all the 
Welsh had revolted from him, asked for a goblet of wine ; then calling to him Rhys 
Vychan, one of his squires, drank unto him in these words : ' Here, Vychan, I will 
drink to thee, the truest Welshman that I ever found in Wales and having drunk 
the wine, he threw the goblet over his head, and made towards his enemies, where 
he was immediately slain." 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



143 



horse by Richard's charge; then Sir William Brandon,* in his 
turn, falls by the king's own hand, as he is in the act of waving 
Richmond's banner, which the next moment is contemptuously 
hurled to the ground ; and now none interpose between the two 
candidates for the crown. Can, then, Richmond escape from the 
heroic arm of Richard, now doubly strengthened by the desperate 
condition of his cause ? With difficulty is the king kept at bay 
by his opponent's lance, and in another moment will they be en- 
gaged hand to hand for life or death ; when again the cry of " A 
Stanley ! a Stanley !" pierces the din of the contest, for Sir William 
Stanley, having at length descended from his position in front of 
Nether Coton on Richmond's left, and with his 3000 tall men from 
Denbighshire, having cut off the king's retreat, will soon surround 
his heroic band ; yet in vain does Catesby urge his master to fly, 
for he is only called a coward in consequence. And now Richard's 
foes have closed in upon him ; now his equally brave standard 
bearer, Sir Richard Percival, still waves the royal standard behind 
him, after both his legs have been severed from his body ; but 
then, in another moment, both the king and his standard bearer 
are down ! White Surrey has fallen, and Richard, hacked and 
pierced by countless weapons, sinks, with his gallant charger, in 
that death which he so little feared, thus leaving Richmond master 
of the field. Then what a rush ensues on the part of those 
around the royal corpse, all being anxious to secure a fragment of 
his brilliant panoply ; in a minute, therefore, is his surcoat torn 
from his person ; each piece of armour is savagely hacked from 
his limbs ; there is a fierce struggle for his battered and crown- 
encircled helmet, which nought but the death of the wearer 
enabled them to handle with impunity ; there is a tearing to pieces 
of the royal clothing ; and then, stripped of all, the naked body 
of the last Plantagenet king of England is contemptuously cast 
aside amidst a heap of slain. 

The death of Richard at once brought the battle to a close 
about mid-day, after it had lasted for two hours. The royal army 
had been called out by force to fight, and some, like Norfolk and 
Surrey, thus summoned, had come with hearty loyalty to contend 
for the king, and if need be die for him; but many more came 
with an unfavourable feeling towards Richard's person, because 
his name was blackened by the foul imputation of murder, a stain 
which had gradually deepened as the whole truth of that horrible 
deed became known, so that he was already condemned by the 

• Sir William Brandon was son of Sir William Brandon the elder, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Robert Wingfield. With his brother Thomas he took a part in the 
Duke of Buckingham's insurrection, after which both brothers fled to Brittany. 
Upon his accession, Richmond made Thomas Brandon an esqnhv of <h^ bodj 
guard, and as sucb he carried the Icing's shield before him at the battle of Stoke. 
He died 1. H. VIII., leaving a son afterwards created Viscouut Lisle, and eventually 
Duke of Suffolk. 



i 



11 1 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

generality of his subjects, and they consequently cared not to 
risk their lives in his defence. Of this class was Northumberland, 
while another party, such as the Stanleys, waited only for a safe 
time to betray him. No sooner, therefore, was Richard in the 
dust, than the right wing of the royal army retreated towards the 
main line, and Northumberland, who was in command, ordered all 
to throw down their arms, so as to convince the Earl of Richmond 
that now being freed from his allegiance to the late king, no 
further opposition would be offered on his part. The left wing 
next fell back, and finally the centre did the same, until their 
retreat merged into a flight, when the dispersed army broke and 
fled into different directions, but for the most part towards the gap 1 
in the rising ground to the left by Dadlington, and were pursued 
with considerable slaughter by Richmond, Lord Stanley, and the 
cavalry, while Sir William Stanley stopped upon the field. From iji 
2000 to 3000 men fell on Richard's side, on Richmond's 1000, 
but the victory of the latter was most decisive, for Richard's body 
was left in Hewit's Piece,* his truest supporters were either dead, 
were prisoners, or had fled. Richmond had chased the flying 
remnant of the royal army towards the south,f and now that he is 
perfectly assured of his success, he falls upon his knees in grateful » 
prayer; then he is conducted to an eminence on the west of ! 
Stoke by the Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Oxford, and Lord 
Stanley, where he publicly thanked his followers for the immense 
service they had just rendered him, praised their bravery, and 
promised them due rewards, while finally his most ardent desire 
is gratified, for the crown is forthcoming. Snatched from the 1 
fallen Richard's helm by one of the many plunderers of his person, 
who had secreted it under a thorn bush, it fell in the hands of 
Sir Reginald Bray, and he was thus at this opportune time enabled 
to produce it. Then Lord Stanley as the Earl of Richmond's 
stepfather, and as one to whom he was chiefly indebted for his J 
triumph, w r as selected to place that regal emblem upon the brows 
of him who was thenceforth to reign as Henry the Seventh, — an J 
act that has ever since given the name of Crown Hill% to the [ 
eminence on which it occurred. This was followed by a mighty 
shout of " Long live King Henry," that echoed far away over the 
plain below, announcing that another king had begun to reign in 

* Hewit's Close, or Piece, is on the slope of Ambian Hill, between the brick and I 
tile works of Major Wollaston and the little farm-house above the Ashby-de-la-Zouch j 
canal bridge. 

t As Sir William Stanley's charge was a flank one, in combination with Sir John [ 
Savage's troops, and "their dints were so hard," it was this that impelled the dis- 
heartened and broken royal army to fly towards the opposite flank, instead of back- 
wards up the Ambian Hill. 

X Crown Hill. Kichmond's crowning no doubt took place upon a nodule of 
volcanic rock, now grassed over, and situated near some poplars, a little to the south 
of Stoke Golding. 



THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD. 



145 



England, and that the Plantagenet had been exchanged for the 
Tudor dynasty ; finally, a solemn " Te Deum" was sung as a 
saiictification of the new king's rural coronation, that anticipated 
a more formal ceremonial at Westminster and another at York, 
when, instead of Richard's battered circlet, St. Edward's crown 
was placed upon his head. But soon another deeper and more 
solemn strain arose on Redmoor Plain at the burial of the dead ; 
for although the bodies of the nobles and knights that fell in 
battle, such as those of John Duke of Norfolk, Walter Lord 
Ferrers, Lord Zouch, Sir Richard Ratcliffe, Sir William Conyers, 
Sir Richard Clarendon, Sir Robert Brakenbury, and Sir Gervis 
Clifton, were carried for more honourable interment elsewhere, on 
the field itself were roughly consigned to mother earth, near where 
they fell, their followers who lost their lives in this last battle 
between the representatives of the houses of York and Lancaster; 
some pits* being dug for the reception of the dead where the 
battle chiefly raged, but others on the line of the broken royal 
army's retreat towards Dadlington, where many more fell before 
the pursuing and victorious cavalry of the future king. One more 
duty remained to be performed, before Henry left the scene of his 

• signal success, and that was to reward on the spot some of those 
| who had served him so well. Now, therefore, he knights Gilbert 

Talbot, Rhys ap Thomas, John Mortimer, William Willoughby, 
Robert Poynts, Humphry Stanley, John Tuberville, Hugh Pershall, 
Richard Edgecomb, John Bicknell, Edmund Carew, and others, 

• reserving greater rewards for the commanders of his army, and 
lesser ones for inferior officers ; and then at the head of his tri- 

j umphant troops he moves forward to Leicester, where he is 

* The site of these pits is still evident from the hollows ahove them, formed by 
the sinking of the earth over those receptacles of the dead. Other fugitives found 

I a grave just outside the town of Atherstone, by the road side, where their remains 
having been discovered in 1766, caused the spot to be called the " Bloody Bank." 
With them was found a gilt spur engraved with a white rose pattern, and a beauti- 
fully wrought key, on which is wrought the cipher of KR. These relics were 
secured by Mr. Bracebridge, of Atherstone Hall, and are now in the possession of 
his descendant, Charles Holt Bracebridge, Esquire, of the same place. All the 
human remains however that have from time to time been revealed near Bosworth 

] Field are not necessarily connected with the contest that took place there in 1485 ; 
for instance, about the year 1812, when the late Mr. Morris of Sutton Fields was 
making a drain some eight feet deep in what he called the " Bough Meadow," he 
found a large deposit of human and horse bones, covered over with oak boughs 

I before the earth was cast in over them. With these was found the head of a 
halbert, and near the thigh bone of one of the skeletons a quantity of common nuts, 
some with and some without their husks, supposed to have been gathered by a 
soldier who lived not to eat them. 

As nuts are not ripe in August, nor at the commencement of September, when 
from the alteration of style the battle of Bosworth Field was fought, from this cir- 
cumstance alone we imagine Mr. Morris disturbed the remains of some who fell iu 
a skirmish that occurred during the Carolian civil war, which was fought iu the 
month of October on the site of the more ancient battle. 

An eye witness of this discovery who is still living, viz., Mr. John Deaoon oi 
Barton Fabis, obligingly imparted the above-named fact. 



no 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



received with shouts of applause, and again proclaimed King of 
England by the title of Henry the Seventh. Again also Richard's 
person is seen in Leicester. It was necessary to convince all men 
that he was dead; search, therefore, was made after his body, 
and it was found ; then covered with blood as it was, hacked, 
pierced, and mangled, it was cast across the back of a horse, 
belonging to a Pursuivant, called " Blanch Sanglier," of Richard's 
own creating, whose device — the " Silver Boar" — was displayed 
upon his tabard ; then, with the head of the body dangling on one 
side of the horse and the feet on the other, it was borne perfectly 
naked into that part of Leicester termed the Newarke, and de- 
posited in the Collegiate Church there ; afterwards it was exposed 
to public view upon a table, either there or in the Town Hall, 
near the church of St. Nicholas, for two days, in order that it 
might be fully identified. Subsequently the Grey Friars or Au- 
gustine Canons of Leicester, in compassion for fallen majesty, and 
for one who had been a benefactor to monastic orders, begged for 
the body, and after offering up masses for the soul of the late 
king, buried it decently within the walls of their church St. Mary 
de Pre ; and when those fierce feelings that for a time raged in 
the hearts of both of the competitors for the crown had subsided, 
in the one case by the hand of death, in the other through the 
calming spirit of unopposed stability, the new king — perhaps from 
pity for his predecessor's tragical end, combined with some feeling 
of sympathy for one with whom he was personally connected — 
ordered a stately tomb of alabaster, adorned with variegated 
marbles, and surmounted by King Richard's effigy to be erected. 
But again those poor relics of a fallen king were disturbed when 
the frenzy that prevailed in connection with the dissolution of 
monastic houses led to the destruction of that tomb ; and the 
bones of King Richard, snatched irreverently from their stony 
shroud, were cast over Bow Bridge into the Soar, so that none 
can now point to a spot where a single fragment of his mortal 
remains can be found. 

Thus perished the last Plantagenet King of England, and thus 
Richard lll.'s crown was transferred to the house of Tudor.* 

* At the commencement of his reign, Henry VIII. felt a desire to commemorate 
the Battle of Bosworth Field by the erection of a chapel at Dadlington, wherein 
Masses for the souls of the slain might he offered up by a stipendiary priest, as 
appears from the following extract from State Letters and Papers, vol. 1, No. 1848. 
In 1511 the Archbishop of Canterbury, then Chancellor, by writ from the king 
dated at Nottingham Castle, Aug. 24th of that year, was ordered " to make out a 
licence for the churchwardens of the church of Dadlyngton, Co. Leyc, to ask alms 
for 7 years in the dioceses of Lincoln, Chester, Worcester, and Norwich, towards 
building a Chapel of St. James, standing on Bosworth Field, and for the stipend of 
a priest to pray for the souls of the persons slain in the said field." Whether this 
chapel was to be actually attached to the parish church, or whether it was to be a 
separate structure, does not appear from the foregoing extract, nor have we any 
testimony as to whether this movement was attended with success. 



STOKE GOLDING CHURCH. 



147 



At Agincourt Henry V. had worn his crown, or rather its 
representative, when that emblem of royalty was cleft by a foreign 
foe; but on Redmoor Plain, near Bosworth, when Richard III. 
appeared on the field adorned in a similar manner, and Englishmen 
were arrayed against Englishmen, the blow fell heavier; for then 
the wearer of the crown lost it, together with his life, and that 
change took place which is emblematically referred to by several 
of his successors' devices, when the crown of England, hidden 
awhile in a thorn bush, after its late wearer had ceased to be tempted 
or dazzled by such an earthly bauble, was engrafted on that Tudor 
stock that bore red and white roses issuing from one stem ; whence 
our national diadem has been transmitted to her whose graces are 
as bright as the choicest of its jewels; and who, although now 
drooping under a most afflicting domestic calamity, must feel the 
burthen of her sorrow greatly lightened by the universal sympathy 
of a loving people, whose firm desire and intention it is to support 
her crown, and whose fervent prayer is, that she may still long 
live to wear it. 

Sir A. G. Hazlerigg, Bart., proposed a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Trollope for the lucid and interesting description he has just 
read. 

W. U. Heygate, Esq., M.P., seconded the proposition, and in 
the course of his remarks begged Mr. Trollope' s acceptance from 
the Leicestershire and Lincolnshire Societies of the silver- gilt 
facsimile of Richard the Third's crown then before him, as a 
memento of his visit to that far famed battle field, so immediately 
connected with a great turning point in the history of England. 

John Lee, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., President of the 
British Archaeological Association expressed on behalf of himself 
and of the members of that Association the gratification they 
derived from their visit to that spot, and their appreciation of the 
kind and courteous reception they had met with in Leicester. 

The bugle's note once more sounded on the battle field, though 
not for the retreat of men engaged in deadly conflict, but of men 
who had assembled to refresh the memory of a great crisis in our 
national history, and to promote social intercourse and kindly 
feeling between each other. The carriages then made their way 
to Stoke Golding, where the fine parish church attracted much 
attention. Its architectural features were thus described by Mr. 
Trollope : 

STOKE GOLDING CHURCH. 

. This church, dedicated to St. Margaret, is a most attractive 
structure not only from its commanding site, and its proximity to 
that far famed battle field on which the Earl of Richmond won foi 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



himself the crown of England, but from the beauty of its own 
features. 

As soon as its exterior catches the eye, most will, I think, be 
struck by the dignity of its character, and the admirable manner 
in which the spire rises from its supporting tower. 

Originally, a chapelry of the alien Benedictine Priory of 
Hinckley, attached to the Abbey of Lyra, in Normandy, Stoke 
Goldenham, or Golding, had become a distinct parish during the 
reign of Henry VI. The only old proprietor here that w 7 e shall 
care to hear about is Sir Robert de Champaigne, descended from 
the Counts of Champaigne, whose ancestor came to England with 
the Conqueror, and who, by his marriage with Margaret, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Roger de Stoke, became possessed of a con- 
siderable estate at Stoke Golding, tenth Edward III. 

Although the fabric is for the most part of the fourteenth 
century, a small First Pointed window — once an external one, but 
now in the divisional wall between the chancel and the adjoining 
chantry, — demonstrates that it had a predecessor. On entering, 
the twin-like appearance of the two main portions of this church 
will first be noticed, both being of the same width and length, and 
neither of them having a chancel arch or screen, so that the nave 
proper, may not be immediately identified. This was formerly 
separated from the chancel, first by an arch, and after by a Per- 
pendicular screen of carved oak, from evidences that existed on 
these points until a late date, the chancel occupying the space of 
two bays of this portion of the fabric, or one third of its length. 
The eastern wall is very considerably out of the square, which I 
cannot account for, as neither of the lateral walls show any signs 
of having ever sympathised with its inclination. 

The east window is a very beautiful one of five lights within an 
acutely pointed arch, but, unfortunately, the uppermost circlet of 
its tracery has been robbed of its cusping. 

Of the four large windows in the north w T all of this church, the 
second and fourth from the east are alone original ones, the others, 
of a flamboyant and weaker character, and the small one beyond 
the north door has been robbed of its tracery. A very high pitched 
roof at first covered the nave and chancel, as will be clearly seen 
from its weathering on the eastern face of the tower. 

This portion of the fabric may be assigned to the first years of 
the second quarter of the fourteenth century, viz., 1325 to 1330, 
but by whom it was erected we know not ; we can only suggest 
therefore that it arose at the expense or through the influence of 
one of the priors of Hinckley, the then patrons of this church, of 
whom Henry de Puy was prior in 1319. About thirty or forty 
years later, a beautiful addition was made to the fabric by Sir 
Robert de Champaigne, to whom 1 have already alluded. Above 
the nave arcade is a Latin inscription asserting that this personage 



STOKE GOLDING CHUECH. 



149 



together with his wife Margaret, the Stoke heiress, built this church 
in honour of St. Margaret, the virgin, during the reign of Edward I. ; 
.but, like many other inscriptions, it is a most erroneous one, because 
in the first place Sir Robert's marriage did not take place until the 
reign of Edward III., and it is very evident from the architectural 
evidence before us that Sir Robert's work consisted only of additions 
to the church, although they were very considerable ones. 

Pulling down the south wall of the nave, he erected an arcade 
in its place, beyond which he built a chapel as large as the nave 
itself, forming what we may now term the south aisle, and at the 
same time he appears to have pulled down the old tower, and to 
have erected the present very beautiful one in its place. The arcade 
consists of three pillars, which, together with their responds, support 
four arches forming the present divisional line between the nave and 
the Champaigne chapel. This now constitutes a most pleasing 
feature of the fabric, and from the multiplied members of the 
pillar shafts together with their numerous fillets, suggest the idea 
of classical fluting. The windows in the present south wall may 
have been taken from the nave when the chapel was added to it, 
as they appear to correspond generally with the earlier ones in the 
present north wall as to date and character. 

In the middle of the south wall of the Champaigne chapel is a 
recess surmounted by a segmental arch, supposed to mark the 
burial place of the founder, and towards its original eastern ex- 
j tremity is a piscina supplied with an elongated hood mould. 

Lastly, a second chapel was added to the eastern end of the 
Champaigne one, by whom is not known, when an archway was 
opened between it and the chancel, when its eastern wall was made 
to assume the same line as that of the chancel, and the window of 
i Sir Robert Champaigne's chapel was re-erected in a new position 
: parallel with that of the chancel. In this chapel is a double piscina 
and a bracket that formerly supported a statue of St. Margaret, and 
which was probably removed to its present situation when this 
addition was made to the fabric ; the figure also of St. Margaret 
j was also formerly displayed in the west window of the tower, as a 
; graceful compliment to the heiress, Margaret Stoke, on the part of 
her husband. 

The font is richly sculptured ; on one of its arcaded panels St. 
' Margaret again makes her appearance, with the conquered dragon 
I beneath her feet, into whose mouth she has thrust the end of her 
> cross surmounted staff, while a praying figure kneels before her. On 
, another panel is a figure of St. Catherine, crowned, holding the 
i spiked wheel in her right hand, and a sword in her left. In a third 
I panel a bishop is represented in the act of blessing, with the epis- 
'■ copal mitre on his head and the staff in his left hand, perhaps 
representing St. Nicholas. On the other panels are shields, one of 
which bears a chevron between three quatrcfoils, but the others are 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



defaced. Most probably one of them bore " or a fret sable," for 
Champaigne, as this font appears to be of the same date as the 
Champaigne chapel. The stem would have been greatly improved 
by angle shafts supplied with capitals and bases so as to have 
obviated the crudeness of the design below the bowl. 

Externally the outline of the tower and its spire will, I doubt 
not, be duly admired. To the former an extra amount of support 
has been wisely given to its western face, but its most beautiful 
feature is the perforated panelled parapet by which it is sur- 
mounted ; in two of its quatrefoils are the crowned heads of 
Edward III. and Queen Phillippa. Formerly pinnacles rose at 
intervals from the parapet, but these have now disappeared; below 
is a line of ball flowers and a drop moulding. Proceeding along 
the south side of the church, its good base moulding, and a per- 
forated parapet similar to that on the tower will be observed. Only 
the lower portions of the pinnacles by which the buttresses are 
capped now exist, their tops having been destroyed. Pretty little 
roundels are carved at the intersection of the principal lines in the 
tracery of two of the windows in the Champaigne chapel. 

At the east end, the flattened gable of the chancel will be seen 
with regret, as well as its present condition. Whether this portion 
of the church was shaken out of the perpendicular by the earth- 
quake that occurred in 1580, and when the top of the spire fell to 
the ground, I know not, but the present mode adopted for carrying 
off the rain from its roofs may also have injured the stability of the 
foundations, and cannot but be observed with regret. When the 
pinnacles here were perfect, and rose like twin guardians on either 
side of a well-proportioned gable at the end of the chancel, and 
at the same time gave weight to the buttresses beneath them, the 
effect produced must have been most pleasing. 

On the north side great changes have taken place ; three out of 
the five windows being insertions, and two out of the four buttresses 
being additions, which last were indeed most necessary to aid in 
supporting the north wall of the fabric. Over the third buttress 
from the east, which is an original one, is a trefoil inserted in a 
rising break of the parapet, for the purpose of indicating the 
divisional line between the nave and the chancel. 

On the churchyard gate are some old iron stanchion heads, 
perhaps derived from the windows of that beautiful parish church 
to which it gives access. 



S. MARTIN'S CHURCH, LEICESTER. 



151 



EVENING MEETING. 

A Public Meeting was held on the evening of the same day, in ' 
the New Music Hall, Leicester, 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester (S. Viccars, 
Esq.), in the chair. 

The Rev. Prebendary Trollope repeated his Paper upon 
the Battle of Bosworth Field. . 

Mr. E. Roberts, F.S.A., read the following Paper upon 

S. MARTIN'S CHURCH, LEICESTER. 

This church is said to have been built on the site of a Roman 
temple, but there is no proof whatever of it as a fact, unless tra- 
dition be accepted as such ; and as archaeologists do not deal in 
traditions except as poetical adjuncts to their drier works, we 
I must look for other confirmations of the supposition. 

It happens that in the church under consideration there is some 
! evidence of a Roman building pre-existing on the spot, and also 
I of its having been appropriated to animal sacrifice, for when, some 
] forty years ago, excavations were being made for the purpose of 
adding masonry to strengthen the then failing central tower, large 
quantities of bones and horns of animals were dug out ; and although 
we may, between the suggestions of sacrificial or domestic purposes, 
be on the horns of a dilemma, we may to some extent be relieved 
from that uncomfortable position by the discovery made last year, 
when the old tower was taken down. On their digging deeper for 
the purpose of making the foundations of the new tower, two bases 
and part of the shaft of some Roman columns were found. I am 
not informed whether they were in situ, but I have looked at them 
in your excellent Museum, and 1 think I may safely say that they 
do not appear to be such as would be used in a slaughter-house ; 
besides, the abattoirs would in those days be outside of the town, 
and it is not unlikely that tradition is somewhat near the truth 
when it asserts that the church was continued on the site of the 
former place of worship. And we know that when Christianity 
had so advanced as not to require its services to be celebrated in 
caves and secret places (and indeed in all times), sacred spots were 
j used as such from age to age. 

It is probable that a Saxon church was first reared, but this can 
be but mere conjecture. We know, however, from Domesday 
Book, that there were at least two churches in Leicester at the 
time of the Conquest ; for Hugh de Grentemaisnel was therein 
described as holding two churches. It will have been remarked 
by you that the entries in this book are by no means conclusive ;is 
to the non-existence of churches: — it frequently happened that 



152 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the inference of a church was to be drawn from the mention of a 
priest; and you also know that constantly where we are sure that 
churches existed, they are in no way described in Domesday 
Book. 

It is probably a well-founded belief that almost all churches 
which existed prior to the thirteenth century were built on Saxon 
foundations, and that there were nearly or quite as many in exist- 
ence before the Conquest as for a century after — always excluding 
from this statement the monastic churches, which sprang up with 
such marvellous grandeur and rapidity after the Conquest, they 
being before that period chiefly colleges of secular clergy. 

We still must deal with probabilities for a short time longer, 
and also in generalities. This much, however, is certain, that the 
present church is of Norman origin, and the last trace remaining 
of that style is to be found on the north side of the north arcade to 
the nave. At the eastern end there is a portion of a Norman string, 
showing the billet very distinctly ; and, necessarily, part of the wall 
in which it is embedded is also Norman. The tower which was 
recently taken down was of the same date, though (Mr. Brandon 
says) devoid of any features of architectural interest. 

The Norman church most likely consisted of a chancel, nave, 
and transepts, w T ith a tower at the intersection, and so continued 
until what is termed the Early English period, that is, the first 
stage of the system of pointed arch architecture. It was at that 
time that the aisles, with the necessary arcadings to the nave, were 
added ; and subsequently (in the same period as regards the archi- 
tecture, though of a later phase of it), at about the latter half of the 
thirteenth century, the second aisle on the south was added. This 
is a peculiar feature and deserves notice. There are but few of 
them in this country, and in the course of my examination of 
Ottery St. Mary, last year, I had occasion to make some search 
about them. I did not at that time know of this example, but am 
happy to have seen it, and to be able to add it to my list. I 
believe the only specimens are this of St. Martin's; Ottery St. 
Mary ; and Collumpton, Devon ; Bloxham, Oxon. ; St. Mary 
Magdalene, Oxford ; High am Ferrars; and Yelvertoft, Northants. ; 
and Yarmouth, Norfolk.* 

This and one other appear to have been unknown to Mr. Parker 
when he wrote his " Glossary." Some of these are on the north 
side, and some on the south ; this of St. Martin's being among the 
latter. The entire dimensions of the church are about 170 ft. 
by 90 ft. 

There have been still later additions to the church, the most 
important being the clerestory and the rebuilding of the chancel, 
which are both of the Perpendicular or latest period of Gothic. 

* Journal of British Archceological Association, 1862, vol. xix., p. 159. 



S. MARTIN'S CHURCH, LEICESTER, 



153 



But from that time till about 1 846-7 no considerable changes were 
made. In those years the present series of works was commenced, 
and consisted, strictly speaking, rather of reproductions than re- 
storations, the latest work being the erection of a new tower of 

i greater magnificence than anything in the town. And I may here 
say, that Mr. Brandon, in the true spirit of mediaeval times, when 
he could not by any possibility preserve a structure, adopted some- 
thing entirely his own, and of such beauty and massiveness that 
one is tempted to say it is a thing of "wisdom, strength, and 
beauty." I am informed that, when completed, it will be about 
215 ft. in height. I am sorry to hear that funds are not abundant, 
for I think Leicester will be proud of its work when it is finished. 
It would weary you to hear now, without the church before you, 

] a detailed description of the architectural peculiarities of the church, 
but it may be interesting to mention one or two matters which are 
perhaps not purely local. 

One of our duties as archaeologists is to point out any errors 

I which have crept into previous writings, and I take this occasion 

j to mention one error into which the Rev. Mr. Poole fell in his de- 
scription of this church, at page 3 of your third volume of Reports. 

| The chancel aisle, though it has much Perpendicular work about 
it, is of an earlier date ; but it was so much altered at the time the 
chancel was rebuilt, that it was easy to omit the discovery. I must 
also mention that the windows, mullions, and tracery, are nearly 
all modern. 

In the vestry and the room over it are the original twelve figures 
which supported the roof of the south aisle ; they are worthy of a 
careful examination as specimens of the thirteenth century work. 
One of the misereres, or stall seats, is also there, of the fifteenth 
i century. 

When the tower was commenced, a fresco of St. Catharine was 
discovered on the wall. This was traced by Mr. Brandon, and 
has been engraved. 

At the time that Nichols wrote his History, there was remaining 
I in the north transept, or St. Catharine's chapel, some painted glass, 
■ in which was represented a fox preaching to some geese. A legend 
was under it, and was a perversion of the passage of Scripture, God 
< is my witness how I long for you all in the bowels of Christ. It 
was written in Latin, and rendered thus, "God is my witness, how 
I long after you in my bowels." 

This, no doubt, was a satire, and satires of this kind were then 
very common on the monks. Between the regular clergy and 
parish priests, and the monks of all kinds, there was perpetual 
antagonism, and the parish clergy were ever endeavouring to throw 
ridicule on and destroy the influence of the monks, and this is a 
i very favourable specimen of the class. Monks are frequently 
represented by a monkey, and there are some paving tiles in the 
m Vol. 11. 



154 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



town whore they arc thus shewn, — the monkey is turning a summer- 
sault, while another is drinking out of a goblet. 

In the tower some other discoveries were made. Some wax 1 
candles were found in the wall, and said to be Norman. I am not | 
able to form an opinion, for they were sent last year to Peter- 
borough, and I have not been able to see them. From the de- 
scription I have heard I doubt their antiquity. 

A coffin lid, rather small, was also found. Its age appears to j 
be of the end of the fourteenth century. It is about 12 J inches 
wide, rather tapering, and 50 inches long, the head shewing in the j 
upper part. 1 have not yet completely made out the meaning of 
the inscription, which is very much worn, but the name of Robert I 
Martyn is clearly visible. 

Of the roofs there are some excellent remains of the Perpen- j 
dicular period : namely, in the chancel aisle, where the Tudor 
flower is freely introduced, both in squares and circles, and where 
there are many remains of colour and gold. The chapel of St. ,j 
Catharine has a somew 7 hat similar roof. 

Enclosing part of the organ space is a part of a screen seven 
feet long, and which probably is part of a chantry screen. 

In the churchyard are some very admirable wood carvings to a 
bench, the ends of which have some interesting poppy-heads inter- \ 
mixed with human heads. I trust these will not be destroyed. 1 

I must not omit to mention the wooden porch on the north side, J 
which is a very unique example of wooden fan-tracery. Of the new i 
works there is something to be said beyond the casual remarks I I 
have already made. The great acquirements of the architect whom f 
you have selected to renew the church lead us to the conclusion that t 
the works will rival the early structure, and remain lasting monu- 
ments to the talent of the architect and the taste and liberality of 
the parishioners. A tow 7 er of the massiveness and altitude of St. I 
Martin's requires, of course, an enormous strength of substructure, i 
and what are technically called the "legs" of the tower have to be r 
constructed scientifically and substantially: in doing this Mr. Bran- j 
don has arranged the lines of the arches so as to produce a peculiar 
effect, as though the vertical lines are bent outwards. This is a very 
common ocular illusion, observable in almost every cathedral and ! 
other vaulted nave or aisle, caused by the contact of lines and 
curves at angles more obtuse than a right angle; and the only cause 
of this appearing more prominently here than usual is that it is in 
a narrower space and with a greater number of lines. The same 
effect will be observed in a building standing on a hill side, where j 
it requires a large amount of faith to believe that the building is | 
really upright. Any similar contact of lines produces the same 
result; and the peculiar appearance of the tower arches must not 
be looked upon as a defect, but as the inevitable result of the ar- , 
rangement of the arches, which appear to have been built so as to 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER. 155 



impede as little as possible the through views of this highly inter- 
esting remain of Mediaeval skill. 

Mr. Edward Levien, M.A., F.S.A., next read the following 
Paper : 

ON THE LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS 
OF LEICESTER. 

It has been remarked by the accomplished authoress of Women 
in France during the Eighteenth Century, that "men have filled 
the pages of history with their own deeds, their perilous daring in 
war, their subtle skill in peace, their designs, vast and magnificent, 
the power of their ideas, the triumphs of their genius, the revolu- 
tions in their faith and government, all they have done or under- 
gone has been faithfully recorded ; . . . but woman, in the peace 
and quiet beauty of her domestic life, in the gentleness of her 
love, in the courage of her charity, in the holiness of her piety, 
we must not hope to find." I think that this sweeping assertion 
might easily be refuted, and I trust that we shall at any rate stand 
acquitted of having ignored the " rights of woman ;" for I venture 
to hope that this meeting, which has listened to and welcomed the 
able paper which has been already read upon the "Earls of 
Leicester," will not be disinclined to accord place aux dames and 
accept an account relative to a lady whose life was indeed an 
eventful one, and whose connexion and association with the 
highest and most celebrated people of her day, render her an 
object of interest, not only to archaeologists — as to those who are 
concerned in investigating the history and manners of past ages — 
but also to such as merely regard details, like those which I am 
about to lay before you, as illustrative of the character and habits 
of a person whose station was so exalted, and whose fortunes 
were so remarkable, as were those of Lettice Countess of Leicester. 

Craik, in his Romance of the Peerage, has given her biography 
in a memoir entitled " Lettice Knollys," for such was her maiden 
name ; but it is so intermingled with notices of and long digressions 
concerning several of her contemporaries, comparatively little of 
it, in fact, being occupied with her own personal history, that I 
propose, with your permission, to give a brief sketch of her life, 
before reading to you the few unpublished documents concerning 
her which are to be found in the State Paper Office. 

Letitia Knollys, then, was born either in 1539 or 1540. Her 
father, Sir Francis, was one of Henry VIII.'s gentleman pen 
sioners, held office under Edward VI., and was so zealously 
attached to, and so active in carrying out the principles of the 
Reformation, that upon Mary's accession he found it prudent to 
retire to Germany. No sooner, however, had Elizabeth ascended 



156 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the throne in 1558, than he returned to England, where his well- 
known ardour in religious matters, added to his connection through 
marriage with the queen, procured him immediate employment 
and a certain degree of distinction about the court. He was 
made a privy councillor, vice-chamberlain and treasurer of the 
household, captain of the guard, and ultimately, in 1593, towards 
the close of his life (for he did not die till 1596), he was created 
a knight of the garter. On 1st of November, 1566, when the 
Houses of Parliament met to address the Queen on the subject of 
her marriage with a view towards settling the royal succession, 
Sir Francis Knollys was selected by Elizabeth to convey to them 
a message to the effect that they were not to trouble themselves 
any further on the matter, but to be satisfied with her majesty's 
promise that she intended to marry. It certainly may have been 
the Queen's " intention" at this time, as it might be and probably 
was several times during her life to redeem this promise ; but we 
all know how she ever managed to elude the matrimonial tie, and 
to pass her life " in maiden meditation," if not "fancy free." In 
1567 Sir Francis had the custody of the unfortunate Mary of 
Scotland at Bolton Castle, and in 1586 was one of those who were 
appointed to try her for her life. His wife was Catherine, daughter 
of William Carey, by Mary, daughter of Thomas Boleyn, Earl of 
Wiltshire, and sister of Queen Anne Boleyn. Lady Knollys was 
chief lady of the Queen's bedchamber, and died in 1569. An 
inscription upon her tomb in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster 
Abbey, informs her husband, amongst other matters, of a fact — 
which, by the way, he must have known pretty well himself — for 
it says: 

" Ilia tibi liberos sex et bis quinque marito 
Protulit; sequalis foemina masque fuit ;" 

which does not mean in this instance that Sir Francis and his 
w 7 ife both equally " ruled the roast," but merely that they had an 
equal number of male and female children, and of these Lettice 
was the eldest daughter. Thus it was that the Knollys family had, 
as it were, a double claim upon Elizabeth's consideration; for, as 
Fuller remarks, " the husband was allied to the Queen in con- 
science (as fellow-sufferers for the Protestant .cause), the wife in 
kindred." Being then the Queen's first cousin once removed, owing 
to the sisterhood of her grandmother and Anne Boleyn, Lettice 
Knollys no doubt enjoyed the most favourable countenance of her 
royal relation, and was one of the most brilliant ornaments of the 
radiant circle that surrounded and graced her throne ; for we have 
it upon Fuller's authority, that the Knollys family " were con- 
versing constantly at court." Here it was, in all probability, that 
she first attracted the attention of the nobleman who was her first 
husband, Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford, afterwards Earl of 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER. 157 



; Essex, to whom she was married circa 1562, she being at that 
l period about twenty-two years old, and her husband of the same 
! age. It would be beyond the scope of this paper to enter into 
: minute biographical details in regard to Lord Essex, but it will be 
j necessary to mention some few facts relative to his life and career, 
inasmuch as they are so important when viewed in connexion 
with the history of the Earl of Leicester and his countess, the 
• subject of the present notice. 

In May, 1572, Viscount Hereford was created Earl of Essex, 
. and from this period his sorrows and troubles seem to have com- 
menced. We are unfortunately compelled to believe that the 
conduct of his wife was the main cause of his unhappiness and of 
his ardent wish to quit his home and country ; for although she 
\ had not openly sinned against him, yet there can be little doubt 
; that Leicester had shown marked attentions to her, and that she 
; received them in such a manner as to excite Essex's suspicion and 
' anger. 

The facts of the case are as follows. Essex had at this period 
! volunteered to put down Shane O'Neill's rebellion in Ireland, 
upon condition that he should, if successful, be put into possession 
i of half the lands recovered from the rebels. There is no doubt 
that Leicester was very anxious for the execution of this plan ? 
urged it strongly upon the Queen, and solicited Essex most 
vehemently to undertake it. Both Fuller and Camden assure us 
of this fact, the former asserting that he was "put upon this 
adventure by Leicester — who loved the earl's nearest relation" 
(referring of course to his wife) " better than he loved the earl 
'himself;" and the latter that, "he followed therein the counsel of 
jthose who desired above all things to have him further off, and to 
plunge him into dangers under pretence of procuring him honour." 
Such statements as these prove that Leicester, true to his character 
in such matters, was both cunning and cruel in the means which 
he devised for accomplishing the object of his desires, and the use 
of the word "those" would seem to imply that the countess was 
an accomplice with him in his treachery. It is, however, scarcely 
.credible that a woman whose subsequent correspondence, as 
jprinted by the author whom I have mentioned,* indicates a nature 
•t>oth tender and true, and whose unpublished letters, which I 
purpose to read to you this evening, give evidence of a kindly 
iind affectionate heart, — of whom Fuller himself says, "This Let- 
{ice, though of the weaker sex, may well be accounted, with her 
brethren, as the strongest pillar of the family," — it is, I repeat, 
icarcely credible that such a woman would have married a man, 
vho in order to gratify a sinful passion for herself, had, with her 
>wn knowledge and consent, not only persuaded her husband to 

* See her Letters, G. L. Craik's Romance of the Peerage. London. 1848, \ ol 
. p. 150 et seq. Printed from Birch MS., 4124. 



158 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



embark in an undertaking which involved him both in loss and 
disgrace, but was even very strongly suspected of having bribed 
his own servants to poison him. The high position and attractive 
person of Leicester doubtless dazzled the countess and betrayed 
her into indiscretions which were not uncommon among ladies of 
the highest rank at that period and of which even the Queen 
herself was guilty. At these Essex was of course naturally and 
justly offended, but we have no evidence of actual faithlessness to 
her marriage vows on Lady Essex's part. On the contrary, con- 
temporary history does not pretend to implicate her in these pro- 
ceedings, and upon weighing the evidence there is every reason to 
conclude that the plots carried on against her husband by Leicester 
were conceived and put into practice wholly without her connivance, 
and that although she cannot morally be considered blameless, she 
must at any rate be judicially pronounced innocent of crime. The 
whole of this unhappy affair is still involved in much obscurity,* 
and however it may have been, Lady Essex's conduct produced 
such an estrangement between her noble husband and herself that, 
during his last hours she was not even near him ; and we are told 
by one of his chaplains, that when he lay dying " the only care 
that he had of any worldly matter was for his children, to whom 
often he commended his love and blessing, and yielded many 
times, even with great sighs, most devout prayers unto God that 
he would bless them, and give them grace to fear him. For his 
daughters also he prayed, lamenting the time which is so vain and 
ungodly, as he said, considering the frailties of women ;" and 
speaking of those who had so deeply injured him, he said, " Lord, 
from the bottom of my heart I forgive them." He left by his wife, 
Robert, his successor, who was executed in 1601, "A man on 
whom," writes Lord Macaulay, himself a native of this county, 
and one of whom Leicestershire may well be proud, " nature and 
fortune had lavished all their bounties in vain ; and whom valour, 
grace, genius, royal favour, popular applause conducted to an early 
and ignominious doom." Besides this son the earl left two other 
sons and two daughters. 

His decease took place on the 22nd September, 1576, three 
years after his departure for Ireland, and during the whole of that 
time Leicester's passion for the countess had not diminished, 
although at the very same time he] was carrying on an amour 
with, or according to her own account, was privately married to 
Douglas Howard, the widow of John Lord Sheffield, whom also 
he was accused of having caused to be poisoned in 1569. At any 

* See the note to Lingard's History of England, vol. vi. p. 157 (6th edit., 
London, 1854), where it is said that "there is reason to helieve that she hore him 
two children during the absence of her husband in Ireland." Had this been the 
case, Leicester was not the kind of man who would have been likely to marry her 
afterwards. 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER 159 



rate in 1572 Lady Sheffield had borne him a son, that famous 
Robert Dudley, so well known for his scientific attainments, who 
assumed the title of Duke of Northumberland in 1620 ; but not- 
withstanding this, no sooner had Lord Essex breathed his last 
J than Leicester strove to free himself from Lady Sheffield, who, 
doubtless wishing to escape the fate which, according to a com- 
monly received, but apparently erroneous story, overtook her 
predecessor,* Amy Robsart, and fearing, as she herself asserted, 
for her life,f consented to forego her claim upon Leicester, and 
married Sir Edward Stafford. Having thus taken care, as the 
saying is, " to be off with the old love before he was on with the 
new," Leicester married Lady Essex. Camden, in his History and 
Annals of England in the reign of Elizabeth, gives us to under- 
stand that their union took place, secretly, the very year that 
Essex died, for under that date (viz. 1576) he tells us that 
although there was a report that the countess and Leicester had 
j been married, yet Sir Francis Knollys, her father, would not be 
satisfied until the ceremony was performed in his own presence 
and that of credible witnesses ; but, he adds, " these things" 
(meaning the marriage before Sir Francis) " were done a year or 
\ two afterwards ;" and we know that the public marriage did 
I actually take place at Wanstead, on 21st September, 1578. 

During all this time the real state of affairs was kept secret 
from the Queen ; for it is scarcely credible, that had Elizabeth 
known how matters really stood, she would have coquetted as she 
did with the earl, nor would Leicester at this period have been 
[) intriguing to marry Elizabeth herself, had he not intended probably 
j to put the Countess Lettice out of the way, should it suit his 
| purpose so to do ; since there can be but little doubt that he was 
unscrupulous (even in the judgment of his contemporaries) in the 
methods which he employed of accomplishing the object of his 
desires. But in 1579 her majesty was informed of all that had 
taken place, under circumstances which are too well known to 
need recapitulation here. Leicester was confined by the Queen's 
j order in Greenwich castle, and had it not been that he had had 
| powerful advocates to espouse his cause, would no doubt have 
been committed to the Tower. Moreover his wife became hence- 
I forth the object of Elizabeth's aversion and persecution. 

I shall not, however, trouble you by following out Leicester's 
' career further. It is well known how in a short time he succeeded 
j in re-establishing himself in his royal mistress' favour, and how he 
still contrived to get rid of those who were obnoxious to him. 

* For an able and impartial summary of this, see an essay by T. J. Pettigrew, 
Esq., F.R.S., entitled " An Inquiry concerning the Death of Amy Robsart," London. 
1859, where the commonly received account of Amy Robsart's death by poison is 
| totally invalidated. 

+ Gervase Holies gives a full account of the whole of this matter: Ladj 
|j Sheffield's son was pronounced illegitimate. . 



160 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



There can be but little doubt that Elizabeth must have entertained 
a sincere and strong affection for him, otherwise she never would 
have countenanced a man stained with guilt, both proved and 
suspected, so far as to propose to create him her Lieutenant- 
General for England and Ireland, and thus virtually to have placed 
the government of her whole realm in his hands. Yet this she 
actually would have done had she not been prevailed upon to re- 
consider her determination upon the earnest remonstrance of the 
Lord Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. Leicester died in Sep- 
tember, 1588 ; and here, again, the suspicion of crime attaches 
itself to his countess. It is said, indeed, that she poisoned him ; 
but there are two* versions of the story, one of which asserts that 
she gave him some pernicious liquor which he had himself pre- 
pared, to administer possibly to herself, but which she did not 
know to be poison ; the other, that owing to a discovery which 
Leicester had made of an intrigue between his countess and Sir 
Christopher Blount, she deliberately determined to put him out of 
the way; and this determination being strengthened by Leicester's 
taking Blount along with him to the Netherlands, when he went 
there as governor in 1585, and setting, as some said, an assassin 
to attack him, the countess administered the fatal draught to her 
husband out of revenge, in order to remove the obstacle which 
prevented her free intercourse with Blount. The latter is the 
account given by Ben Johnson, in his conversations with Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden, and he adds the following epitaph upon 
Leicester : — 

" Heere lyes a valiaunt warrior 

Who never drew a sword, 
Heere lyes a noble courtier 

Who never kept his word ; 
Here lies the Earle of Leicester, 

Who governed the estates, 
Whom the earth could never living love, 

And the just heaven now hates." 

Before the middle of August, 1589, (i.e. in rather less than a 
year after Leicester's death), his countess married Blount. Here, 
again, much uncertainty rests upon her motives of action, and it 
appears probable that the circumstances in which she was left by 
Leicester induced her to consent to so speedy a union with her 
third husband, in the vain hope that she might escape the pecuniary 
difficulties and embarrassments in which she was placed by the 
earl's death. Although he left nearly half his property to his wife, 
it was found upon winding up his estates that he had actually died 
in debt, not only to private creditors but also to the crown; so 
that, as w T e are told by Camden, his effects were disposed of at a 

* The narrative and the authorities are given, and the pros and cons weighed in 
Craik, vol. i., pp. 124-147. 4 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER. 161 



public sale, and on one of the Harleian Rolls his liabilities are 
stated at £53,120. 8s. 5d., while the assets left to meet them are 
said to have amounted to no more than £24,777. 10s. 9d. 

The countess therefore finding herself left in so impoverished a 
condition, and being aware thatElizabeth would prosecute her claims 
to the uttermost, was eager to obtain some refuge from utter desti- 
tution, and she fondly imagined that by marrying Blount she took 
the surest way to screen herself from the annoyances to which, as 
Leicester's widow, she would have been subject. For some years 
after her third marriage, therefore, she lived in retirement at Dray- 
ton Bassett, near Tamworth, as the Queen still continued her 
resentment against her. In 1599 she came to London for the 
express purpose of having an interview with her majesty, but the 
Queen would only see her once. She suffered her indeed to kiss 
her hand, but, it is said, spoke unkindly to her. The countess, 
however, still endeavoured to mollify her royal mistress; for we are 
informed that in March 1600 she had finished a "most curious fine 
gown as a present for the Queen," which, however, Elizabeth de- 
clined to accept. In the following year, 1601, Blount (who had 
always been a traitor) was executed for treason, so that the months 
of February and March saw the countess deprived both of her son 
and her husband. 

Lady Leicester's marriage with Blount could not be by any 
means a happy one. She was not one whit the less pestered on 
account of her late husband's debts during her coverture than she 
would have been had she remained a widow. The Queen and her 
private creditors pressed her hard for money, and in Harleian 
MSS. 304, is " A noate what legacies were given by my L[ady] of 
Leicester, and delivered by our lady as excequetrix" [to the earl], 
in which, after the mention of various jewels handed over to Eliza- 
beth, the Earl of Warwick, the Lord Treasurer Burghley, and the 
Lord Chancellor Hatton, these words are added : " to divers other 
jewells also, nott now remembered." Moreover Blount, it appears, 
exercised his matrimonial rights in a somewhat profitable manner 
to himself; and in the same paper we have "a remembraunce to 
shewe how my ladye hathe bynne ridde of her jewells," in which 
it is stated that " the first yeare Sir Christopher Blounte was mar- 
ried, he soulde maneye greate jewells ; and hathe continewed the 
same course almost every year since." A list then follows of what 
Sir Christopher thus disposed of, and with regard to some of them 
he appears to have behaved in a very light-fingered and under- 
handed way ; for we are told with respect to a diamond clock, a 
great diamond table, and "a fay er je well of diamonds, the best my 
ladye had left her," that he brought them up to London, and "how 
he bestowed them God knoweth." 

As the various items of property, both real and personal, thus 
made away with by Blount are printed in Nichols's Leicestershire. 



l(>-2 



LEICESTEBSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



it is needless for me to detail them here ; but I may add that the 
poor countess was so " dunned," that she complains that besides 
all she has given up she is forced out of her jointure to pay "300 
powndes yearlie to hir Ma tie , which," she adds, " is contrary to all 
equitye, the hey re having lande of inheritance sufficient to dis- 
charge debtts to her Ma tie ." 

This must have been after 1605, inasmuch as she designates 
the Earl of Leicester's son by Lady Sheffield as the "heir," for she 
herself was engaged in contesting his right to be considered as 
the heir in that year. The decision which was given against Sir 
Robert's legitimacy held good as against the countess's assertion 
that he was liable for his father's debts ; for, of course, although 
Sir Robert Dudley inherited what the earl left him, as being ex- 
pressly styled by him in his will " his base son," still he did not 
take it as his legitimate heir, and could not therefore in any way 
be held responsible for his deficits. 

The straits to which the countess was reduced at the time of 
Blount's arrest were very great, and the claims against her so many 
and so pressing, that the following letter, addressed to Thomas 
Sackville Lord Buckhurst (afterwards Earl of Dorset), Lord High 
Treasurer, and endorsed 1600, but written according to the present 
reckoning in 1601, shows how anxious she was not to diminish her 
income by losing the wardship of a young gentleman who had been 
entrusted to her. 

" Most noble lord," she says, " I must not omyte to aknowledge my 
thankfulnes for all your Lps. honorable favours, and namlye for thys last, 
wherin it plesede you lyke your worthye self to doe me ryght and tendere 
my quiete, which God will requitt thoe I can not. I have here a fewe 
perverse tenants that carys themselves pevishly agaynst me, as the bearer 
can informe your Lp., but a [little?] of your countenance will sone quayle 
them, wich I beseche you afforde me. Also I mak boulde to put your 
good Lp. in remembrance of your honorable promyse unto me at my last 
being ther for the wardshippe of Mr. Petose sonne, who ail thoughe I 
scarslye thynk evere to have good of, the young man being allredye cum 
to eighteen yeares of age, and hys father not ould, thoe long sycklye, yet 
now having put hym of hymself into my custodye, my humble sute to your 
Lp. is that if he shuld chance to faule I myght then be sure without any 
prevencyone to rest secured of hym undere your Lp. myndfull fauoure, 
for wich, with all other your graces, synce I can noe farther meryght, I 
will be thankfull as I am bounde, and my best wishes shall evere attende 
you, and hartye prayers for the lenkethnynge of your happy dayes to the 
comforte of your frendes and worthye staye to thys our commone wealth, 
So I seas your Lp. farther trouble, and remayne deuotede 
"To do all honore and sarues, 

" L. Leycester." 

It would appear, indeed, that the unhappy position in which 
the countess was placed excited the sympathy and commiseration 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER. 163 



of some of the great officers of the state, and the Lord High 
Treasurer seems to have recommended her as a person to whom 
the guardianship of young people might safely be entrusted, for 
we have another holograph letter from her to Robert Cecil, Earl 
of Salisbury, who was High Treasurer in 1609, endorsed in the 
December of that year, and which again contains a reference to a 
wardship, and runs as follows : 

" My good Lord, I shuld hould my self uerye unworthye of thys and 
all your hyghe fauours, if I dyde not acknowledge with greatest thank- 
fnllnes your noble bountye therine, besechinge your Lp. to exsepte 
the widdow's myght, wich for want of other meryght, shall be my 
hartye prayers to God for your long lyf and health that many may be 
made styll happye by you ; I assure your Lp. your honorable fauoure, 
wich the world now may tak notyce of, doth me mor good then the gyft 
it self, thoe it be far mor then I can any way desarue, but what I can I 
will, and leue the rest to God, whoe contenew your goodnes, and mak 
euere happye as I infynyghtlye wish, whoe doth all ways rest 

" Your good Lp. to loue and honore you, 

" L. Leycester. 

" Your Lp. may be sure I will ews the ward well, hys frends puttynge 
hyin afore into my custodye." 

It was in 1606 that the countess's grandson, Robert Devereux, 
the third and last Earl of Essex of that name, married the 
wretched Frances Howard, the second daughter of Thomas Earl 
of Suffolk, the bride being at that time but thirteen and the bride- 
groom only fourteen years of age. The misery of this union, the 
declaration of its nullity, Lady Essex's crimes and condemnation 
with her paramour Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester and Earl of 
Somerset, for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, who was 
poisoned by them in September, 1614, must have added fresh 
pangs to those already endured by the aged countess. After 
Essex in 1609 or 1610 discovered the aversion which his wife 
entertained for him, and became aware of the nature of the 
feelings with which she regarded his rival, he left her entirely ; and 
when the sentence of nullity of the marriage was pronounced in 
1614, went to reside with his grandmother, who was still living in 
retirement at Drayton. The following letter, w T hich is holograph, 
and is written in a very tremulous hand, shows us, as well as do 
her own words, that the countess now began to feel the infirmities 
of age. It is addressed to her grandson, or as she styles him, 
"my honorable dere sonne," Robert Rich Earl of Holland, and is 
undated ; but it must have been written after 1624, as the earl was 
not raised to that dignity till that year, and at this period the 
countess was over eighty-four years old. 

" My nobille good Sonne, if my oulde weake hand would sarve me, I 
should requit your ofte kynd memorye better ; but were I more to re- 



164 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



commende thys worthye barrer, my spesyall good frend, whos onlye 
desyre is to be made kiiowne unto you, he is in such place as it may be 
smale to you, but may doe you sarves, he loves all your frendes and 
honors you much for the good he bears ; and so, being werye, I recom- 
mend my hartye love with God's best blessinge to your worthye self, 
your noble ladye, and all yours. Restynge evere your grandmother 
derly lovinge you, 

" L. Leycester. 

" Thys berare, Mr. Chamberlayne, hath done manye pleasurs for my 
friends at my request." 

The next letter, which is addressed to her " honorable good 
sonne, the Earl of Carlisle," is also written to her grandson. It is 
endorsed 1629, and it shows clearly that the countess was still a 
woman of business, notwithstanding her troubles and her extreme 
age. It is written to James Hay Earl of Carlisle, husband of 
Lucy Percy, daughter of Henry Earl of Northumberland, by 
Dorothy the Countess of Leicester's daughter by the Earl of Essex. 

" My Lord, I mak noe dowghte but you tak it as intended for a kynes 
to let you have my hous, espesyallye upon thos tearmes you have thus 
long held it. Now parseiving ) r ou have noe great use of it, my request 
is that you wilbe pleased to leaue it and to delivier upe your leas that I 
may now dyspos of it ; and I hope you will take into dew consederasyone 
how rewinous that hows is, and to afforde me the twoe yeares rent 
behynd, that I may have it presentlye repayred, otherwyse I thynk noe 
man will take it of me, and my smaule meanes will not well enduer so great 
a lose ; so not doughtinge but your lordshippe will delle honorablye and 
frendlye with me and that spedelye, praying God to bles you and my 
noble daughter, as I hartylye wish and rest evere, 

" Your l ps grandmother, 

" much honorynge you, 

"L. Leycester." 

This letter is written in a very shaky hand, and gives evidence 
that the bodily powers of the old countess were at last beginning 
to fail her. She was not, however, yet quite hors de combat, for 
Mr. John Povy says, in a letter printed by Sir H. Ellis, quoted by 
Craik, and written to Sir Thomas Puckering in 1632, that " my 
lady of Leicester, being six years older" than her brother the Earl 
of Banbury, who w r as eighty-six, " can yet walk a mile in a 
morning," no slight feat for a lady of ninety-two, more especially 
when we reflect upon that eventful and troublous life which the 
Countess of Leicester had led. 

Three years after this, upon Christmas day 1635, Letitia 
Knollys breathed her last. Her epitaph in the collegiate church 
of Warwick, which was written by her great-grandson Gervase 
Clifton, tells us that " that face, that hand, . . . once was fairest in 
the land," that 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTER. 165 



" She that in her youth had hene 
Darling to the maiden Quene, 
Till she was content to quitt 
Her favour for her favouritt. 

Thought it safest to retyre, 
From all care and vaine desire, 
To a private country cell ; 
Where she spent her days so well, 
That to her the hetter sort 
Came, as to an holy court, 
And the poor that lived neare, 
Dearth nor famine could not feare."* 

He adds more in the same strain, which we can only hope to be 
as true as it is complimentary. The will of the countess, which 
has never yet been printed, runs thus : — 

"In the name of God, Amen. I, Lady Letttce Countess of 
Leicester, w T idow, being in perfect health and memorie, doe make and 
ordayne, under this myne owne hand, my last will and testament, the 
15th of October, a.d. 1622, etc., etc." 

After the formula bequeathing her soul to God, and expressing 
her belief in the consolations of religion, etc., etc., she goes on to 
desire that she may be buried without pomp at Warwick, by the 
side of her 

" Dear lord and husband the Earl of Leicester, with whom I desire 
to lie entombed. I doe make and ordeyne for my executor, my hon ble 
and dear grandchild the Earl of Essex, assuredly trusting that hee will 
see this my will in all things faithfully performed, which I entreate him 
of all loves to doe, praying him in the duty to God and the true love to 
me to see due performance according to my playne and true meaning of 
this my last will, even in uprightness of conscience, as I know my sonn 
would have it. And first I will that all my debts due, either in lawe or 
conscience, which I think now are not many [so that, after all, the 
countess had managed to quiet her creditors], may be paid with all con- 
venient expedition. Then that my funeral and legacies be likewise dis- 
charged, with fitting allowance for all other travells and paynes in and 
concerning the performance of this business. Also I doe ordeyne to 
have my house continewed for one moneth after my decease, soe as my 
servants in that tyme may the better provyde for themselves, and because 
I have lyved all my life to my full proportion, it cannot be looked for 
that I should have much to bestowe, but onely to bring me to the 
ground, with some little memory to some few of my friends, and speciall 
regard to my servants, which I hope my deare son and the rest w r ill see, 
according to my care, and as their case requires, performed. And there- 
fore for my lands, goods, and chattell whatsoever, I appoint them to goe 
to the performance of my will in this manner and forme follow 8 . First, 
I give and bequeath to my dear son the E. of Essex, my greate diamond 

* The whole of the epitaph is printed in Nichols' Leicestershire, vol. i. p, u.. 
p. 538 ; and in Pettigrew's Chronicles of the Tombs, p. 339. 



166 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



that I usually weare of my thumb, as my best jewel to my worthiest 
child, hoping he will accept of what else I may leave him, my will being 
performed, with God's blessing ; that ring, if my son have no children, 
to my daughter of Hertford ; I give to my dear sister, the Ladie Gerald, 
£50., with the jewell in my hatt I weare everie day. I give to my dear 
brother, Sir Francis Knolles, £ 100. ; I give to my dear sister, the Ladie 
Laware, £'20. ; I give to servant, Christopher Kettle, £100., and to his 
wife £100., my chamber plate, with the" bed she lies in, and furniture, 
with what else I give her with myne owne hand. And so to any other. * 
I give lynnens to Grace Kettle, the rest of both to Besse. To Bridget, 
£xx. To the rest of my gentlemen £40. a-piece, and to my preacher 
£50. To all my other servants, let them be considered according to the 
tyme of their service at the discretion of my executors, especially 
entreating my son to be good to my old servants, that they may enjoy 
with his favor the places and livings they have of me. And that he 
will, for my sake, protect them. Kettle I most chiefly recomend for his 
true honestie, being such a servant as I think few masters have ; divers 
others are honest and serviceable, as my son knows ; but 1 will charge 
him no further then hee please, onely to be good unto them. [I doe 
give to my daughter of Hertford my playne tablett, with her father's 
picture in it, and [as to] the pearle at it, this is otherwise disposed] ;f 
for the rest of my grandchildren I have nothing worthie to give them, 
but doe heartily pray to God to blesse them all and theirs. I doe gyve 
to the poore at Warwicke and here £ 100. For all other charges according 
to my ability and discrecion of my executors. 

" Leicester." 

Then follow these codicils:— 

" I doe give to my daughter of Hertford my sable with the head, and 
my unicornes home. I doe give to my young sonne, Gervas Clifton, my 
best great pearle to hang at his eare, and the hatband and a diamond 
ring, with Gods blessing. I give to my sonne, S r Walter Devereux, 
flftie pieces and a diamond ring, with Gods blessing. I give to my little 
daughter, the Lady Arbella, my cheyne of smallest perle, with Gods 
blessing. 

" Leicester." 

" I have had no counsell herein but God and myself, wherefore I 
desire my noble sonne to make the best of all faultes and fayles accord- 
ing to my true meaning. 25 Mar. 1634. Delivered and published by 
the s d countess, in the presence of us, Rich d . Chamberleyne, Humfrey 
Colles, Grace Kettle. 

" Proved at London on the 1 7th of January, 1634." 

Thus, then, having reached the age of ninety-four, having been 
born in the reign of Henry VIII., and lived through those of 
Philip and Mary, Elizabeth, James I., and a portion of that of 
Charles L, what changes of national faith, politics, dress, customs, 

* In this place are several words struck through with the pen in the original. 
+ This is erased or rather struck through in the original. 



LIFE AND TIMES OF LETITIA COUNTESS OF LEICESTEK. 167 



and modes of thought had not this noble lady witnessed ? Happy 
is it for us that we live in quieter times, and that those who are 
most exalted in rank and position, are also the most conspicuous 
for their domestic virtues. In this respect, indeed, if in no other 

" Tj/iels tol TTarepcov /xey dfieivoves et^o/ze^' eiz/at.'' 

Our object, however, is not that of moralists, but of antiquaries ; 
and to us the biography of the aged Countess of Leicester presents 
food for contemplation, not so much in the study of what should 
be the end and aim of man's existence here, as a measure of com- 
parison between the modes of life in our own times and those now 
so long gone by ; a memorial stone, as it were, placed on the path 
of history to indicate our social progress from one generation to 
another. 



The usual votes of thanks closed the meeting, which was very 
numerously attended. 



September 29th, 1862. 
The Rev. R. Burnaby in the chair. 

The Rev. G. Q. Ashby was elected a Member of the Society. 

Dr. Lee, the President of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion, presented to the Society, a copy of " Speculum Hartwellia- 
num" also catalogues of his Theological and Law books. 

Mr. J. S. Crossley, of Derby, presented through Mr. Bellairs, 

a rubbing of a Brass of a curious and singular character, existing at 

the east end of the north aisle of the church of Otley, Yorkshire. 

It bears the pedigree and arms of a family for several generations. 

Mr. Bellairs considered it to be unique, being rather a memorial 

of a whole family than of an individual. The upper inscription, 

on either side of which were the arms of Lyndlay and Palmes, 

was, as nearly as could be read : 

$et firtum fertalt's cvat tin mmxz partum, 
Vtvixm anttqua profcant Ifyot roonumenta genu's. 

The lower inscription : 

Plurima Lindlorum, templo conduntur in isto 

Vltima Palmsorum corpora bina iacent 
Gloria certa viri non est, sunt omnia vana 

Nec faciunt clarum, stemmata clara virum 
Hoc virtutis opus : Justus ceu palma virebit, 

Nam dotes animi nulla sepulchra tegunt. 

ANNO DNT: 1593. 
The pedigrees between these inscriptions were those of Lyndlay 
and Palmes. In the centre of the pedigrees appeared the arms of 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Palmes (with the canting motto "Justus ut Palma,") with a crescent 
for difference quartering four other coats of arms, one of which 
was Lyndlay. Under the pedigrees reposed a figure, presumed 
from the pedigree to be that of Francis Palmes, who appeared first 
to have married a lady named Corbet, who died in 1597, and 
secondly a lady named Hadnall, who appeared to have been living 
at the date of the brass, 1593. 

Mr. G. C. Bellairs exhibited two drawings (fae-similies) of 
ancient stained glass now remaining in Stockerston Church, Lei- 
cestershire. One represented a female figure, a member of the 
family of Boyville, in whose possession the manor was for several 
generations, John de Boyville founding a hospital there 1466. 
The other represents most graphically the nailing to the cross. 
The exactness and beauty of these fac- similes were much admired. 
Mr. Bellairs remarked that artists in stained glass might study the 
glass at Stockerston with good results, the colouring being ex- 
tremely simple and effective.* 

Mr. North said he had much pleasure in calling the attention 
of the Society to the very high position taken in the department 
of ornamental art in the International Exhibition, by Mr. C. J. 
Lea, of Lutterworth, a member of the Society, and in laying 
before them the remarks of Dr. Dresser, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c, &c, 
whose position as an art critic, and whose close connection with 
the South Kensington Museum and other institutions, rendered 
his opinion of considerable value. It would be remembered that 
Mr. Lea was the successful competitor for the last extra colour 
prize offered by the Ecclesiological Society, and that he exhibited 
at the March (1862) meeting of this Society, one of a series of 
drawings for the mural decorations of a church dedicated to St. 
Alban, then in course of completion, at Rochdale, accompanied 
with an intimation that the drawing, coloured, with other portions 
of the wall decoration, would be exhibited in the International 
Exhibition then forming. No one visiting the Mediaeval Court 
there, containing the contributions of the Ecclesiological Society, 
could have failed to notice this drawing; and that was the colouring 
so highly commended by Dr. Dresser in his work on the Develop- 
ment of Ornamental Art in the International Exhibition. Speaking 
of surface decoration, he observed that while the painted decora- 
tions of the Exhibition did not, as a whole, manifest that whole- 
some advancement which occurred in the papers, the most meri- 
torious examples appeared exclusively in the British department. 
Then, speaking highly of the contributions of Messrs. Harland and 
Fisher, of London, Dr. Dresser said : " To the north of this we 
have a passage of great merit, intended for the decoration of a 
church dedicated to St. Alban, in the north of England, the ex- 

* Mr. Bellairs has drawn with his usual correctness the accompanying illustra- 
tions of this glass expressly for these pages. 




STAINED CLASS. STOCKERSTOW CHURCH 




X'8 ANASTATIC PRESS, 150WICH 



STAINED GLASS ST0CK£RSTON .LEICESTERSHIRE. 



LATIMER'S HOUSE AT THURCASTON. 



169 



hibitor being Mr. C. J. Lea, of High Street, Lutterworth. This 
decoration is of an exalted order, and is one of the most successful 
ornamental developments in the entire Exhibition ; the striking 
' characters being the feeling of quiet which prevails, the softness 
of colouring, the purity of forms, and the excellence of the com- 
position." 

Mr. Hunt exhibited a specimen of the " snaphaunce," the 
parent of the flint lock, which so long held its position till super- 
seded by the percussion cap. It was called the snaphaunce from 
the irregulars who used it in the Low Countries, a set of marauders, 
termed by the Dutch, on account of their propensities, — "snophaus," 
or poultry stealers. It answered their purpose better than the old 
matchlock, which, with its burning tinder, was apt to betray their 
whereabouts. Its construction was simple and effective; a flat 
piece of furrowed steel was placed on a small moveable post of 
iron, secured, but not tightly, by a screw just below the pan. Then 
a piece of sharp flint was placed in the jaws of the cock, which, 
being released by the trigger, struck down upon the face of the 
notched plate, and produced the sparks. 

Mr. Hunt further produced for inspection a curious metal 
pectoral dyptich (there being means of passing a cord or chain 
through it, for suspension round the neck) about an inch 
square when closed. It was apparently a work of Russian art, 
exceedingly rude in execution. When closed, the outer decoration 
of one side, or cover, presented a cross, on either side of which 
were emblems of the passion — a spear, and a reed bearing a 
sponge ; under the cross a skull. The other cover was ornamented 
i by a rose or star. Upon opening the dyptich one side presented 
the Virgin and Child in the upper portion, under which were two 
figures. The other side contained the figure of an aged man 
apparently bearing a book in his left hand, whilst the right was 
held up in the act of blessing; here again were two figures, one on 
either side. The figures were all raised considerably, and had 
each a nimbus round the head ; but were so far worn as to preclude 
a more definite description. 

LATIMER'S HOUSE AT THURCASTON. 

Mr. James Thompson read the following Paper: — 

In the village of Thurcaston there are still standing two old 
houses, each designated by its occupiers and others " Latimer's 
House." 

One of these stands near the church. It has' three gables. It 
is of early Elizabethan date. It is lighted by two windows in 
front, each of which consists of six lights, divided by a transom 
N Vol. IL 



170 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Just above the upper window, and on the horizontal line from 
which the gables spring, is a band on which an inscription is still 
visible. Rendered into modern spelling it reads thus: " This 

HOUSE WAS BUILDED ANNO DOMINI 1558, AND IN THE FIRST YEAR 
OF THE REIGN OF OUR SOVEREIGN LADY, QUEEN ELIZABETH, BY ME 
NICHOLAS GROSVENOR." 

This fabric speaks for itself, therefore ; but it is alleged that an 
older house occupied the site, and that in that was born the Martyr 
of Thurcaston. 

The other house which claims to have once sheltered Latimer, 
and to have been his own and his father's and sisters' home, stands 
a short distance northward of the church, on the left hand side of 
the visitor as he walks away from that building in the direction of 
Rothley. This house is rude and homely in its exterior. Seen 
as it is approached from the church, it offers one side of its timber 
framework to view. The original structure was made of strong 
beams of oak ; the interstices being of mud, for which bricks have 
been substituted. In one place, however, a square of mud still 
remains to attest the original condition of the fabric. A foundation 
wall built of forest stone, of five feet above the ground, formed the 
basis on which the timber framework was laid, and it still remains. 
In the interior, the woodwork is all of oak, of strength and thick- 
ness surprising to modern builders : the oak staircase is firm under 
the tread as if built of stone, or as if it were solid rock. The boarding 
of stairs and doors is left as it was sawn from the tree, with the 
original "saw jinks" visible, except where the busy housewives 
have polished it in their labours during the past three or four 
hundred years. Throughout the house the beams and timbers 
have been fastened together by oaken pegs, seven or eight inches 
long, — no nail of iron having been seen in the original fabric. All 
was throughout strong, rude, plain, and palpable, — no disguise of 
artist's trickery concealing the frank simplicity of the construction. 

Of one peculiar feature some indications are still left. At the 
north end of the present building — that is, the ancient part of it, 
not the comparatively modern smithy — is a chamber, directly 
accessible from the street. A doorway, to which steps of forest 
stone outside conducted, admitted to the chamber. Within the 
door there were three stairs, and then the dormitory, twenty feet 
long by eighteen wide, was entered. This has been considered to 
be the Guest Chamber, in which, in an age when inns were un- 
known in secluded hamlets, our ancestors offered to the benighted 
wayfarer a refuge from the storm and the tempest. As there are 
traces, behind the house, of a broad dyke leading to the bridge, 
and as the tradition is that the old road from Leicester over the 
Forest lay by this house, the supposition is not unreasonable that 
this Guest Chamber was provided for the shelter of travellers who, 
driven by stress of weather, in this once wild and thinly popu- 



LATIMER'S HOUSE AT THURCASTON. 



171 



lated region, had no other harbours where they could find pro- 
tection from " the peltings of the pitiless storm." 

In the lower storey, the ground floor, was a roomy "house 
place," an apartment so well known in old farm houses, where 
substantial comfort is understood, but where pretension is not even 
affected. This would appear to have been the room in which the 
occupants of the house have always lived. 

Now, it remains to determine which of these interesting fabrics 
was really Latimer's house. 

I feel no hesitation in saying the latter. 

The reasons for doing so are few, but seem to me to be deci- 
sive. For it should be remarked that the house built by Nicholas 
Grosvenor was the Manor House; and if it occupied the site of an 
older fabric, that would be the earlier Manor House. Nicholas 
Grosvenor was Lord of the Manor. The pedigree of the Grosvenors 
is on record. It shows that Richard Grosvenor of Eton, Cheshire, 
married Catherine, the third daughter of Richard Cotton, the Lord 
of the Manor of Thurcaston, in the reign of Edward IV. On the 
death of her father, this lady (a co-heiress) received as her share 
of her father's estate the manor and advowson of Thurcaston. The 
Manor House, therefore, became Richard Grosvenor's, and passed 
to his descendants, and here doubtless they resided. During part 
of the time in which the Grosvenors were settled at Thurcaston, 
the father of Latimer — a substantial yeoman, a tenant probably of 
the Grosvenors, who ploughed his fields, and whose wife milked 
his cows, and who required his son and daughters to help him, — 
dwelt in the old house up the town street, in his own comfortable 
and farmerlike household. To suppose that yeoman Latimer was 
living in Squire Grosvenor's house is a conjecture that needs no 
refutation. Improbable as such a circumstance would be now, it 
would be ten times more improbable in an age when social dis- 
tinctions were more sharply defined and more rigidly marked. It 
cannot, I think, be doubted that the house near the church was 
always the Manor House, inhabited by the village 'squires, and 
that the house in the street was a yeoman's dwelling, such as 
Hugh Latimer's father lived in. "My father," says the Martyr- 
Bishop in one of his sermons, " w 7 as a yeoman, and had no land 
of his own, only he had a farm of £3. or £4. by year at the utter- 
most, and hereupon he tilled so much as kept a half dozen men. 
He had walk for an hundred sheep, and my mother milked thirty 
kine." 

I have pleasure in exhibiting by the obliging permission of Mr. 
Dudgeon, the artist, a drawing of Latimer's house, taken from the 
rear of the building. In local colouring and fidelity to detail it is 
admirable. I also lay before the Society a pleasing view of the 
bridge behind the house, a relic of the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century, which is almost equal in interesting association to the 



172 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



house itself ; as it and the scene around were once as familiar 
to Hugh Latimer's eyes as his own home, and as his daily road lay 
over this bridge to the meadows beyond. Both pictures are in- 
tended to be placed in the forthcoming Exhibition in the Town 
Museum, and will constitute two of its chiefest attractions to all 
interested in our county history and antiquities. 

The Rev. J. EL Hill then read the following 

NOTES UPON ALEXTON CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 

This church is interesting chiefly from the various changes it has 
undergone at different periods. 

It is described in the old terrier of glebe lands, &c, dated 1638, 
as "consisting of one allie or ile, and the steeple having four small 
bells," and as such it continued until the commencement of the 
restoration now in progress. But it bore traces of having been a 
much larger church, with north and south aisles. The arcades of 
these aisles remained with their arches filled up and plain square- 
headed windows inserted. 

The north side of the nave is the oldest part of the church ; its 
two Norman arches being fine specimens of twelfth century work. 
These arches are richly carved, and of different patterns. The one 
is a zigzag, and the other enriched lozenge with scolloped labels. 
The central pillar is round, with the usual bold square abacus. 
The two responds are of the same character, except that the face 
of the capital of the westernmost is curiously ornamented with 
circular work. These arches were at one time frescoed. The two 
responds seem to indicate that the original aisle consisted of two 
bays, but it was afterwards lengthened, as another sejni-circular 
arch of plainer work can be traced on the outside, and a small 
portion of it also on the inside close to the tower. 

The chancel arch was taken down at the beginning of the 
present century, but the half pillars that supported it were left. 
These are round with capitals plainly foliated, and square abaci, 
having their corners chamfered or cut off. The mortised holes in 
the pillars show that at one time there w r as a rood screen. 

The south arcade of the nave consisted of three bays, with 
pointed arches and octagonal pillars. The mouldings, etc., indi- 
cate that this aisle was of decorated style, but of rather poor 
character. The respond at the east end is weak, and the work 
throughout rather rough. Several portions of square-headed windows 
have been found during the present restoration built up in the 
walls ; these in all probability belonged to the south aisle. 

The chancel, like the body of the church, has undergone some 
changes, as it bears traces of having been lengthened some years 
after the portion nearest the nave was built, the south wall not 



NOTES UPON ALEXTON CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 173 



being in a straight line, and the side windows of different dates. 
These windows consist of two lights. Of the earlier ones, that on 
the south side has geometrical tracery, the other is plain lancet 
•shaped. On the north side there is also a small one light leper's 
window with cusps, corresponding exactly in shape with the piscina 
within the altar space and on the south side. These may all be 
considered as early decorated, and probably are of the same date. 
There is no doubt that this chancel was subsequently lengthened, 
and the piscina was then removed to its present position. The 
later windows are square-headed, and that on the south side has 
poor debased tracery. The east window of this period was pro- 
bably removed, and the unsightly churchwarden's window inserted, 
when the monument by the side of it, bearing date 1726, was 
erected. There is one peculiar feature about the chancel arch not yet 
mentioned, viz., that the shaft of the southern respond stands back 
about a foot from the place it should occupy on the base. The 
question is — was it originally left so, or was it moved at some 
subsequent time ? 

The porch on the south side was probably built at the time 
when the aisles were removed and the arches filled in. It had this 
inscription over the doorway, "Edward Andrews the founder 
hereof. Ao. Dmn., 1594. R.E. 36, Deo gracias."* It was built 
out of the materials of the original porch, as the* shafts of the 
doorway arch were of decorated character, corresponding to the 
aisle. Instead of the arch a fiattish stone was placed upon them. 
The gable was ornamented w r ith two grotesque and rudely carved 
figures of animals, much older than the Elizabethan finial set up 
between them. 

The doorway into the church was circular-headed, but without 
any ornament, and most likely was a portion of the Norman door- 
way of the north aisle. 

The tower was built within the nave, and upon three arches, all 
of which were filled up about fifty years ago to support the tower, 
which was deemed unsafe. The side arches seem to indicate that 
it was built while the aisle was standing on the south side ; in the 
masonry that filled up the last bay of the arcade, is a square- 
headed window, now blocked up. It was most likely inserted to 
admit light into the belfry after the removal of the aisle. 

The dates of the various parts of the church are probably as 
follows : — The Norman arches on the north side and the chancel 
arch about 1160 (Henry II.) ; the western portion of the chancel 
at the end of the thirteenth century, the period of transition from 
Early English to Decorated (Edward I.) ; the south aisle the middle 
of the fifteenth century (Edward III.) ; the tower and eastern 
portion of the chancel about 1500 (Henry VII.) ; both aisles re- 
moved and porch built 1594 (36th of Elizabeth). 

* Vide Burton's History respecting Andrews, etc. 



174 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 

The church is now being restored to something of its original l| 
character. The Norman arches were cleared out this spring, but jj 
were found to hang so much to the north that it was deemed 
neoessary to rebuild them. They were very carefully taken down I 
and replaced exactly as they were before. The new aisle is of a II 
transitional character, the side windows having two lights with a 
broad mullion between them, in front of which is a cylindrical 
shaft supporting the arch. The one at the east end is a pointed \l 
transition window, with broad mullion, and the head pierced with I 
a trefoil. 

The south side also is being restored. The arches have been 
taken down, but will be rebuilt exactly as they were before. The j 
pillars are firm and straight, and only require the capital of one | 
of them repairing. 

As this portion of the church is not required for seats, the t 
population of the village being small, and there being plenty of | 
room in the nave and north aisle, it will be used as a baptistery, J 
the font being placed in the eastern half of it, the western half 
being used as an atriolum or porch. 

The chancel arch is to be restored, and a new three-light east [ 
window to be put in. The chancel walls which had been raised, 
probably when the old flat roof was put on, have been lowered, 
and there is to be a high pitched roof of stained pine. The seats 
will be of oak and the pavement of red and black tiles. Three 
pieces of stained glass windows of the fourteenth century, taken 
out of the church before commencing the restoration, are in the 1 
safe keeping of the Rev. Mr. Norris, the curate of the parish. | 
Two of them consist of collections of different glass, probably the 
remains of windows placed in the church years gone by ; some of 
the pieces are very rich, especially the rubies. The third piece is 
a coat of arms of the Bakepuiz family, who were formerly lords " 
and patrons of Alexton, whose chief seat was (according to Burton) ! 
Barton Bakepuiz, co. Derby, and whose family adhered to the j 
noble house of Ferrers, Earls of Derby, to whose deeds they 
appear often to be witnesses. The Bakepuiz family adopted (as I 
was commonly the case in those days) the arms of their suzerain j 
lord. They bore upon their escutcheon the following : — " Gules, 
two bars argent, three horse shoes in chief, or;" the three horse 
shoes being the emblems of the house of Ferrers. 

In Burton's time, two other escutcheons adorned the windows j 
of the church : 1 . " Gules, two bars argent ; three horse shoes in 
chief, or, with a mullet sable upon the uppermost bar." These ; 
being the arms of Hakluit, who held a separate manor at Alexton, 
36 Elizabeth, who had also a separate manor at Hallaton. 2. The 
other coat of arms was " Gules, three poll axes, or the bearer of 
these unknown. 

The manor has been held by various families, Bakepuiz, Blunt, " 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



175 



Andrewes, &c. : also, by Henry Lord Cromwell, and Lord Wil- 
loughby de Broke, of whom it was purchased in 1760. It is now 
in the possession of Henry William, Lord Berners, who is restoring 
the venerable church of Alexton in the most approved and 
admirable manner, the greater portion of the expense being borne 
by the noble lord. 

The restoration of the church is placed under the able manage- 
ment of Mr. Millican, of Leicester. 



November 24th, 1862. 

The Rev. Robert Burnaby in the chair. 

After general and financial business had been transacted, the 
following gentlemen were unanimously elected honorary members 
of the Society:— The Rev. Prebendary Trollope, M.A., F.S.A., 
Leasingham; Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.; Edward 
Levien, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., British Museum. 

The usual exhibition of antiquities, &c, comprised the following : 
By Mr. North : Remains of Roman and other pottery, &c, 
lately discovered in making excavations preparatory to the erection 
of new buildings by Messrs. T. Crick and Son, upon ground behind 
their present premises in Southgate Street, Leicester. They con- 
sisted of pieces of Samian ware, having embossed patterns ; the 
necks of several ampullae or earthenware bottles, one of peculiar 
form, two sides of the neck having been pressed together by the 
finger and thumb of the potter when the clay was soft, and so two 
openings formed into the interior of the bottle, a large one near 
the handle for pouring the liquor into the bottle or jug, and a 
small one answering the modern spout, through which to pour it 
out. A small vessel of Samian ware quite plain, three inches in 
diameter and two inches in height, having the potter's mark, 
EPPN., impressed upon the bowl inside. In addition to these 
remains of Roman pottery, which were found about eighteen feet 
below the present surface, a piece of mediaeval pottery and a small 
vessel of the ware known amongst collectors as the " Derby 
Biscuit China," the art of making which has been lost for many 
years, were turned up.* Not many yards to the north of the 
ground here indicated, a portion of a Roman pavement was dis- 
covered many years ago. Above. these marks of the habitation of 
the Roman, and within three feet of the present surface, were 
found several wooden coffins containing human bones ; respecting 
these Mr. North regretted he could give no information, they 

• The Derby works were founded in 1751 by William Duesbury. The present 
proprietors are Messrs. Stephenson and Hancock. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



having been again covered by the workmen before they had been 
inspected by any one competent to give an opinion as to their 
date or origin. Adjoining the ground where they were found 
stands a portion of an old building traditionally said to have 
belonged to the Guild of Corpus Christi, and to have been in- 
habited by the Guild priests. Could this burial ground have been 
connected with their establishment? 

By Mr. Jacques, Birstall : A small hexagonal dish of Limoges 
Painted Enamel, about six inches in diameter and two inches in 
height. In the bowl appeared the Virgin and Child, with the 
inscription MARIA-MATER DEJ. This, like all the painted 
enamels for which Limoges was so famous, was upon copper, and 
belonged to that period of the art now known as " the Fine Style," 
the peculiarities of which mark the enamels of that school pro- 
duced between about the years 1530 and 1580. The dish formerly 
belonged to the Strawberry-hill collection. To show different 
styles of the art of enamelling, Mr. Jacques further exhibited a 
small dish of Chinese enamelled ware very curious and rare, and 
a small box or casket — enamelled — of the French school of the 
time of Louis Quatorze; also a watch with enamelled face and 
elegantly chased gilt case of the same period as the last mentioned 
article (Louis XIV.). The works of the watch which appeared to 
be of a more recent date, had the name of the maker, Ardriot a 
Paris, 312. 

Mr. Jacques further exhibited the Virgin and Child carved in 
ivory. The Virgin standing and holding in her arms the infant 
Saviour, who had fruit in his left hand, the right arm being unfor- 
tunately broken off. The figure of the Virgin was about seven inches 
high ; her robes had been richly coloured, and her hair, which was 
loose and was flowing, had been golden ; remains of colour and gold 
were still remaining. Judging from the seraph which aided in adorn- 
ing the base upon which the Virgin stood, this exquisite carving 
would be the work of the end of the fifteenth or the beginning of the 
following century. It probably formerly belonged to a shrine or to 
a more ordinary tomb. Henry VII. commanded in his will that 
in the sides and both ends of his tomb, tabernacles should be 
graven and the same filled with images — Two small chasings in 
silver about two inches and a half square, the one representing the 
creation — the Deity standing with outstretched arms, whilst around 
were grouped various animals — the other, the bringing of the 
beasts of the fields and fowls of the air unto Adam to see what he 
would call them (Genesis ii. 19), where the Creator and Adam 
were represented with the creatures passing in review before them. 
The mark upon the silver [A] [B~j. 

By Mr. G. C. Neale : A very beautiful carving of the Fall of 
our First Parents, upon which Mr. Neale read the following 
remarks : — The rule of our Society being absolute that all objects 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



177 



exhibited at its meeting must be accompanied with a written 
description, relieves at least one of its members from the feeling 
of pretension or obtrusiveness in the observations which he may 
occasionally have to make. This morning I have great pleasure 
in exhibiting an ancient ivory carving, in alto-relievo, of Adam 
and Eve, at that crisis of their history denominated "The Fall." 
It would, I think, be an injustice to the school in which this 
interesting work was designed, or to the skill of the artist who 
executed it, to pass it by without especial notice. We have before 
us the first six verses of the third chapter of Genesis, not written 
in verse or painted on canvas, but carefully and artistically carved 
on ivory. The subject is of too sacred a character to be styled 
allegorical ; we must classify it with the numerous Scripture histori- 
cal works which emanated from the Italian, Flemish, and Spanish 
schools in mediaeval times. Our first parents are here represented 
standing one on each side of the tree of knowledge, round 
the stem of which is coiled the fatal deceiver. Hich foliage and 
tempting fruit cluster in the boughs above, whilst death, symbolized 
by the human skull, lies significantly at the feet of the guilty pair. 
The serpent is rudely carved ; the termination of the tail is obtuse 
and of a dart-like form, the head protruding from the tree is heavy 
and coarse, the mouth distended, apparently in the act of speaking. 
I am indebted to A. W. Franks, Esq., of the British Museum, for 
an opinion which I now give. He considers the work to be 
Flemish or Italian, and to date about the latter end of the six- 
teenth century. Mr. Franks having given his attention to carvings 
of an earlier period, did not like to speak confidently. I am 
inclined to think it is Flemish from the literal apple-like form of 
the fruit. The ebony frame, which is probably of a later period, 
is handsome and appropriate ; the mouldings are good, and it is 
surmounted by two cherubim s embracing. The size of the ivory 
section measures, after being squared, eight inches long, five broad, 
and two thick. We conclude from these dimensions that the 
animal to which it belonged must have been of colossal size. The 
figures have never been separated from the plaque, but are carved 
out of one solid piece. The architecture, if I may be allowed so 
to call it, the proportions and beauty of the human frame, the easy 
position of the figures, the contrast between the muscular, sharp, 
angular development of the male with the rounded and delicate 
form of the limbs of the female figure, are all details worthy of 
criticism and attention. The slight inclination and peculiar posi- 
tion of the heads indicate guilt and shame, and in the sad expres- 
sion of the features we can trace sorrow and remorse. The female 
figure has unfortunately lost a hand, and the features have suffered 
several slight mutilations, not accidental, but the result of a vulgar 
morbid taste to injure and destroy what is beautiful and rare. AN 6 
are constantly meeting repetitions on a smaller scale of the 



178 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



maniacal destruction of the Barberini vase. There appears to be 
an innate mischievous propensity in some Englishmen to desecrate 
every work of art. We have seen valuable family pictures con- 
verted into targets for after-dinner sport ; and whoever saw the 
walls of an ancient castle, or the shaft of a market cross, free from 
the traveller's autograph, or the monograms of the rustic litho- 
grapher? We rejoice to think that it is the pleasure and privilege 
of such societies as this to throw the mantle of protection over 
every work of art, and to screen from desecration the labours of 
those who, though dead, ever live in their works. 

By Mr. Henry Goddard: Some additional Romano-British 
or Anglo Saxon remains, found near Butt Close Lane, Leicester, 
consisting of a circular ring fibula, with movable pin attached ; a 
small oval fibula, the outer circle of which was formerly filled with 
enamel, or a vitreous paste, portions of which still remained (the 
pin of this was missing) ; portions of clay beads, and a bead of 
stone about an inch in diameter. 

By Mr. J. F. Sarson : Plans and elevations in folio of Henry 
VII. Chapel, by L. N. Cottingham, architect, 1822. 

By Mr. Firn : A piece of continental carving in wood, con- 
sisting of a group of eleven figures representing the entombment. 
It was made to hang upon a hook in a wall, there being a staple 
behind for that purpose. It was probably a Pieta. A model of 
the head and bust of a man in complete plate armour. 



January 26th, 1863. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 
Mr. G. H. Nevinson in the chair. 

Mr. G. C. Bella irs presented the audited accounts of the 
Society for the past year. 

Mr. North (Hon. Sec.) presented the following 

REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1862. 

Upon presenting a Report of the proceedings of the Leicestershire Architectural 
and Archaeological Society for the past year (18B2), the Committee have again the 
satisfaction of announcing the increasing strength of the Society as to numbers, 
there having been twenty-two members added to the member roll, and but few lost 
by death or withdrawal during that, the eighth year since its formation. This con- 
tinued increase in the funds of the Society enabled the Committee, during the past 
year, to place in the hands of the members, in addition to the costly and profusely 
illustrated volume of the Associated Societies, the First Part of the Transactions of 
your own Society, comprising an account of its Meetings, and the Papers read 
during the two first years of its existence- — 1855 and 1856. The preservation, in 
this permanent way, of a record of our proceedings, has, your Committee venture to 
think, met with the approval of the members generally. The value of the publica- 
tion is considerably enhanced by the illustrations, for several of which you are 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1862. 



3 79 



indebted to the artistic and gratuitous pen of Mr. Joseph Goddard, architect ; and 
to Dir. James Thompson and Mr. Bellairs you are also under obligation for further 
aid in that important department. It is strongly recommended that the publication 
be continued during the coming year, should the funds of the Society permit, as the 
only means of preserving Papers read before the members, and of keeping a register 
of the many extremely valuable and suggestive antiquities exhibited at the bi- 
monthly meetings. 

These bi-monthly meetings, during the year just closed, have been of considerable 
interest, and the exbibition of antiquities well worthy the notice of the members: 
indeed, many of the articles shown were extremely valuable as real and tangible 
exponents of the past history of the county. The Roman remains exhibited, as 
might be expected in a locality where that powerful race were firmly established for 
so many years, have been numerous and noteworthy. We have seen silver and 
bronze coins found in Leicester — articles of domestic use and personal ornaments, 
and various specimens of pottery. The Anglo-Saxon race has been represented by 
articles found in Leicester, and by a discovery of great value and interest made at 
Melton Mowbray. [The Report proceeds to describe the discovery of these relics, 
as given at pp. 94-90 in this volume.] 

The articles illustrative of the mediaeval and later periods exhibited at our 
various bi-monthly meetings have, as usual, been of a varied and interesting 
character. We have been shown enamels from China, and from France, including 
an exquisite specimen of the Limoges school. Carvings in ivory and wood. The 
mediaeval illuminator has been introduced to us in a French book of " Hours" of 
the fourteenth century : and the modern typographer has been presented in several 
specimens of various dates. The skill and fidelity of the pencil and the brush of 
several of our members have been evidenced by the exhibition at our meetings of 
drawings of Skeffington and Billesdon churches before restoration, of Latimer's 
house, and the ancient bridge at Thurcaston, and of a portion of the ancient stained 
glass at Stockerston Church, in this county. Mr. Lea, of Lutterworth, has shown 
specimens of his mural decorations, which have since, in the International Ex- 
hibition, added much to his reputation. To these might be added a long list of 
curiosities all more or less valuable, among which would figure a dyptych from the 
Eastern Church, and a skeleton from the Bow Bridge, Leicester, which did not once 
carry the mortal flesh of Richard III. 

It was resolved early in the year that the annual excursion should be made to 
Bosworth Field ; when it became known that the British Archaeological Association 
intended holding their congress last year in this town, it was determined that the 
excursion should take place during the visit of that Association, in order that its 
members might be invited to join in the day's proceedings, and that it should com- 
mence from Leicester, so that Kirby Muxloe Castle and other places of interest on 
the way might be visited. The members of the Lincolnshire, and of the North- 
amptonshire Architectural Societies, and of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
Society were also invited to attend. [The Report proceeds to give a detailed account 
of the excursion, as reported, pp. 112-167 of this volume.] 

The work of church building and restoration has been carried on in this county 
as elsewhere, during the past year with great vigour. The principal works completed 
in Leicester, are those in connection with the central church of the town — St. 
Martin's. The ancient tower and. spire resting internally upon Norman piers and 
arches have been removed, and in their place Mr. Brandon has erected a fine Early 
English tower of very considerable magnitude and height; indeed, so much so as 
almost to appear out of proportion to the main building; it is, however, hoped at no 
distant period to complete the architect's plan by raising the pitch of the nave roof, 
and by the addition of a broach spire, which will not only add much to the beauty 
of the edifice, but will give symmetry to the proportions of the tower, which at 
present is naturally wanting. The tower rests internally upon four Early English 
arches of considerable altitude, with carved capitals, by which means the fine Per- 
pendicular chancel and the north and south transepts are more distinctly seen from the 
nave. The north transept, which has been entirely rebuilt, and slightly lengthenovl, 
is a compound of various periods of architecture. In consequence of the increased 
height of the new tower arches, it was necessary to raise a portion of the roof of the 
south transept: this has been done by making a pitched roof finished by a gable, 
pierced by a cinquefoil window, and terminated externally by a cross at the limit of 
the first or small south aisle. Probably, a greater degree of boldness on the pari 



ISO 



1 EICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



of the arohiteot in this arrangement would have produced a better result; if the roof 
had l>een raised and the tran septal arrangements could have been carried out to the 
extreme south wall, so as to have included under it the first south window, which, 
from its size — being much larger than those in the same line of wall — almost points 
to this as its former position, the result would perhaps both externally and internally 
have been bolder, more graceful, and in every way more satisfactory. The -optical 
illusion produced by the impinging of a portion of the mouldings of the western 
tower arch upon the stilt of the arch is extremely unfortunate, 

Messrs. Skidmore and Co. have, in their usual effective manner, introduced 
standards and semi- standards for gas under the western tower arch, and within the 
chancel ; and a carved eagle lectern in oak, executed by Mr. Barfield of Leicester, 
reflects great credit upon his taste and skill. 

The fine church of St. Margaret's is also being gradually restored under the 
care of Mr. G. G. Scott. During the year 1862, the north side has been new cased, 
the jambs and arches of the windows restored, and new tracery inserted. 

The most important work completed in the county, during the past year, was 
undoubtedly the restoration, under Mr. G. G. Scott, of the parish church (All 
Saints') of Loughborough. This fine Church, which for more than two years past [ 
has been undergoing complete renovation, now, with the exception of the tower, [ 
which is being restored by the munificence of Mr. W. Perry- Herrick, reappears in j 
almost its pristine beauty. The galleries are swept away, and the high pews re- i 
placed by very good open oak seating. The foundations of the church have been F 
underpinned and considerably strengthened ; the masonry inside and out, including j 
the pinnacles and battlements, the buttresses and parapets, thoroughly restored; I 
the brick mullions in the windows replaced by stone tracery in character with the [ 
style of the jambs. The doorways have been rebuilt, care being taken to follow 
the details of the original entrance; the porch at the southern one is almost, if not | 
entirely, new. The fittings of the chancel are restored, and a new east window I 
inserted ; in fact, the whole edifice has been thoroughly restored, or where abso- [ 
lutely necessary, rebuilt, and that in no niggardly spirit, for the contract amounted j 
to .£7,200. The entire work will, your Committee think, give great satisfaction to 1 
those members of this Society especially who attended the general meeting held at I 
Loughborough in the year 1852, and saw the church in its then unsightly condition ; f 
and it must be a pleasure to the members generally to find that the advice then [ 
given to the inhabitants by the spokesman of the Society — the Rev. Canon James — 
in his Paper upon the church, was so well received, and has eventually been so f 
thoroughly acted upon with such extremely satisfactory results. 

The restoration of the small church of Welby, which for some time past has 
been in the hands of Mr. R. W. Johnson, of Melton Mowbray, was completed last 
year. The later works consisted of new fittings for church and chancel, the in- 
sertion of a new east window, the lowering of the ground round the building, and r 
the thorough draining of the foundations. i 

Great improvements have been effected in Kibworth church by the erection of 
a new roof to the nave, and by forming a tower arch from the nave, and thus j 
showing the western window, which has been somewhat lengthened to meet the j 
requirements of the change. I 

The tower of North Kilworth church has been restored to the belfry windows; j 
above the windows, the tower and spire were taken down and rebuilt, the latter | 
being raised about ten feet higher than its predecessor. The work has been care- 
fully done by Mr. Pirn, of Leicester, under the architectural guidance of Mr. Jos. 
Clarke, of London. Mr. Firn has also been engaged in pointing and otherwise 
restoring the external walls of Narborough church. This has led to the restoration 
of an exceedingly interesting Early English priest's door on the south side of the 
chancel of that church. The whole of the original stone work of this doorway is 
now on Mr. Pirn's premises, where it is placed in position, and is well worth a visit I 
from those members specially interested in Gothic architecture. \ 

The restoration of Stoughton church referred to in the last Report, is still 
progressing. During the past year the north aisle with its fine range of Decorated 
windows, has been taken down and literally restored, every bit of old stone being 
again placed in its old position, excepting in cases where new was a necessity. A \ 
Perpendicular clerestory is being added to the nave, a new south porch is to take f 
the place of the present debased one, and probably by the end of the present year | 
the whole church will — through the liberality of Major the Hon. Powys-Keck — be 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



181 



thoroughly and. by Mr. Firn, carefully restored. The neighbouring church of 
Oadby presents a sad contrast to this. The churchwardens there have had the 
bad taste and will learn the eventual bad economy of daubing a portion of the 
external walls with stucco. 

The chancel of Hinckley church is now being restored under the guidance of 
Mr. Gillett, and in other parts of the county works of restoration of various degrees 
of importance are being carried on. In addition to these, your Committee would 
recommend to your notice the extremely elegant Gothic school house now being 
erected from the designs of Messrs. Goddard and Son, near Westcotes, in this 
town ; and they cannot but express a hope that our National architecture, having 
again gained its supremacy in ecclesiastical buildings, being now engaged in a most 
successful competition with the exotic styles in scholastic and kindred edifices, will, 
ere long, claim its long lost inheritance as the most fitting style for our dwelling 
houses and domestic erections. 

The rapidity with which the work of church restoration progresses is almost 
equalled by the rapidity with which the glazing of the past three centuries is giving 
way to the introduction of stained glass into the windows of our churches. Whilst 
speaking well for the liberality of our age, and demonstrating the earnest desire 
now so happily prevalent to render the Houses of God in some degree worthy of the 
holy purposes for which they were built, it must be confessed with regret that the 
art of glass staining does not appear to progress towards that excellence which the 
present great demand for the article ought to command. There have been very 
many windows in our Leicester and County churches filled with stained glass 
during the past year; and, without speaking of any one of these with special praise 
or dispraise, your Committee think a reference to them (with but few exceptions) 
will show that the art of glass staining is still very far from the zenith of its per- 
fection in England. There is, however, one instance to which your Committee can 
refer with unmixed satisfaction, not so much with regard to the work itself — though 
that will bear a comparison without inju'ry, with most modern productions of a 
similar character — as to the cause of its insertion, and the munificence and noble 

I heartedness it commemorates. It is needless to remind you how much the town of 
Leicester, and especially the parishioners of St. Mary's, are indebted to Mr. Thomas 
Nevinson, in the restoration of their now most beautiful church; and it has been a 
sincei'e pleasure to very many members of this Society to contribute, through your 
Secretary, towards the cost of filling the eastern chancel windows of that church 
with the best stained glass Mr. Wailes could produce, to be a lasting memorial of 
the gratitude of his contemporaries to Mr. Nevinson, not alone for the pecuniary 
sacrifice he has made, but more than that, — for the untiring attention and correct 
architectural taste brought to bear upon the work, which has rendered it not only 

; beautiful to the eye of the uninitiated, but a lesson to the architectural student. 

Resolved, that the statement of Accounts and the Report be 
1 adopted. 

The Committee and officers for the ensuing year were elected, 
and other business transacted. 

The following gentlemen were elected Presidents of the 
Society : — Sir A. B. C. Dixie, Bart., Geoffrey Palmer, Esq., and 
j W. U. Heygate, Esq., M.P. 

Mr. North reported that he had received letters acknowledging 
< honorary membership from the Rev. Prebendary Trollope, F.S.A., 
and Mr. E. Levien, F.S.A. 

The following gentlemen were elected Membeps: — Mr. W. T. 
j Fry, Exeter College, Oxford; the Rev. A. Holmes, Melton 
Mowbray ; Mr. John Groocock, and Mr. Firn, both of Leicester. 
Mr. R. W. Johnson, Architect, Melton, exhibited a drawing of 
. the proposed restoration of the village cross at Frisby-on-the- 
] Wreake, which was highly commended ; but certain alterations in 



182 



1,1, 1 0 KSTEUSIIIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the height of the shaft, and in the form of the cross upon the apex 
were suggested. Mr. Johnson also by way of explanation of his 
drawing contributed the following Paper upon 

TOWN CROSSES, 
which was, in his absence, read by Mr. North : — 

The subject of "Town Crosses" is open to much enquiry. 
Without going very closely into the matter, I have found much to 
interest any one who takes pleasure in rambling amongst the relics 
of the past — not, however, so much from the erections themselves, 
as from the associations which are connected with them. They 
seem to divide themselves into three distinct heads or classes: 
Market Crosses, Memorial Crosses, and Town or Village Crosses. 
Of the antiquity of the first-named we have plenty of proof as far 
back as the thirteenth century, and I need only quote that in 
existence at Higham Ferrers, the capitals and mouldings of which 
are decidedly the work of that period. The form of the Market 
Cross is generally polygonal, with an open archway niche on two 
of its sides. The really good specimens to be found are few. 
More frequently, structures of a debased character, some sur- 
mounted by a kind of dome, seem to have replaced the original 
ones. Evidently, the centre or the principal part of the town was 
used as the site of these erections, and some of the principal his- 
torical events are connected with them. The illustrated descrip- 
tions to be met with give but little idea of the style (there were no 
Le Keux or Jewitts in those early days) but the remains are 
curious, and from many of the occurrences which are depicted in 
manuscripts and other ancient works, being found in connection 
with the Town Crosses, it is clear that they were looked upon with 
a degree of importance, if not of veneration. 

In an engraving of " Cheapside," with the procession of Mary- 
de-Medicis on her visit to Charles I., the most prominent object is 
the cross which formerly existed there, and in a curious print in 
the Pennant collection in the British Museum, is seen the same 
cross very similar in detail undergoing destruction at the hands of 
the Puritans. A cross also existed in front of St. Paul's, which in 
addition to other purposes was used for preaching from. A drawing 
in the Pepysian Library shows this to have been a heavy low 
building, which it states was erected in 1450, and remodelled in 
1595. A Market Cross existed in Edinburgh in Argyle's time, 
and his execution is shown in a drawing of the period as taking 
place close to the Cross. One more example near home. The 
High Cross which formerly existed in Leicester was erected in 
what must then have been the principal part of the town, for we 
find that during the Siege of Leicester in 1645, " Gallowtree Gate 
and several other entrances having been carried, by half-past one 



TOWN CROSSES. 



183 



the defenders were driven from every part of the fortifications 
except the Newarke ; but the garrison and townspeople having 
retired to the Market Place, High Cross Street continued the 
struggle for nearly an hour longer." I believe a Cross in the 
pavement still marks the site of the ancient High Cross, one of the 
reputed pillars of which, in its debased form, is preserved in front 
of the Crescent in King Street. 

Of Memorial Crosses I need say but little, — another member 
of this Society having formerly read a paper on the subject. I 
will only quote those beautiful structures built to commemorate the 
lamented Queen Eleanor at each of the places where her body 
rested in its journey back to London ; the last of which was, I 
believe, built at the then village of Charing. The finest of them is at 
Waltham, and an attempt at its renovation rather than restoration 
caused much discussion, — the plea being that however faithfully 
the old work might be copied, it does at best but show how well we 
can imitate the original, and affords very equivocal evidence of the 
state of the arts in the reign of Edward I., and this argument will 
bear out in all matters of restoration. In the present day we are 
too apt to lose sight of the remains of the ancient work, and by 
the introduction of novelties to entirely destroy the character of the 
original. There is a charm about the moss-covered stone which is 
not appreciated by all architects ; but the object should be, not to 
repew them by putting a fresh stone in the place of every old one 
that is in any degree mutilated, but to preserve them from further 
dilapidation, and to save every ancient feature that can possibly be 
preserved ; restoring such parts only where it is indispensably 
necessary to ensure the safety and durability of the structure. 

I think we may include the wayside Crosses amongst those 
intended to memoralise individuals, although time, that leveller of 
all distinctions, has effaced every trace which will identify them with 
those whom they were intended to commemorate. On the 
continent these Crosses are of constant occurrence, more frequently 
pointing out the place of some dark deed, and the resting place of 
those who have met a violent death, coupled with the inscription, 
"Pray for the soul of A.B." 

Lastly of .Village Crosses, the remains of which are so often to 
be met with, forming as they do, even in their ruin, pleasing objects. 
They generally consist of a few steps, by some called a Calvary, 
and a tall shaft with sometimes a few mouldings to form a base, 
and no doubt all had originally a Cross on the top. In some in- 
stances they had small niches and sculptured foliage. With but 
very few exceptions they shared the fate of almost everything else 
in the shape of a Cross during the Puritanic dispensation. In the 
journal of one U. Dowsing, January 6th, 1643, he writes, " We 
broke down about an hundred superstitious pictures, and 200 had 
been broke down before I came, we took away two Popish In- 



1S| 



LEJCESTEBSHIKE ARCHITECTURAL 



script ions with ora pro nobis, and we beat down a great stoneing 
Cross on the top of the Church." 

What the Puritans began, time and neglect have in most in- 
stances completed, and nothing but a well worn base is now 
generally to be found. Some have fared rather better, and the 
tall shaft still rears its head though almost tottering, for the 
Cross is generally the resort of idlers and children, who day by 
day reduce the structure piecemeal, threatening the downfall of 
the shaft, and in time complete annihilation of the Cross. Such 
is the case with the Cross at Frisby on the Wreake in this county, 
which has led to these hasty remarks ; but thanks to the spirit of 
restoration which is so strong in our land, the principal inhabitants 
of the village, determining that it shall not be consigned to oblivion, 
have commenced a subscription to restore it, and they intend to 
protect it from further violence by a palisade fence ; this last may 
by some be thought an innovation, but any attempt to restore the 
Cross and leave it exposed would be useless. It is therefore hoped 
the innovation will be pardoned for its utility. The base is much 
decayed and whole stones have been removed, these will be care- 
fully replaced, and as there are no traces of the Cross I have been 
led to a decision as to the period, from the moulding which is 
worked up the angles of the shaft. 

The matter is a small one to bring before the Society, but as 
there are several other existing examples in the county fast 
mouldering away, it may lead to their rescue, by which in addition 
to forming a pleasing feature in the landscape, they may lead the 
wanderer and passer-by to bestow a thought on that Holy Faith of 
which they are the symbol, and perchance prove a stepping stone 
to God's house and the enhancement of his glory. 

Mr. North exhibited a design by Mr. Lea, of Lutterworth, for 
the decoration of the eastern wall of the chancel of S. Martin's 
Church, Leicester.* 

Mr. G, H. Nevinson produced a small circular carving in j 
ivory, two inches and a half in circumference, representing a j 
combat between armed men and dragons, probably intended to j 
represent a conflict between good and evil spirits. This carving 
was of an early period, apparently Norman. The same gentleman | 
also exhibited a bronze celt, four inches in length. 

Mr. North further exhibited a very fine Roman gold coin, j 
recently found near Melton Mowbray, upon which he read the 
following short memoir : — The very beautiful gold Roman coin I | 
have the pleasure of placing upon the table is entrusted to my j 
care by Mr. Thomas Hickson, of Melton Mowbray, who has long 
beeii a member of this Society. It was found a few weeks ago, [ 
about two miles and a half to the south-east of that town, and with J 
• Since adopted and completed. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



185 



it, or near to it, the two bronze coins I also exhibit. The gold 
coin is a solidus of Valentinianus I. (a.d. 364-375), and for a 
description of it you are indebted to the Rev. Assheton Pownall, 
■ a learned member of the Numismatic Society, who has compared 
it with a similar coin in the British Museum, and though he finds 
the Museum coin in equally fine condition, yet the workmanship 
of the Melton coin is superior. The legend on the obverse round 
the profile of the Emperor is DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG. 
On the reverse is a figure of the Emperor holding a "victory" in 
his left hand. In his right he carries the "labarum," surmounted 
bv the Greek letters X. P., the sacred monogram of Christ. The 
legend here is REST1TVTOR REIPVBL1CAE, whilst the mint 
mark is KOXST AV., and this constitutes an interesting question 
in the examination of this coin, inasmuch as until lately it was 

< customary, Mr. Pownall informs me, to assign coins with this mint 
mark to Constantinople, to the puzzling of some numismatists, 
who noticed the close resemblance of their workmanship to the 
coins of the French mints. It has, however, recently been noticed 
that when Constantine I. rebuilt part of the town of Aries, he gave 
it the name of Constantina Augusti, and so coins struck there bore 
the mint mark of the coin now under inspection, which had 
formerly been confounded with that of Constantinople. The larger 
brass coin, found as before stated in the near neighbourhood of 

! this, belongs to the Emperor Allectus, who was Emperor in England, 
a.d., 293-296, and it was, in all probability, coined in this 

j country. The smaller brass coin is quite undecipherable. 

Mr. James Jacques exhibited a curious Venetian glass scent 
bottle, in the form of a female's head. 

Mr. Henry Goddard showed some very valuable antiquities 
from the Island of Rhodes, which he explained in the following 

\ notes : — The Necropolis of Camirus, in the Island of Rhodes, has 
been explored for several years, under the auspices of the Foreign 
Office, by Mr. A. Biliotti, British Vice-Consul of Rhodes, and the 
discoveries which have resulted are of the highest interest in refer- 
ence to the history of Greek art at the earliest period to which it 
can be historically traced back. A large quantity of fictile ware, 

j of the most archaic character and in the finest condition, has been 
discovered in tombs, together with gold ornaments, glass, porcelain, 
terra cottas, and bronzes, nearly all the same early epoch. The 

1 objects exhibited, consisting of two small vases, with warriors and 
shields and hieroglyphics painted upon them ; two small porcelain 

j blue and black hawks, and a beautifully irridated lachrymatory of 

i glass, were the work of the earliest Greek colonists of Rhodes. The 
date of these objects may be fixed by internal evidence, to a 
period ranging B.C. 600 to 400. The cities of Camirus, Jalysus, 

, and Lindus are stated to have been the three most ancient in the 

I : rft * 

o Vol. II. 



18(> 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



island of Rhodes, and to have been partially'abondoned when the 
capital, Rhodus, was founded B.C. 404. 

The Rev. John Fisher exhibited a Pardon of Alienation, 
dated 9 November 7 Jac. 1 (1609), to John Allen and another, 
relating to certain lands in Leicestershire. 



March 30th, 1863. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

Resolved, that the Annual General Summer Meeting for 1863 
be held at Kibworth. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members : — The Rev. 
T. Drake, Mountsorrel ; and the Rev. J. T. Beresford, Precentor 
of Peterborough Cathedral. 

Mr. R. W. Johnson, Architect, Melton Mowbray, exhibited 
through Mr. North, elevations, ground plan, and a perspective 
drawing of five labourers' cottages recently erected by him upon 
the estate of W. A. Pochin, Esq., in the Parish of Rearsby, in this 
county, which, with the very convenient fittings, were much com- 
mended, with the exception of the use of soft water tubs, which 
was condemned as tending much to dampness in the foundation 
and walls from the leakage and overflow of water. It was thought 
that the cistern originally marked in the plan would have been 
preferable. 

Mr. North exhibited an anastatic drawing, by Mr. Joseph 
Goddard, of the Blue Boar Inn, known as King Richard's House, 
formerly standing in Leicester, from correct architectural drawings 
and measurements made by Mr. Henry Goddard before its de- 
struction in 1836. 

Mr. George Henton exhibited, through the Secretary, a 

HALF GUINEA TICKET 
To admit ONE PERSON to the 
Fifth Aerial Voyage of Mr. Blanchard's 
AIR BALLOON and FLYING BOAT, 

IN WHICH HE WILL ASCEND 

With an AMERICAN GENTLEMAN. 
1784. 

Mr. North observed that Francis Blanchard, a Frenchman, 
the issuer of this ticket, was the first in England who made an 
aerostatic voyage of any considerable length. He, in company 
with Dr. Jefferies, an American physician, — most probably the 



THE FAMILY OF TAILBOIS. 



187 



"American gentleman" mentioned on the ticket, crossed the channel 
from Dover to Calais, 7th January, 1785, for which exploit Blanchard 
was rewarded by the King of France with a pension of 1200 francs. 

Mr. James Thompson sent for exhibition a sword bearing 
upon the blade, close to the hilt, in Old English characters : 

©Ifiiw ©vomtoHl to @apn. f&j. itaon, 46^9. 

The hilt of the sword and its blade too (unless it had been much 
ground down) clearly showed it to be of a much later period. 
The hilt being like those found upon comparatively modern 
Scotch swords. 

Mr. G. H. Nevinson produced a bunch of keys formerly 
belonging to Fotheringay Castle. The largest was 5f inches in 
length, and had a triple plume of feathers between the initials 
F.C., and on the other side the date 1586. On the bunch was a 
curious iron instrument, consisting of turnscrews and implements 
for cleaning the locks and keys. 

Mr. Thompson communicated to the Society the recent curious 
discovery of links or bars of gold in the parish of Mountfield, 
Sussex, and the proceedings now being taken relating thereto, 
which will tend to elucidate the law as to Treasure Trove. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill read the following 

GENEALOGICAL NOTICES UPON TFIE FAMILY OF 
TAILBOIS. 

Amongst the Norman families who came over with William the 
Conqueror was Ivo de Tailbois, brother of Fulk, Earl of Anjou. 
He was made Baron of Kendal and Lord of Holland, and par- 
i ticipated very largely in the advantages which resulted from the 
Conquest of England. The Croyland historians style him Comes, 
and the old chroniclers state that he was a candidate in the year 
1075 for the earldoms of Northampton and Huntingdon, Earl 
Waltheolf being dead. This celebrated man married Lucia, the 
sister of Harold's Queen, who was previously the widow of Griffith 
ap Llewellyn, King of North Wales, whose brothers were Edwin, 
\ Earl of March, and Morcar, Earl of Northumberland, and whose 
father was Algarus, Earl of Leicester. Earls Edwin and Morcar 
j took to plundering in the open country and the woods ( Henr. of 
\ Hunt. J, threw off their allegiance to the Norman Conqueror, and 
retired into the isle of Ely with Hereward and Bishop Elwyne. 
\ They were proscribed as irreclaimable rebels, and William I. en- 
I dowed the wife of Ivo de Tailbois with their confiscated estates, 
and thus Ivo became proprietor of their vast estates in Lincoln- 
shire and other counties. De Tailbois was Lord of Spalding, in 
Lincolnshire, where he held his court with great pomp and princely 
splendour, adding very much to the revenues of the monastery 



188 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



there. He had several quarrels with the Abbot of Croyland, an 
account of which may be found in the History of Tngulphus, 
amongst the Scrip. Antiq., p. 49, 189, and in Pet. Bles. Cont. 
Ingvlph 125. He gave all the churches in his Barony of Kendal, 
and that of Kirkby St. Stephen, to the Abbey of St. Mary's, York, 
and he gave in the year 1085 the church of Spalding to the Priory 
of St. Nicholas, Angers. This distinguished Norman died of a 
paralytic stroke about the year 1114, and was buried in the 
Priory Church of Spalding. He bore for his arms — Argent, a 
sal tire, on a chief gules three escallops of the first. It is said in 
Domesday Book that he left no issue, and Ingulphus (not a very 
reliable authority) has made out that he had only one child, and 
that a daughter, but this is clearly wrong, since the Cockersand 
Register gives him both son and grandson. By the Countess 
Lucy he had a son named Eldred or Ethred, and a daughter named 
Lucy. He had also by his Countess, Beatrix, wife of Ribald of 
Middleham, brother to Alan, Earl of Richmond, and Matilda, wife* 
of Hugh Fitz Ranulph, brother to Ranulph, Earl of Chester. 
Eldred became the second Baron of Kendal. Lucy was admitted 
to 'the inheritance of her father's lands, in Lincolnshire, for which 
she paid a fine of four hundred marks of silver. Her first husband 
was Roger de Roumare, whose only child on record is William, 
afterwards Earl of Lincoln, who highly distinguished himself after 
the violent spirit of the age, and made his prowess and influence 
very sensible both at home and abroad ( Ord. Vit. Chron.J. Her 
second husband was Ranulph de BriqUesard, surnamed Meschines, 
the younger, who became Earl of Chester after the death of his 
cousin Richard, who in 1120 was drowned in the Blanch Nef, to- 
gether with King Henry's son. By the second marriage Lucy had 
Ranulph Gernons, Earl of Chester; William, Earl of Cambridge; 
Alice, wife of Richard Fitzgilbert, ancestor of the Clares, Earls of 
Gloucester and Hereford ; and Agnes, wife of Robert de Grand- 
mesnil. It appears that the Countess Lucy survived her second 
husband, and in her second widowhood she confirmed the manor 
of Spalding to the monks of that place. 

The third Baron of Kendal was Ketel, son of Edred, to whom 
William Meschines, brother to Ranulph Meschines, Lord of Cum- 
berland, gave several places in that county, and among the rest, a 
place which received from him the name of Kelton or Ketelton. 
He gave to the abbot and convent of St. Mary's, York, the church 
of Mori and, and two carucates there, which grant was confirmed 
by Athelwold and Hugh, Bishops of Carlisle ( Reg. of Wetherell J . 
Ketel de Tailbois had three sons, Gilbert, the eldest, who suc- 
ceeded as Baron of Kendal ; the second son, Orme, was founder 
of a family not yet extinct. Orme had a son Gospatrick, whose 
son Thomas was the founder of Shap Abbey (Westmoreland), and 
from him are descended, in a regular succession of the male line, 



THE FAMILY OF TATLBOIS. 



189 



the family of the Curwens, of Wirkinton. In the record of a 
plea, 6 Edward I., it is stated that Gospatric, son of Orme, son of 
Ketel, gave Salter, in Cumberland, to the abbey of St. Mary's, 
York. The name of Ketel's other son was William, as appears 
from his attestation of his grant of the church of Morland, afore- 
said, to the said abbey, from which also it appears that his wife's 
name was Christiana, " Testibus Christiana, uxore mea, Willielmo 
filio meo, et multis aliis." 

The inheritance of the Barony of Kendal descended next to 
Gilbert, great grandson of Ivo de Tailbois, whose son, William de 
Tailbois, was the first who by royal license took the name of De 
Lancasfre. He married Gundreda, Countess of W T arwick, daughter 
of William Earl de Warren. This William was a great benefactor 
to many religious houses, St. Bees, Furness, Cockersand, &c.,.and 
he founded the priory of Conyngshed. 

The second William de Lancastre was steward to King Henry II., 
and was son of the preceding. He married Hehvise de Stuteville, 
by whom he had only one daughter, also named Helwise. The said 
William gave the king thirty marks that he might have a duel with 
Gospatrick, son of Orme, which sum was accounted for in the 
Exchequer by the sheriff Elias, son of Gilmichael. He gave to 
one Hugh, the hermit, a certain place called Askeleross and Croc, 
to look to his fishing in the river Loyn. Helwise de Lancastre w T as 
married to Gilbert, son of Roger Fitz Reinfrid, who was one of the 
judges of the King's Bench, and also Justice Itinerant and Sheriff 
of Sussex. King Richard granted to him (1 Richard) the whole 
forest of Westmoreland, of Kendal, and Furness, to hold to him 
and his heirs as fully and freely as William de Lancastre and 
Nigel de Albini had held the same. Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid sided 
so far with the rebellious barons in the time of King John, that he 
was forced to pay a fine of twelve thousand marks (17 King John). 
By this fine he obtained a pardon. It appears that his son William 
de Lancastre, Ralph de Ainconrt, and Lambert de Bussy, had been 
imprisoned, having been taken by the king in Rochester Castle, and 
they were freed upon the payment of the fine, but he was obliged 
to give hostages for his future fidelity to the king, viz., these, Bene- 
dict son of Henry de Redman, the son of Roger de Kirk by, his 
daughter's son, the son of William de W^indlesore, the daughter 
of Ralph de Aincourt, the daughter of Roger de Burton, the 
daughter of Walter de Stirkland, the daughter of Richard de 
Copeland, and the son of Gilbert de Lancastre. Gilbert Fitz 
Reinfrid died 4 Henry III., leaving one son and three daughters. 

William de Lancastre, the third, son of Gilbert Fitz Reinfred, 
by his wife Helwise de Tailbois, daughter of William de Lancastre 
the second. He took the name of De Lancastre, together with the 
inheritance from his mother. He married Agnes de Brus, and 
died without issue, when his two sisters succeeded to the property. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



William de Lancastre was Justice Itinerant for the county of 
Cumberland (10 Henry V.) and Sheriff of Lancashire (18 to 30 
Henry W). For the health of his soul and Agnes his wife, he gave 
to the monks of Furness one boat, to be used on the Wynender 
Mere, for the carriage of timber and other commodities, and one 
other boat to fish in that mere. In 11 Henry III. there was a 
dispute between Robert de Veteripont, sheriff of the county, and 
William de Lancastre, Lord of Kendall, concerning suit to be 
made to the county court by the said William and his tenants. 
And by a fine levied in that year, William grants suits for his 
lands to the courts by himself or his attorney, and if any pleas be 
attached touching the tenants of William, whereof by the law the 
barons ought to have their courts, then upon demand thereof he 
shall have it; Martin Pateshull, John Saul, William de Insula, and 
Richard being then Justices Itinerant. By his will he bequeathed 
his body to be buried in the quire of Furness Abbey, near the 
tomb of his grandfather, William de Lancastre. Arms arg. two 
bars gules, in a quarter gules, a lion pass, or. 

The male line failing in William de Lancastre, we must pass to 
his three sisters: — 1, Helwisia, married to Peter de Brus; 2, 
Alicia, married to William de Lyndsay ; 3, Serota, married to 
Alan de Multon, who died sine prole. Alice, the sister of William 
de Lancastre before named, was married to William de Lindesay, 
and brought with her one moiety of the Barony of Kendal. They 
had a son, Walter de Lyndesay, who died 56 Henry III. This 
Walter had a son and heir called Walter de Lyndesay, who died 
2 Edward II., leaving a son and heir, William de Lyndesay, who 
left one child, Christian de Lyndesay, who was married to Ingelram 
de Coucy. They had a son William, born in France, who, after 
his father's death, inherited the French estates, his father being 
Lord of Coucy in France. They had a second son, Ingelram, 
born in England, without any heir of his body, and his brother 
being an alien, and thereby not capable to inherit, the estate es- 
cheated to the Crown. William de Coucy had two sons, Ingelram 
and William ; the king granted to the latter his grandmother 
Christian's estates in England, but he dying without issue, the 
estate again fell to the crown. 

Helwise, the next sister of the last William de Lancastre, 
Baron of Kendal, was married to Peter de Brus, son of Peter de 
Brus, son of Adam de Brus, whose grandfather, Robert de Brus, 
came into England with William the Conqueror, unto which Robert, 
William I. gave forty-three lordships in the East and West Ridings 
of York, and fifty-one in the North Riding. Robert de Brus, who 
was competitor with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland, was of 
the younger branch of this family. Peter de Brus had by his wife 
— 1, Peter de Brus; 2, Margaret, married to Robert de Roos; 3, 
Agnes, married to Walter de Fauconberge ; 4, Lucy, married to 



THE FAMILY OF TAILBOIS. 



191 



Marmaduke de Thweng; 5, Laderina, married to John de Bella 
Aqua (Bellew). 

Peter de Brus succeeded to a moiety of the barony of Kendal, 
upon his mother's death. He confirmed to the free burghers in 
his moiety of Kirkby, in Kendal, all the liberties and free customs 
which they had of the gift of William de Lancastre, his uncle. 
In 44 Henry III. he granted to William Pickering the manor of 
Killington. He died 7 Edward without any heir of his body, his 
sisters before mentioned being coheirs. 

The arms of Brus were, — Or, a saltire gules, a chief of the last. 
Upon the death of Peter de Brus, a partition of the Lancastre and 
Brus estates was made amongst the four sisters. 

Margaret had for her share Kendal Castle, with all Kendal which 
had been Peter's. She was married to Robert de Roos, younger 
son of Robert Lord Roos, by his wife Isabel, daughter of the king of 
Scots. The elder brother was William Lord Roos, of Hanlake, 
father of John Lord Roos, father of William Lord Roos of Belvoir, 
one of whose daughters and coheirs, Eleanor, was married to 
Sir Robert Manners, ancestor of the present Duke of Rutland. 
Robert de Roos died 2 Edward I., before her brother Peter. In- 
deed, Margaret was living in 29 Edward I., and her son William 
de Roos died probably before his mother. For the inquisitiones 
post mortem bears date in 3 Edward II., and in that year we find 
that Margaret de Roos held the manor of Melchanthorp. She had 
a grandson, William de Roos, who in 2 Edward III. obtained a 
charter for a market at Stavely, and a fair yearly on the eve day 
and morrow of St. Luke the Evangelist. Thomas de Roos was 
son of William de Roos, and he died in 14 Richard II. This 
Thomas had a son called John, who died before his father, leaving 
an infant daughter, which daughter was afterwards married to 
William Parr, Knight. Arms of Roos, — Gules, three water budgets, 
sable. 

Elizabeth, heiress of the family of Roos, died before her husband, 
William de Parr, and he died 6 Henry IV., and was succeeded by 
his son and heir, John Parr, Knight, who did not long survive his 
father, for the inquisition after his death bears date 9 Henry IV. He 
was succeeded by his son, Thomas Parr, who died 4 Edward IV., 
leaving two sons, William and John, the latter of whom received 
the sheriffwick of Westmoreland from King Edward IV., Henry 
Lord Clifford having been deprived of the same, because his father 
had sided with the House of Lancaster in the then civil wars, which 
king granted unto the said John and William Parr all the lands of 
Sir W. Bellingham, who was attainted upon the same account. 
Sir W. Parr, Knight, son and heir of Thomas Parr, Knight, married 
Elizabeth, sister of ' Lord Fitzhugh. He was made Knight of the 
Garter by Edward IV. ; he was knight of the shire for Westmore- 
land, 6 and 12 Edward IV.; he had two sons, Thomas, the elder, 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



and William Parr, Knight, the younger. Sir Thomas Parr suc- 
ceeded his father. lie was master of the Wards, and comptroller 
to King Henry VIIT. Me married Maud, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Green. By her he had one son and two daughters. The eldest 
daughter, Katharine, who now lies buried in Peterborough Cathe- 
dral, was married first to Edward Borough ; secondly to John 
Nevil, Lord Latimer; thirdly to King Henry VII I., being his sixth 
wife ; and lastly, to Lord Seymour, of Sudely, one of the uncles of 
Edward VI. She died 2 Edward VI. Sir Thomas Parr died 9 
Henry VIII. He was buried in Blackfriars, London, and his son 
W'illiam succeeded him. It does not appear that William was ever 
knighted. His steward's accounts, in 24 Henry VI II., style him 
only William Parr, Esq. In 30 Henry VIII., he was created 
Lord Parr and Roos of Kendal, and in 36 Henry VIII. he was 
made Baron of Hart, county Northampton. He married Helena, 
daughter of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, and received his 
father-in-law's title, and finally, in 1 Edward VI., he became Mar- 
quis of Northampton. In 1 Queen Mary, he was attainted of high 
treason of aiding Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and Lady 
Jane Grey, whereby his estate became forfeited to the crown, but 
he was soon after pardoned, and the estate restored to him. He 
died in 13 Elizabeth, 1571, and was buried in the Collegiate Church 
at Warwick, where his body was dug up in the reign of James I. 
to make room for the burial of another person. It was found 
perfect, with the skin entire, dried to the bones, with rosemary and 
bays lying in the coffin fresh and green ( Dugdale). By an in- 
quisition taken at Leicester, April 12, same year, the jurors find 
that he died without any heir of his body. Arms, — Argent, two 
barulets azure, within a bordure engrailed sable. 

Katharine, who married Henry VIII., had no issue, and Ann, 
her sister, who was married to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, 
was also childless. 

Lucy was the third sister and coheir of Peter de Brus; she was 
married to Marmaduke de Thweng, Lord of Kelton Castle and 
Thweng. They had a son Marmaduke de Thweng, who died in 
10 Edward II., seized, as the inquisition says, of the fourth part 
of the barony of Kendal. He was succeeded by his son William 
de Thweng, who in 9 Edward III., obtained a grant of free warren 
in Stavely. He died in 14 Edward III., and was succeeded by his 
cousin Robert de Thweng, who died in 18 Edward 111. He was 
succeeded by his brother Thomas de Thweng, having his three 
sisters coheirs. Lucy, the eldest of the three, was married to 
Marmaduke de Lumley, who was succeeded by Ralph de Lumley, 
who had a son Thomas de Lumley, who died without issue, and 
was succeeded by his uncle, John de Lumley, Knight, who died in 
10 Henry V., leaving his son Thomas, then under age. 

William de Lancastre, the third and last of that name in the 



THE FAMILY OF TAILBOIS. 



193 



direct line, died without issue, leaving, as before stated, his sisters 
coheirs. Yet William had a brother named Roger, for William 
mentions him in one of his grants to Furness Abbey, " Teste 
Rogero meo fratre from hence it may be presumed that this 
Roger was a brother of the half blood. The registry of Furness 
Abbey states this, — "Rogerus bastardus frater Wilhelmi." Now 
this circumstance is not mentioned in any of the pedigrees, which 
derive the name of the family of Lancastres from Sir Roger de 
Lancastre, which name and family flourished for many years in the 
county of Westmoreland, at Ridal, Sockbridge, Howgill Castle, 
and other places, and by intermarriage was related to many of the 
most considerable families in the county, and is not yet extinct, 
many of the name yet remaining, although the estates have changed 
hands. 

Roger de Lancastre held the manor of Barton by the gift of 
William his brother. And in 3 Edward I. he obtained of that 
king a confirmation to him of the forest of Ridal. He was sheriff 
of Lancashire in 49 Henry III. He married Phillippa, one of the 
four daughters and coheirs of Hugh de Bolebeck, in the county of 
Northumberland, and died J 9 Edward I., leaving a son. 

Sir Roger de Lancastre, of Barton, W'estmoreland. Arms, — 
two bars gules, on a canton of the second a lion pass: gard : or. 

John de Lancastre, who was summoned in 22 Edward I., 
amongst other persons of rank, to attend at Portsmouth well pro- 
vided with horse and arms, and thence to sail with King Edward 
to France. He w 7 as engaged (25 Edward I.) in the expedition 
against Scotland, being in the retinue of Brian Fitzalan, of Bedal, 
in Yorkshire. He was summoned to Parliament from that time to 
3 Edward II., and died in 8 Edward III. 

John de Lancastre, of Howgill, was the next heir male of this 
family, and he had a son William, who had also a son William, 
who had a son called John, who also had a son called John, who 
died without issue male, in the reign of King Henry VI., leaving 
four daughters : — 1, Christian, married to Sir Robert de Harrington, 
Knight; 2, Isabel, married to Sir Thomas Fleming, of Coniston, 
Knight; 3, Margaret, married to Sir Matthew Whitfield, Knight; 
and 4, Elizabeth, married to Robert de Crakenthorp, Esq. 

In 14 Edward I. Cliburn Talebois, Westmoreland, derived its 
name from the owner. In the partition of the Veteripont inherit- 
ance between the daughters and coheirs of the last Robert, the 
homage and service of Lucas Talebois were assigned to Idonea, 
the youngest sister, for Cliburn. In 8 Edward II., Lucas Talebois 
held of Robert de Clifford one moiety of Cliburn. In 23 Edward II. 
Walter de Talebois held the manor of Cliburn Taleboys. In 15 
Richard II., Walter de Tailbois held the same manor. LangtOU, 
in Westmoreland, was purchased by Robert de Veteripont of Ada, 
daughter of John de Taillebois, and widow of Robert de Cleveland. 



194 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCIITT ECTURAL SOCIETY. 



In the Inquisitiones post mortem, temp. Edward II., we find : 

Will'us Taylboys ch'r pro Henr' fil Hippall and Tossan, mag. 200 acr 
terr &c. Northumb. 
Will'us Tailboys 

Hippall man' 
Bykerton man' 



Escaet' de Ann 10 Edw 2nd. 

Lucas Taleboys, Hippal man Northumb. 
Edward III. Henry Taleboys et Alianora uxor ejus. 



Hippall man' dimid'. 
Tossan vil' dim' 
Falulez placea terr' 
Bykerton man' 
Warton vil' 
Nether Tyrwhit 
Tossan' Mag' 
Fletewarton et' 
Scraperton 
Shetesbanks x 
Newehall l 
Foxden I 



The above named Henry Taleboys married Elizabeth, grand- 
daughter of Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus. (The records 
name this lady Eleanor.) From this marriage issued one son, 
named Walter Tailbois, and in him the bavony of Kyme became 
vested, the family of Umfraville having failed in an heir. 

Harbottle Castle with the franchise of Redesdale was inherited 
by Walter Taleboys in 17 Henry VI., son of Henry Taleboys 
from the Umfravilles, the descendant of Walter Talboys. Sir W. 
Talboys forfeited it after the battle of Hexham. It was, as it is 
said, "the Lord Talbusses inheretance, and geven the prence in 
exchange, for that it was so mete an house for the service," &c. 
It belonged to the crown in 1567. 

In 9 Henry IV., William de Hooton in Foresta, and William de 
Bolton quit claim to Sir William de Sandford, Knight, of all their 
right which they had in the manor of Askham, with the mill there 
and other lands elsewhere. Sir William died before his mother, 
5 Henry V., for in that year is a receipt for rent given by her to 
his executors, viz. — William de Hooton in Foresta de Inglewood, 
Hugh Salkeld in Rossgill, John de Lancastre de Brampton, and 
William de Wybergh. 

In 5 Henry VIII. a contract was entered between William de 
Wibergh and Geoffrey Lancastre of Melcanthorp, Gent., that 



Tyrwhit man' 
Wait vill' 
Tossan Mag' 



- Northumb'. 



THE FAMILY OF TAILBOIS. 



195 



Thomas, son and heir of the said William, should marry Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the said Geoffrey. 

Again, in the Inquisitiones, 4 Edward IV., we find the following: 

Will' us Tailboys, miles, attinctus. 
Hesil maner' et dom'. 
Anlaby Frith. 
Hesill terr'. 
Croft maner\ 
Thorpe maner'. 
Sotby maner'. 
Faldingworth maner'. 
Goldthaught dom'. 
Bolyngton Patron' prior. 
Skeldinghope dom'. 
Paddokthorpe man'. 

This William Tailbois is called Earl of Kyme in the annals 
of William of Worcester. He was the son of Walter Talbois, by 
Alice, his wife, who was daughter of Sir Humphry Stafford, Knight, 
and married Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Bonville, and by her had 
a son, Sir Robert Tailbois, who was buried at Kyme, Lincolnshire. 
William Tailbois was taken prisoner at Redesdale, brought to New- 

! castle, and beheaded in 1463. Sir Robert Tailbois, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir J. Heron, Knight, was Lord of Kyme 
and Redesdale, had livery of the estates of his father, which were 

i restored 12 Edward III. The will of Sir Robert Tailbois is dated 
November 16th, 1494, and was proved June 19th, 1495. The fol- 

1 lowing is a copy of it : 

" My body to be buried in the Priory of Kyme, on the north side of 
the choir, and there I will have a tomb with a picture of me, and another 
j of my wife, my son George, my son William, my two sons Robert and 
John. Whereas a marriage is intended between my son George, and 
! Elizabeth, sister to Sir Wm. Gascoigne, Kt." 

" I will that my manor of Faldingworth, and the advowson of the 
church and the manor of Rothingham, in Lancashire, be settled on my 
son Wm. Talboys for live. 

" I will that my manors of Kyme, Newton, Hornington, and Oxton, 
in the county of York, be settled on Robert Taylboys, my son, for 
live, my sons John, William, Robert, and Queda, my daughter. 

"I will that an obit be kept yearly for me in the Priory of Kyme, and 
the like obit in the Priory of Bolington, in Lincolnshire, and I appoint 
Wm. Hussee, Thos. Welby, and Thomas Wymbish, my exors." 

The barony of Kyme was restored to Sir Robert Tailbois about 
the year 1471, 12 Edward IV., and as he had intimated in his will, 
the marriage took place between his eldest son and Elizabeth, sister 
J to Sir Wm. Gascoigne, Knight. From this alliance sprung nine 
children, four sons and five daughters. Matilda, John, Walter, 



196 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Dorothy, died without issue. Elizabeth married Sir C. Willoughby, 
Knight, from whom descended the Lords Willoughby de Parham. 
Cecilia married first Win. Ingleby, of Ripley, Yorkshire, and 
secondly, John Tourney, Esq., who was at that time the head of 
that distinguished family. Anne married Sir E. Dymoke, Knight, 
and secondly, Robert Carr, and from the former marriage is derived 
the present family of Dymoke. 

William Taylboys was a canon of Lincoln Cathedral, where he 
was buried, and the following inscription was upon his monument: 

" Hie jacet magister Wilhelm's Taylboys, quondam canonicus hujus ecclesise, et 
filius venerabilis viri Georgii Taylbois militis, et domine Elizabeths uxoris ejus qui 
obiit — die — 

"Anno Dora. MCCCCC. 
" Cujus anime propitietur Deus. Amen." 

The tomb is in the cross aisle near the south rose window in Lin- 
coln Cathedral. It is made of freestone, altar fashioned, covered 
with black marble, and surrounded with escutcheons. This in- 
scription was removed after the year 1641. This Sir W. Taylboys 
granted to the vicars choral of this cathedral a yearly rent charge 
upon his manor at Gautby. 

Gilbert Taylboys was the youngest son of Sir George Taylboys 
of Kyme and Elizabeth, his wife : he was made Baron Taylboys 
of Kyme in the county of Lincoln, by summons to Parliament 27 
Henry VIII. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Blount I 
of Kinlet, Salop, who was the most beautiful of all the ladies of f 
the court of Henry VIII., and by whom that monarch had a son, j 
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond. From the above marriage f 
proceeded two sons and one daughter. The two sons died, and j 
the daughter, Elizabeth, married first Thomas Wymbish, Esq., and 
secondly, Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. Gilbert Lord 
Taylboys died in the year 1530, and was buried at Kyme, which j 
manor theretofore the caput baronise of the old barons of Kyme, ? 
in the division of his inheritance among the heirs general, came 
to the family of Dymoke of Scrivelsby, county of Lincoln, who for j 
a considerable time continued to possess it, until the last century I 
it was aliented by sale into the hands and blood of strangers, j 
Leland mentions the goodly house and park of Kyme, as being in 
a most flourishing state during the reign of Henry VIII., and 
occupied by the last Lord Tailbois, to whose memory there is a 
brass plate in the north wall of Kyme church, with the following 
inscription : 

"Here lyeth Gylbert Taylboys, Lord Taylboys, Lord of Kyme, wycb married 
Elizabeth Blount, one of the daughters of Sir John Blount, Kt., of Kynlet, in the 
county of Shropshier, wych Lord Taylboys departed forth of this world the xv. day f 
of April, a.d. 1530. Whose solle God pardon. Amen." 

It is much to be regretted that the foregoing inscription is the 
only remains of a most splendid tomb of polished marble, adorned 



THE FAMILY OF TAILBOIS. 197 

with the bearings of the allied family, which formerly ornamented 
Kvme church. From neglect the tomb had fallen into a very 
dilapidated state previous to the removal of the old church at 

| Kyme in 1S07, and was totally incapable of being repaired. The 
tomb had a figure of a gentleman with his spurs on, over his head 
the arms of Taylboys and on his right shoulder the same shield, 
except that there was but one escallop in chief, instead of two. 
On the sinister side was the figure of a lady kneeling, with the arms 
of Blount over her dress. Both these figures were in brass, and 
had scrolls with Latin inscriptions proceeding from their mouths. 

Memorable is Mr. Wymbish for the claim he preferred to be 
allowed the barony of Taylboys, in right of his wife Elizabeth, 
sole daughter and heir of Gilbert Lord Taylboys, when after 
solemn argument, at which King Henry VIII. was present, assisted 
by his court and temporal lawyers, the following sentence was 
given, viz. : That no man. husband of a baroness in her right, 
should use the title of her dignity, until he had a child by her, 
whereby he should become tenant by courtesie of her barony. 
Therefore Mr. Wymbish failed in his demand. 

Upon this occasion Henry VIII., it is said, moved the following 

i question : If the crown of England should descend to his daughters, 
whether her husband would use the style of England ? The Chief 
Justice answered, not by right, but by grace, because the crown of 
England is out of the law of courtesy, but if it were subject thereto, 
then it were clear. 

During King Henry's progress through the county of Lincoln 
in 1541, he slept at Nocton, the property of Thomas Wymbish, 

i Esq., who married Elizabeth, only daughter of Gilbert Lord Tayl- 
boys, half sister to Henry, Duke of Richmond. Mr. Wymbish 
died at an early age, and the widow married Ambrose Dudley, 

I Earl of Warwick, one of the sons of John Dudley, Duke of North- 
umberland. 

The barony of Kyme is considered to be in abeyance between 
the heirs general of the Dymoke line, and the other sister and 
coheirs — unless, as is probable, it is affected by the attainder of 
William, the father of Sir Robert Tailbois — the latter was restored 
to his titles in 12 Edward III. 

In Nichols Test. Vet. p. 49*2, is the copy of the will of Dame 
Elizabeth Greystock, widow — late wife of Sir J. Vavasour Knight, 
f 14th May, 1509. 

* " My body to be buried in the monastery of St. Elene, within Bishops- 
gate in London — my brother Robert Taylboys — to my sister Maud Tyr- 
' whit, &c, proved July 16th, 1509." 

This Elizabeth Greystock was daughter of Sir Robert Taylboys, 
. and aunt of Gilbert, Lord Kyme. It does not appear why she 
styled herself Elizabeth Greystock. 



1 98 



LE ECESTE RSHIRE AKCII J TECTURAL 



In Bakewell Church there is a monument with the following 

inscription : 

"Here lyeth Sir George Vernon, Kt., deceased — the — day of— Anno 156 — and 
Dame Margaret his wife, daughter of Sir Gylbert Tayllbois, deceased — the — day of 
—150— 

" Whose solles God pardon." 

In Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 840, we find the following : 

, " Henry Fitzroy, natural son of King Henry VIII. (begotten of Lady 
Taylboys, daughter of Sir John Blount, Kt.), Duke of Richmond, was 
here interred (within the diocese of Norwich) as Grafton, Stow, Holinshed, 
and others affirm." 

From a table of the High Sheriffs of Lincolnshire it appears 
that 

Walter Talboyes, Knight, was high sheriff of that county, a.d. 
1423. 

John Talboyes, Esq., was high sheriff, a.d. 1426. 

Robert Talboyes, Knight, w T as high sheriff, a.d. 1481. 

George Talboyes, Esq., was high sheriff, a.d. 1496. 

Gilbert Talboyes, Knight, was high sheriff, a.d. 1526. 

In Hasted? s History of Kent we read of a Ralph Talboys, vicar 
of Monckton in Thanet, circa 1590, and again (page 620) Ralph 
Talboys, S.T.P., who was presented to a prebendary, 13th Novem- 
ber, 1594, and in the cloisters of Canterbury Cathedral are the arms 
of Talboys, " Argent, a saltire gules, on a chief of the last, three 
escallops of the field," — placed there no doubt in commemoration 
of his having been a liberal donor in erecting that beautiful speci- 
men of Gothic architecture. 

Among the distinguished personages present at the ceremony 
of the foundation of the college at Camberwell on the 13th day of 
September, 1619, was Richard Tayleboys ( LysonJ. 

From some old Latin deeds, translated by Mr. Blore, it appears 
that in 1620, Gylbert Tayleboys possessed a fair estate in the 
parish of Slawston, Leicestershire, which estate was inherited by 
John Tailby, Esq., the historian, who aided Mr. Nichols in com- 
piling his celebrated eight volume history of Leicestershire, now so 
scarce and valuable. John Tailby died in 1815 — for his memoir 
see Gentlemen's Magazine, vol. lxxxv., p. 10. There was also 
another estate purchased by a descendant of Gylbert Tayleboys, 
at Humberstone in Leicestershire, which has been in the posses- 
sion of the family since the year 1660, and is now the property of ! 
William Ward Tailby, Esq., lord of the manor of Welham, who 
holds considerable landed estates in this county, and who is the 
respected master of the South Leicestershire hounds. It is quite j 
probable that Mr. Tailby descends from the old family of Tailboys, 
for in his pedigree the Christian name of Gilbert has descended 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



199 



from father to son, and the name of Wiburgh a connection of the 
Lancashire branch of the Tailbois family was held by Wiburgh 
Tayleby of Slawston, who died 1690. The name of Tailbois has 
■been spelt in almost innumerable ways: Tailbois, Taillebois, 
Tayllebois, Taillebosc, Tailegebosch, Tailebosch, Talebois, Tayle- 
bois, Tailebosch, Talybois, Talboys, Taleboys, Tailbye, Tailbei, 
Talbye. — ( Duchesne, Stowe, Camden, Ingulphus, Domesday Book, 
Cockersand Register, Dugdale, Harleian MS., etc. J. 



May 2oth, 1863. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The following New Members were elected: Frederick Palmer, 
Esq., Withcote Hall ; the Rev. T. Butler, D.D., Allexton Rectory ; 
the Rev. Thomas Norris, Tugby Vicarage ; Edward Studd, Esq., 
Hallaton Hall; William Hay, Esq., Bowden Hall; Frederick 
Roberts Hill, Esq., Cranoe ; Mr. Thos. Bunney, Leicester. 
Among the antiquities exhibited were the following: 
By Mr. North (by permission of the Curator of the Town 
Museum) a brass signet ring, recently found on the site of Danett's 
Hall, Leicester, accompanied by the following memoir : — This 
signet ring of brass was found on the site of Danett's Hall, Leicester, 
in February last, at about six feet below the then surface of the 
soil. It is rude in construction and ornament, and is the work of, 
probably, the fourteenth century. The signet shows a merchant's 
mark of an ordinary character, comprising within it the letters 
I. O., being probably the initials of its original owner. These 
arbitrary signs were much used by merchants and others not en- 
titled to bear arms, and they not unfrequently had them engraved 
upon their seals and rings, as has been shown at previous meetings 
of this Society. The present ring, like many others of its class, 
is of a large size, and was worn upon the forefinger or thumb. 
Shakspere refers to these rings when he makes FalstafF say to the 
Prince (Henry IV., scene the fourth), — 

" When I was about thy years, Hal, I was not an eagle's talon in the waist ; I 
could have crept through any alderman's thumb ring." 

Mr. North also exhibited a Nuremberg token, much worn, re- 
cently found in excavating upon the property of A. Turner, Esq., 
Bow Bridge, Leicester. .Several other specimens of these snnic 
coins or counters were exhibited. They are constantly being found, 
and have almost ceased to be looked upon as curiosities. 



200 



I E I * EST E RSHI RE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



By Mr. Thomas Ne Vinson, an encaustic tile, dug up recently 
in Sycamore Lane, Leicester; size, five inches and a quarter 
square. The pattern is arranged in circles, the corners of the 
tile being filled up by trefoils, the centre by a kind of star of eight 
leaves. Between the two outer circles the word "Glaunvile" occurs 
in Lombardic characters. The colour of the tile is, as usual, brown, 
the devices yellow. Also, a tile six inches and a half square, found 
built into the foundations of a house lately pulled down in the 
Newarke, Leicester. The device of this tile is raised in embossed 
work, and shows the sacred monogram I.H.C., surrounded by a foli- 
ated border. The whole of this tile is covered by a green glaze. Also 
some coins, among which were a shilling of Charles II., a groat of 
one of the Edwards, minted at Canterbury, and a Nuremburg 
token, found in the garden of the same house. 

By Mr. John Hunt, a silver spoon, found at Bushby, in this 
county, three feet and a half below the surface, bearing the assay 
mark of the year 1600; also two coins (one a groat of Edward I. [?] 
minted at Canterbury, the other an abbey piece), found at Lei- 
cester Abbey, a crown of Charles I., and other coins. 

By Mr. Henry Goddard, two Roman cinerary urns, found 
near S. Margaret's Church, Leicester, one of the unusual pattern 
known among antiquaries as the "hooped pattern," eight inches in 
height, by five inches in diameter, and marked by three " hoops," 
the other, in perfect preservation, of the ordinary type, eight inches 
and a half in height by seven inches in diameter across its widest 
part; also a coin of Trajan (a.d. 98 to 117), large brass, found in 
the Cherry Orchard, Leicester, where so many remains of Roman 
civilization have been discovered. On the obverse, round the head 
of the Emperor, is the inscription imp (eratori) CAES (ari) nervae- 
traiano-avg (usto) ger (manico) dac (ico) p (ontifici M (aximo) 
tr (ibunitia) ; the reverse is entirely illegible ; and some Roman 
coins lately found upon the Danett's Hall estate during the ex- 
cavations there, comprising a Nero, and a small brass of one of the 
Constan tines. 

By the Rev. J. H. Hill, copy of the works of Epiphanius, 
Bishop of Salamis (afterwards called Constantia), in the original 
binding, quite perfect with the exception of a corner torn off the 
title page, printed in 1545, and purchased at Holt sale in 1848. 

£ 1 

WIGSTON'S HOSPITAL. 

Mr. Thomas Nevinson called the attention of the Society to the | 
changes which will shortly be effected in Wigston's Hospital, 
Leicester. The new scheme, he was informed, compels the trustees 
to adopt one of two courses ; either to adapt the present building to 
the purpose of a school, or to destroy it and erect new school 



J 




W! ©»T©K. W0SP1TRL 

TAe Interior s/ri'/>/>*rt a/'/A e I?tm*ct.les a/i a.r(m en's . 



WIGSTON'S HOSPITAL. 



201 



buildings on the site. Mr. Nevinson expressed himself strongly 
in favour of making an effort to induce the trustees of the hospital 
to preserve the present buildings ; and thought as one of the primary 
objects of this Society was to aid in preserving — when such pre- 
servation did not interfere with modern requirements — all ancient 
buildings of local or national interest, it would view the demolition 
of this ancient and interesting building with regret. Mr. Nevinson 
proceeded to show, from a carefully prepared drawing by Messrs. 
Goddard and Son, Architects, that the present building, merely by 
the removal of the inmates' rooms, which are constructed within 
the main building, and are entirely independent of the roof, would 
form at once a fine hall, well adapted for school purposes. This 
hall, — not including the chapels or the kitchens now separated from 
the former by a partition, — would be sixty-eight feet four inches in 
length, by twenty-two feet in width, and would accommodate two 
hundred and fifty children ; but an additional twenty-two feetin length 
could be obtained by the removal of the partition just alluded to, 
and the hall would then accommodate three hundred and thirty-two 
children. The present roof is an open timber one, entirely con- 
structed of oak, in very fair preservation, and is architecturally of 
good design and execution. This arrangement would not interfere 
with the chapel, which Mr. Nevinson suggested might be preserved, 
and separated from the school hall by the restoration of the screen 
which formerly existed, but which has been destroyed, only a few 
traces being now in existence. The re-erection of this screen and 
the restoration of the end window, with the opening of the side 
windows, would complete all the work necessary in the chapel. 
The exterior walls of the whole building would require to be 
cleared of the plaster and to be pointed. Mr. Nevinson further 
suggested that the highly picturesque timber and plaster building 
running at right angles with the main edifice, now used as larders 
and store rooms, should be converted into play rooms for the 
scholars in wet weather, which could be readily effected by the re- 
moval of the partitions which now divide the building into separate 
apartments. The house adjoining the hospital, built for the resi- 
dence of the master, and now let, might be used as the abode for 
the master of the school. These alterations in the present building, 
and the erection of two class rooms, Mr. Nevinson conceived 
would provide school buildings perfectly well adapted to the pur- 
poses contemplated by the scheme. 

Two water colour drawings by Mr. Dudgeon, representing the 
back of the buildings and one of the porches, were exhibited. 

A discussion followed the remarks made by Mr. Nevinson, who 
then moved, — 

" That this Society present a memorial to the trustees of Wig- 
ston's Hospital, praying that the old hospital be preserved for the 
new school to be formed ; and that tracings of the drawing now 
p Vol, II. 



302 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



exhibited be laid before them in order to show that the present 
building would be available for that purpose." 
Mr. Alfred Ellis seconded the motion. 

Mr. James Thompson said he felt the Society was obliged to 
Mr. Nevinson for having brought the matter under their considera- 
tion. He, for one, hoped the old hospital would not be taken down. 
It was one of the very few remains of architectural antiquity of its 
kind still remaining among us; and he hoped it would not share 
the fate of the house known as Richard the Third's which (as they 
all remembered) had been removed twenty years ago, when the 
expenditure of a few hundred pounds would have ensured its pre- 
servation. Such fabrics, when destroyed, could never be replaced. 
If a Society like theirs did not make an effort to save them from 
destruction, no one else would. He hoped the beautiful drawing 
of Mr. Joseph Goddard, with its minute and admirable fidelity of 
detail, would be laid before the trustees, and that Mr. Dudgeon's 
drawings would accompany it; so that those gentlemen would 
have every assistance in coming to a conclusion respecting the 
fitness of the building for the object proposed. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

A sub-committee was also appointed to frame a memorial, and 
to use such means as may be desirable to carry out the resolution. 

Excavations having recently been made near the Jewry Wall, 
Leicester, under the auspices of the Leicester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, in the presence of Mr. Thomas Wright, M.A., 
F.S.A., and many local antiquaries, to determine, if possible, its 
origin and use, Mr. Henry Goddard, Architect, of Leicester, took part 
in the operation, and was enabled to take accu v ate measurements of 
every part of that very ancient structure. Mr. Goddard exhibited 
to this Society a drawing of the Jewry Wall, showing the dis- 
coveries made during those excavations, which he explained in 
the following paper : 

THE JEWRY WALL, LEICESTER. 

Excavations having been made in front of the Jewry Wall to 
ascertain its depth and the extent of its foundation, I felt desirous 
of examining, measuring, and making a correct drawing of the 
structure. I have done so, and have pleasure in exhibiting the 
drawing for the inspection of the Committee of the Leicester- 
shire Architectural and Archaeological Society, with an elevation 
and section of the wall, and the dimensions of the details. 

The wall consists of four arches, with a niche between the two 
central arches. The present level of the passage between the wall 
and the church has been considerably raised above the level origin- 
ally existing in the Roman period. Hence, the piers which sustain 
the arches or barrel roofs sink below the pavement 7 feet 6 inches. 



THE JEWRY WALL, LEICESTER. 



203 



At this depth a line of loose concrete is met with, 14 to 18 inches 
thick, which probably lay immediately beneath the Roman road or 
pavement. 

The excavation and piers continued downwards below this level 
about 11 feet. This fact shows that the piers and barrel roofs did 
not project beyond the face of the wall seen in the recesses more 
than 4 feet 6 inches ; the piers having a perpendicular face of 
Roman tiles and stone of regular masonry down to the lowest 
foundations. 

The projection of the piers being only 4 feet 6 inches, and the 
latter showing no connection with any building in an easterly 
direction — that is, towards the church of St. Nicholas — I cannot 
suppose the fabric to have been a temple, as some antiquaries 
conjecture it to have been : in my opinion it was the western 
entrance to the ancient city, having two gateways ; and I am the 
more fortified in this opinion by the remembrance that some years 
ago, in excavating for the foundation of a building in Talbot Lane, 
I discovered remains of a paved road, of considerable width, in a 
direct line between the Jewry Wall and Watts' s Causeway, which 
connected the town anciently with the Roman road called the 
Foss Way. 

Between the two central arches was a niche for a statue. At 
the northern end of the Jewry Wall was an arched recess, which, 
being close to one of the gates, may have formed a sentinel's room. 
In the wall here were two narrow apertures, with circular heads, 
intended perhaps for the use of the sentinel in looking out and 
watching the approach of strangers. At the southern extremity 
of the wall is a similar, but wider recess, having a like purpose, 
namely, that of a guard chamber for the use of sentries. Formerly, 
a cottage stood in this arch, which was taken down some years ago. 

Let me now invite the attention of this Society to the dilapi- 
dated and unsafe state of this very interesting work of antiquity. 
Some years since, some person cut away nearly the whole of the 
piers below the barrel roofs, in order to provide a shelter in which 
to hang ladders, to protect them from the influences of the weather. 
On examining the top of the wall, I find that that portion of it 
which would have given strength, by counterbalancing the over- 
hanging roof, is perished and gone. Consequently, I consider the 
overhanging arches are in a very dangerous condition ; and if 
brick piers are not immediately built for their support, we shall 
very soon see but little left of this remarkable specimen of ancient 
art and ingenious architecture.* 

* The following extracts relative to the Jewry Wall, from Throsby's History and 
Antiquities of Leicester (1791), may be read with interest: 

"The Temple of Janus has occasioned a variety of opinions. Burton and some 
others contend that the ruin known by the name of Jewry Wall is the remains oi 
that temple. Cart, the historian, scorns to smile at the opinion, and advances 
positively, that he has no tolerable reason to support it. In a place called Holj 



204 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



The best thanks of the Meeting were heartily given to Messrs. 
Goddard and Son for the very valuable and artistic drawing ex- 
hibited, and to Mr. Goddard, senior, for his explanatory paper. 
It was also resolved that means ought to be taken to preserve the 
remains, and the Secretaries were instructed as to the course pro- 
posed to be adopted. 

Mr. Vincent Wing communicated some observations upon 
" The present requirements of Gothic Architecture in order to a 
successful competition with the Works of Antiquity," which that 
gentleman will again bring under the notice of the Society at its 
next General Meeting to be held this year at Kibworth. 

Bones, near the ruin, it has been usual to dig up bones of beasts in large quantities 
which have led numbers to conjecture, and others to assert, that the inhabitants of 
these parts, antecedent to the invasion of the Romans, sacrificed here." (Pages 2 
and 3.) 

" Respecting a Janus' Temple, at Leicester, I will endeavour to shew in what 
manner that opinion might originate. Who ever heard of a Janus' temple, of any 
consequence, but that built by Numa at Rome, with two brazen gates, one on each 
side, to be open in war, and shut in time of peace? That Jani or Janua might be 
a name or names brought from Rome, and adopted at this place when the Romans 
made a settlement here, is probable, as we find that people called thoroughfares 
after the god Janus' name, Jani; and gates, even of private houses, Januce. What- 
ever might be the knowledge of the inhabitants of this place respecting the original 
use of the old wall, called Janus' Temple, prior to the total demolition of Leicester 
in 1173, at that great event, it is probable, the little light that then remained upon 
the subject would be totally obscured for ever. For we are told that few or none of 
its inhabitants, who were driven thence, at that time, returned back ; and that the 
place, even more thon a century after, was of no import, and almost then wholly in 
ruins. It would be natural for those who settled here, after this event, to enquire 
something about the old wall and its name, which might then retain that of Jani or 
Janua. And how easily for those who were at a loss to account for these names, as 
gates or thoroughfares, to conclude that Jani or Janua must mean Janus, and that 
this old wall must be part of a Janus' temple. Any one must perceive how easily 
the transition would be made from Jani or Janua, to Janus; particularly by those 
who are fond of the marvellous, who, by a happy knack, peculiar to themselves, can 
stretch a pigmy to a giant, or make a mountain of a mole-hill. Thus I am of opinion, 
that the error, in tradition, has been honoured with the approbation of some men of 
respectability, who, if they had not trusted too much upon common fame, but had 
taken time in carefully studying and examining this ruin, would have found two of 
the strongest testimonies of its name and use still remaining: inscriptions on its 
brow could not have conveyed ideas more forcible. These are the two remaining arch- 
ways, seen most perfectly on the river-side the wall, which were, it is clear, origin- 
ally, nothing but foot passages or thoroughfares." (Pages 392, 393, 394.) 
» The space before Mr. Andrews's house [now the site of Mr. Rust's warehouse] 
cannot easily be accounted for, but upon the score of the gate of the antient City and 
wall continuing from the South end of the ruin, right across that broad way to the 
house known by the name of the Recruiting Sergeant, ivhere the Jewry -wall has 
recently been proved to have continued, by the discovery of its foundation made of the 
like materials and thickness : near which was found, at the same time, a fine Roman 
coin, of the Emperor Maximilian." (Page 17.) 

"Being desirous of learning something that might lead to a discovery of its 
former magnitude (for I fear its use will never be discovered by the most sagacious 
antiquary) I employed some workmen to dig, on the east side [that now visible] 
transversely, and in a right direction with the wall, thinking to find a foundation, 
which I intended to have traced to its extent ; but it no where continued a foot 
beyond the projecting parts." (Page 7.) 



Publications of the 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. 



Its Transactions (Illustrated), Parts I., II., III., IV., with 
Index, completing Vol. I., 3s. 6d. each; to Members, 2s. 6d. 
each; or Vol. 1. bound in cloth antique, price 16s., or to 
Members, 10s. 6d. 

Reports and Papers of the Associated Societies (Illustrated) 
for the years 1850 and 1855, 4s„ each; and for the years 
1861, 1864, 1865, and 1866, 5s. each. 



Leicester: Crossley and Clarke. 



Now Ready, (Foolscap Quarto, 254 Pages, with several Illustrations, price 10s. 6d.; 
or, on fine toned paper, cloth antique and red edges, £1. Is. 

$ Shramste af the ai §>♦ H^artm, 

In Leicester, during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, 
with some account of its Minor Altars and Ancient Guilds, compiled from 
Original and Contemporaneous Documents, 

BY THOMAS NORTH, 

Honorary Secretary of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society ; and Member 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain arid Ireland. 

* m * The profits (if any) will be expended upon the Restoration of S. Martin's Church, Leicester. 

Leicester : CKOSSLEY AND CLARKE. London : BELL AND DALDY. 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



SOME OF THE OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

" We are always rejoiced to find an antiquary and a scholar building up local history out of local 

records Mr. North has worked up tbis material into his history with great skill The 

volume is not only ably compiled, but bandsomely got up. Its special public may be witbin the 
shire of Leicester, but there is matter in it that may interest antiquaries beyond those limits."— - 
Athenaeum. 

" . . . . illustrates in a very interesting manner the social and ecclesiastical condition of 

England at the time of the Reformation, and for some years after Guilds are of the highest 

antiquity, but tbeir history has never yet received the attention from English antiquaries which it 
deserves. Mr. North's is a valuable contribution towards such a history." — Notes and Queries. 

"... The account of the religious Guilds attached to the church is, however, the most interest- 
ing part of the volume Mr. North has taken great pains with the book, which is a good 

specimen of its class." — Guardian. 

" Lovers of archaeology will hail with delight this handsome little quarto, containing the history 
of the curious old Church of St. Martin, Leicester, with illustrations, documents, and all necessary 

adjuncts All this and much more equally worth the study may be gathered from Mr. 

North's interesting pages and we earnestly recommend those interested in such matters 

to read the book for themselves." — Church and State Review. 

" This beautifully-printed volume consists of abstracts from early churchwardens' accounts and 
from records of ancient guilds which possessed chantries in the old Church of S. Martin, 
Leicester, together with copious annotations, in which Mr. North explains the ancient ritual of the 
church, the furniture and the ornaments of the fabric and of the officiating clergy, and the origin 

and history of the town guilds which does not, however, consist of dry details, such as 

we have indicated, but is made up, independently of these with pleasant discussions, and with 
much information on matters which just now are assuming importance." — The Churchman. 

" Mr. North .... has done really good service to archaeology by the publication of his present 
work, which is, without exception, the best of the kind we have seen .... his volume is not only 
one of local but general interest, and one which serves in an important degree to illustrate the 
general history of the Church and of those its most troublous and trying times." — The Reliquary. 

" Local histories possess an interest and do good far beyond the original circles for which they 
were intended. So we welcome and commend Mr. North's Chronicle of the church of S. Martin, 
at Leicester." — Ecclesiastic. 

"Mr. North has successfully attempted to place before the reader 'A Chronicle of. the Church 
of St. Martin in Leicester,' .... and his narrative naturally shows, to a great extent, the progress 
of the Reformation in that parish, as exemplified in the changes made in the furniture of the 
church, and the accessories of the worship, and by the abrogation of local customs and peculiarities 
.... his book is a valuable addition to our local histories and ecclesiological literature. It is 
well printed and illustrated with five curious engravings." — Church Review. 

" . . , . carefully compiled and valuable work .... There is a great deal of curious matter 
connected with the various changes in religious worship which occurred during the years over 
which the before mentioned churchwardens' accounts range, and a good index furnishes a ready 
means of reference to any item to which the reader may desire to turn " — Church Times. 

". . has produced a book abounding in interesting memories of past times." — Leicester Advertiser. 

" All who would encourage the preservation of a knowledge of the past, whether as a beacon to 
guide us in the future, or as a subject of pleasing retrospect, will find Mr. North's book a record 
complete and faithful, as far as it proposes to go, of the matters to which it relates, and is worthy 
a place in the library for perusal now and hereafter." — Leicester Chronicle. 

"Mr. North .... then passes on to elucidate all the conditions affecting the church above 
named, its chapels, appointments, furniture, vestments, vessels, altars, processions, relics, obits, I 
images, plays, books of office, customs and usages, guilds, &c. Of these and many other matters, 
his work, beautifully printed and illustrated, is a veritable storehouse of information, showing the 

state of things prior to, and during the progress of the Reformation We would strongly 

recommend Mr. North's book to the archaeological world, as one in which they will find great 
store of information, well-digested and arranged, and presented in a most attractive form."— 
Worcester Herald. 

". . . . carefully authenticated with references, and it possesses a copious index ; it is amusing 
for the drawing room; a thoroughly furnished handbook for the ecclesiologist; and precious to 
the conservator of parish memories . . . " — Leicester Journal. 

" .... a very trusty and instructive monograph he places before us, throwing light and interest 
over a transition period of English history. It is of much more than parochial value. It illumines 
the broad story of our country."— Newcastle Daily Chronicle. 

" . . . . enough has been shown to satisfy the lovers of archaeology that Mr. North's book 
abounds in interesting and valuable matter." — Northampton Mercury. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OP 

THE LEICESTEKSHIEE 
SOCIETY. 

VOL. 1 1 . — P ART 3. 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE . 

1869. 



Price Three Shillings and Sixpence. 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



TRANSACTIONS 



THE LEICESTEESHIEE 



SOCIETY. 



VOL. II.— PAET III. 




PRINTED BY 



LEICESTER: 
CROSSLEY AND 
1869. 



CLARKE. 



\ 

\ 

\ 



\ 




4 



^ Contents. 

PAGE 

* Bi-Monthly Meeting, 27th July, 1863 . . . . 205 

General Meeting at Kibworth, 4th and 5th August, 1863 208 
■ \' Kibworth Church, Leicestershire, by Mr. Wm. Slater, Architect 208 
\ Notes on the Manors of Kibworth Beauchamp and Kibworth 

Harcourt, by Mr. Edward Levien, M.A., F.S.A., F.K.S.L., 

British Museum . . . . . . . . 218 

History and Antiquities of Kibworth, by the Kev. M. F. F. 

Osborn, Bector of Kibworth, and Eural Dean . . . . 222 

The Present Bequirements of Gothic Architecture in order 

to a Successful Competition with Antiquity, by Mr. Vincent 

Wing.. .. ..- .. .. ..235 

The Excursion, 5th August, 1863 .. .. .. 245 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 28th September, 1863 .. .. 257 

On some Belics from Little Oxendon, by Mr. North . . 258 
On an unpublished Poem of Queen Elizabeth, by Mr. James 

Thompson .. .. .. .. ..260 

On an Ancient Gothic House, on Chitterman Hill, by Mr. 

James Thompson . . . . . . • • 883 



iv 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

NoBBLY, by the Eev. J. H. Hill, Rector of Cranoe . . 265 

Bi-Montuly Meeting, 30th November, 1863 .. .. 273 

On a unique Penny of Athelstan I., by the Eev. A. Pownall, 

F.S.A. .. .. .. .. ..274 

Eagdale Hall, by Mr. James Thompson . . . . 27T 

Annual Meeting, 25th January, 1864 . . ... . . . 280 

Annual Eepoet for the Year 1863 . . . . 281 

Misterton, Leicestershire, by Mr. Wm. Smith, Architect .. 292 
Wymondham Church, by a Member of the Society . . . . 296 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 28th March, 1864 .. .. 298 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 30th May, 1864 .. .. .. 299 



On some Eelics from Eagdale, Leicestershire, by Mr. North . . 300 



LEICESTERSHIRE 
ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY. 



July 27th, 1863. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The following NEW MEMBERS were proposed and elected :— 
The Right Hon. Lord Berners, Sir F. T. Fowke, Bart., Sir Henry 
Halford, Bart., the Ven. Archdeacon Fearon, Col. King (Stretton 
Hail), Edward Finch Dawson, Esq. (Launde Abbey), the Rev F. 
Norman (Bottesford), the Rev. T. H anbury (Church Langton), 
Thomas Macaulay, Esq. (Kib worth), W. Billson, jun., Esq. 
(Leicester), James Bouskell, Esq. (Leicester). The six first- 
named noblemen and gentlemen were elected presidents of the 
Society. 

Mr. Thomas Nevinson proposed the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted, and the Secretary requested to for- 
ward a copy thereof to Robert Burnaby, Esq., the son of the late 
Rev. Robert Burnaby, incumbent of St. George's Church, in this 
town : — " The Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society record with much regret the loss by death 
of their late excellent colleague, the Rev. Robert Burnaby. Mr. 
Burnaby was one of the earliest members of this Society, and by 
his regular and punctual attendance at its meetings, his courteous 
bearing towards all its members, and his able and efficient con- 
duct as their chairman on numerous occasions, tended much to 
strengthen the Society and to promote its usefulness. The Com- 
mittee will long experience, and still longer regret, the loss they 
sustain by his decease." 

Mr. Nevinson reported, on behalf of the sub-committee ap- 
pointed to communicate with the Trustees of Wyggeston*s Hospital, 
that the following memorial was prepared to those gentlemen, and 
would be presented to the trustees at their next meeting. 

q Vol. II. 



LE I C EST E US H IRE A H C II IT E C T URAL 



To the Trustees of Wyggestoris Hospital. 

** Gentlemen, — 

" The Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society are informed that by the scheme lately set forth 
by authority for the governance of the funds and for your guidance as 
Trustees of Wyggeston's Hospital, a school in connexion with the 
Hospital must be provided in Leicester, and that the present ancient 
Hospital must either be adapted for the purposes of such school, or be 
destroyed and a new building erected upon its site. 

44 The Committee being anxious to preserve (if such preservation 
will not be detrimental to the object proposed by the scheme) the ancient [ 
Hospital as a building of considerable interest, and as a memento of its 
Founder, venture to submit the following statement for your con- j 
sideration. In order to test the eligibility of the present building for | 
the purposes of a school, several members of the Society have inspected 
it, and the following is the result of the inspection. 

1. " By simply removing the inmates' rooms (which are constructed j 
independently of the main building, and which do not at all interfere j 
with the roof) a room well adapted for a school 90 ft. 7 in. long, and 21 ft. j 
9 in. wide would be obtained. This alteration would not interfere with j 
the chapel, which it is suggested might be left intact, and an open screen 
put up in the place of that now destroyed. 

2. " The curious timber and plaster building running at right angles ! 
with the main building, might very readily by removing the partitions I 
be converted into a play place for the children in wet weather. j 

3. " The Master's house, at present let, would form, with proper J 
alterations, a commodious residence for the Head Master of the school. 

" With these alterations, and with the addition of a class room, which 1 
could be constructed from the materials of the inmates' rooms, the Com- 
mittee of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society beg 
to submit that spacious premises and convenient accommodation for a 
school of 328 children could be readily obtained without the demolition 
of the old Hospital, which they would greatly regret. \ 
" The exterior of the building would require to be cleared of the | 
plaster and to be pointed, and the end window of the chapel to be " 
restored to its original design. 

" The Committee to make their ideas more clear to the Trustees of j 
the Hospital, have caused an architectural drawing of the interior of the 
proposed school room, with the chapel beyond, to be prepared, which 
accompanies this statement, and sincerely hope the Trustees of Wygges- 
ton's Hospital will take the matter into their serious consideration before 
determining to demolish the old buildings. 

" We are, gentlemen, 
('* On behalf of the Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and j 
Archaeological Society) ' 
" Your obedient servants, v J] 

"Thomas Nevinson, 
" Ai/fred Ellis, 
" T. North, — Hon. Secretary." I 1 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



207 



The Secretary reported communications from the Leicester 
Highway and Sewerage Committee, and from the Vicar of St. 
Nicholas' parish, fully coinciding with the plans proposed by the 
Committee of this Society for the preservation of the Jewry Wall. 
Mr. Crossley called the attention of the Society to the sewerage 
> operations shortly to be carried on in Jewry Wall Street, Leicester, 
, and stated that if the sewer is carried in a straight line down the 
, street, it will damage the very interesting Roman Pavement now 
there in its original position. 

Mr. Hickson, of Melton Mowbray, exhibited, through Mr. 
North, two gold solidi, or Roman gold coins of the Emperor 
I Valens, lately found near Melton Mowbray. These two coins had 
; previously been inspected by the members of the London Numis- 
j matic Society, and pronounced by them as being in the very 
' finest condition. Valens was the brother of Valentinian I., born 
i a.d. 328, and associated with his brother in the Empire a.d. 364, 
t he ruling the East, and Valentinian the West. He was never 
seen after his defeat by the Goths near Adrianople, a.d. 378. 
)The obverse of the coins bore the inscription DN. VALENS. 
! P.F. AVG. the reverse being much the same as that upon the fine 
isolidus of Valentinian, exhibited at a late meeting by Mr. North; 
!one bore the mint mark SMLVG., i.e., Signata moneta Lagdu- 
\nensis — (money struck at Lyons) : the other was struck at Rome, 
[ and, had R. Q. in the exergue, that is, Romce quarta (officina) — 
j (the fourth mint at Rome). These coins are both common types, 
jbut they are very rarely found in such fine condition. 

Mr. G. C. Neale exhibited a very fine specimen of the Resto- 
ration Medal of Charles II., accompanied by the following short 
I memoir : — This medal is the work of the celebrated Dutch artist, 
jRoettiers, the supplanter and successor of the unfortunate Simon, 
■the favourite medalist in the time of Cromwell. The obverse bears 
'the head and titles of Charles II., to commemorate whose restora- 
tion this medal was struck. The reverse has Britannia seated, re- 
ceiving the offerings of Hercules, Justice, and Minerva. A genius 
above is bearing a palm branch, the sun is pouring forth beams of 
'glory; in the distance a ship is approaching. Beneath is read 
;"Felicitas Britannia?, 29 Maii, 1660." 

Mr. Sarson exhibited a groat of Edward I., found with a great 
'quantity of fragments of pottery of all kinds, Roman, mediaeval, 
jand modern, and a large collection of bones, during excavations 
( upon his premises near to St. Nicholas' Church, Leicester. The 
'foundations of Roman buildings have also been found during the 
works. 



208 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITEGTUB iL SOC1 ETY. 



August 4th and 5th, 1863. 

GENERAL MEETING AT KIB WORTH. 
The Rev. M. F. F. Osborn, President. 

The Annual Summer Meeting (which was held in union with 
the Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton) 
was opened on Tuesday the 4th August by morning prayer in the 
parish church, immediately after which the architectural history of 
the fabric was told by the architect employed upon its restoration, 
William Slater, Esq., of London, in the following paper read by 
that gentleman. 

KIBWORTH CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 

Having been desired by the Architectural and Archaeological 
Society of Leicestershire to read a short Paper on this Church, it 
gives me pleasure to comply with the request. 

Although Kibworth Church is very uniform in plan, and does 
not possess so many features of antiquarian interest as are fre- j 
quently to be met with in some churches in this county, still it I 
will repay a visit from members of the Society, I shall not have J 
to trouble you with any lengthened description of its historical 
history, as no doubt this will be done by the Rector, in the paper I 
he is good enough to favour us with on the general antiquities off 
the parish ; in truth, very little historical record remains of our* 
country churches, and if it is not too bold an assertion, we were] 
going to say that they tell their own story sufficiently by a careful, 
examination of their various remains. The church is dedicated t 
to S. Wilfred; he is commemorated in the old English calendar 
on October 12th. Thirty-three churches have the same dedication.^ 
but only three of these are south of the Trent, of which this is one.j 
S. Wilfred succeeded S. Chad in the see of York, about the yeai f 
673. He was expelled by King Egfrid. A very interesting ac- 
count is given by Archdeacon Churton (in his Early English 
Church) of S. Wilfred, who is famous for being the founder oi 
Ripon, and as having, after his expulsion from York, gone tc 
Selsey, on the coast of Sussex, to preach to the southern Saxons 
and established a bishop's see before its removal to Chichester 
S. Wilfred was also a great church builder and restorer ; and ir 
reference to the early Minster of York, it is related that " he founc 
it in a state of miserable neglect, the old roof dropping with rail | 
drops, and the windows open to the weather, and giving entrance 
to the birds, which made their nests within. He repaired it sub 



KIB WORTH CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



209 



stantially, skilfully rooting it with lead (it was probably thatch 
j before), and prevented the entrance of birds and rain by putting- 
glass into the windows, yet such glass as allowed the light to shine 
within." At Ripon he built a new church of polished stone, with 
columns variously ornamented, and porches. 

It appears from its name that Kibworth was an Anglo-Saxon 
village. It is stated in Nichols' History as formerly spelt Chiburde. 
There are many villages which have the same ending, viz., Kil- 
worth— North and South — Bosworth, Brixworth — names which 
are famous to most of us. Worth has been understood to mean 
\ the piece or tongue of land between two streams at their intersec- 
1 tion. On the other hand, Mr. Walford, in his account of the 

• church of Worth, Sussex, published in the Sussex Archceological 
; Journal, says, " The name of the place (Worth) is Anglo-Saxon, 
j and probably Saxon-English also ; it signifies a collection of 

houses, a street, village, and sometimes a principal residence with 
inferior houses about it for dependents, as was likely to be the case 
j in this instance." I have only been enabled to obtain from 

• Nichols' History, already referred to, a very slight description of 
| the church. The most valuable is that of a view, showing the 

: ancient tower and spire, the height of which was 53 yards, i.e., 
\ 159 feet; also we are told that " there are three very neat galleries 
i of modern construction," and that there is a peal of six bells, 
founded in 1732. This is a good specimen of a Midland county 
\ parish church, suitable, as no doubt originally designed, for a 
j village of some importance. I shall confine myself, in the few 
i remarks with which I shall trouble you, to its architectural descrip- 
I tion. 

And first with reference to the ground plan, which consists of 
■ chancel with a modern vestry on the north side, nave, north and 
\ south aisles, at the eastern termination of which are two chapels, 
j north and south porches, a modern western tower, in the position 
1 of the ancient tower and spire, which fell down in 1825. The plan 

is remarkable for its uniformity. The earliest portion is the 
! priests' door on the south side of the chancel, and, as far as I can 
(judge (except portions of the chancel walls), the only portion of 

the early thirteenth century church remaining. The date of the 

nave, aisles, and chancel is about 1350, and what is generally 
] known as the period which is termed Transitional from Second to 

Third Pointed. As regards the chancel, I should first describe it 

before the late restorations. No structural work had been done 
To the north and south walls. I have drawings which will better 

explain the condition of the chancel before the alterations. The 
'roof was a modern low roof of no architectural pretensions, and 

covered with lead. The east window, as w r ill be seen by reference 
jto the drawings, consisted of five bays, with floying or reticulated 
j tracery, but with a flat or segmental head. A new roof, following 



BIO LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY, 

the ancient pitch, which it is unnecessary to describe, has been 
placed in lieu of the old one ; and new tracery heads in the east 
window, in character with the windows in the aisles, have been 
constructed. It appears to me that the former head of the east 
window was not the orginal one. 1 must also call your attention 
to the sedilia on the south side, to the east of which is the piscina, 
which has been recently put in, following, as far as possible, the 
example given in Nichols. On further examination of the sedilia, 
you will observe that the lower part, or the jambs and piers, are 
not of the same date or character as the tracery head, neither are 
they constructed of the same stone. The capitals and bases are 
so rude that it is hardly possible to make out their exact character 
or date ; there is, however, a similarity between them and the details 
of the priests' door, so it is just possible they may be coeval with 
the First Pointed church. Churches were restored or rebuilt at a 
much slower rate than in the present age. It may be that the nave 
and aisles were rebuilt first, and the First Pointed chancel left, 
for it is manifest that it is of a later period than the body of the 
church. The jambs of the chancel windows are of the same 
character as those of the nave — the tracery heads much inferior. 
There is underneath the most southern window on the south wall, 
the low-side window, the ancient use of which has not yet been 
accurately determined by the authorities ; it had reference to some 
discipline of the Church, which appears to have been lost. The 
doorway to the ancient vestry still remains in the north wall, and 
the marks outside clearly point out its original position. The 
vestry and entrance to it, on the north side, are modern, and, as 
you know, were erected when the church was reseated. The 
chancel is forty-two feet by nineteen feet three inches. The nave 
is separated from the aisles by an arcade of four arches, of good 
proportions. You will observe that there are no capitals, a rather 
uncommon treatment, and which seems to mark the decline of 
what we think the best period of pointed architecture ; similar 
examples are to be met with at Misterton in this county, and there ft 
are many large foreign churches which have the same treatment. ! 
The mouldings of the arches and piers are bold, and the bases are | 
well terminated. The chancel arch is of good proportions, the 
arch is an equilateral triangle. I must call your especial attention 
to the tracery of the windows in the aisles; the tracery differs in 
those in the north side from those in the south. The windows of 
the two chapels are of five lights, the bays are small. 

I have already referred to the date of the church as being the 
latter portion of Second Pointed style ; and I will very briefly de- 
scribe, a little in detail, a few of the characteristics of the tracery ! 
of Gothic windows of the Second Pointed or Decorated period. | 
In the First period it is unnecessary to say the windows were simply 
pointing without cusping; then follow forms of geometrical pat- 



KIB WORTH CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



211 



terns of every variety of treatment ; numerous examples abound in 
churches in this vicinity, — in the aisles of Naseby church are good 
examples of geometrical tracery so often to be met with in parish 
■churches. There is a pattern of window called interlacing, where 
the sections of the mullion are produced to the arch ; this is very 
common in the churches in this neighbourhood — nearly all the 
churches in Leicester have examples of this kind. After windows 
of this date came what is termed flowery or flamboyant tracery, — 
a development of which is found in this church. In the Midland 
counties numerous examples are to be found of windows of this 
date ; and you may have remarked, when inspecting the churches, 
how full of remains they are of the period of Second and Third 
Pointed Gothic in all its different phases ; but comparatively few 
remain of Norman or First Pointed or Early English. 

The naves and aisles were until very lately ceiled ; these have 
been all removed, and new roofs substituted. I do not venture to 
say that the effect is much better ; but I was delighted to hear 
from the rector that since the roofs were open he found the church 
much better to preach in, so, practically at least, there has been an 
improvement. It is very unusual to have two porches so precisely 
alike ; may they have been for the two divisions of the parish, 
Kibworth-Beauchamp and Kibworth-Harcourt ? These porches 
are of good proportion, and of the same date as the rest of the 
church. The roof's copings and parapets or eaves cornice have 
been much tampered with. You will notice a niche over the 
archway which formerly most probably had a figure. 

Having very briefly touched on the chancel, nave, aisles, and 
porches, there remains — or rather there are no remains of — the old 
tower and spire. The facts are briefly these : — The tower was 
being repaired, and whilst the workmen were at breakfast, the 
tower and spire fell down on July 23rd, 1825. It is stated that 
very little damage was done to the rest of the church ; the extent 
of the mischief is easily seen by an inspection of the masonry — in 
most cases a most admirable clue to the fixing of dates of re- 
building ; the two west windows of the aisles and the west cleres- 
tory windows are obviously altogether of a different character to 
the rest, and were all put in with the walls adjacent since the fall. 
After this lamentable catastrophe, steps were immediately taken 
to rebuild the tower and spire. An eminent architect, Mr. Smirke 
of London (I presume the present Sir R. Smirke) was called in, 
and plans and estimates were obtained and numerous meetings of 
the parishioners held for the purpose of considering the best way 
! of carrying out the object ; but, as is too often the case, the lowest 
] estimate (between £5000 and £6000) was considered very high, so 
, much so, that the idea of reproducing the old example was aban- 
doned. The result was that a local architect was called in, Mr. 
Flint, of Leicester, who made the design for a new tower altogether, 



LEIC EST EES] 1 1 HE AECHIT EOTURAL SOCIETY. 



which was executed as we see, and which we can now examine. 
Nichols gives a view of the church from the north-east, and a south 
view which looks almost like what we term an elevation ; unfortu- 
nately these two views differ as to the tower and spire slightly, 
but from what 1 could gather from both, I fear I must come to the 
conclusion that the loss to the parish and the county has been 
very great, and these views referred to convince me of the beauti- 
ful proportion of the tower and spire which formerly existed. 
It is said to have been about 159 feet high, and was erected since 
the nave, and was (at least so I judge from the prints) of the 
Third, or Perpendicular date, and I should think would have 
ranked very high in the spires of this county, in fact, was almost 
good enough to have competed (as we Northamptonshire men 
w T ould say) with some of the spires in the neighbouring county; 
old Kibworth tower and spire seem to have been a little like Thed- 
dingworth and Brampton. It had the buttresses so peculiar to 
Northamptonshire, and which, for the want of a better name, I 
will call pilaster buttresses — that is, of a slight projection. You 
will find these almost at every tower, and in all dates. The spire 
was terminated by a broach ; that is unusual in the later styles. 
There is a very fine example of a late broach spire at Stanion, 
near Geddington, which probably you may know, of this date. 
There are examples of broach spires at Market Harborough, 
Gadsby, Misterton, Oadby, and Frisby, but the spires in this 
county spring generally from parapets. Enough has been said |1 
to convince us of the great loss sustained to this parish and county, 
in consequence of the plan for rebuilding having been abandoned; ! 
but I do not think it would be generous for us, who live in these 
days, to cast too much censure on the representatives of the parish j 
for this (as we no doubt all think) unwise decision. We cannot, j 
however, be too thankful that no lives were lost, and that the I 
church itself suffered so little. The next course was adopted, viz., j 
that of erecting a tower of less cost, and (considering the time it j 
was erected) I am of opinion that the present tower is of good pro- j 
portions. The tower and spire of St. George's, Leicester, and the j 
one before us, have, to my mind, considerable merit, for they were i 
built when but little was known of proportions and detail, and 
when still less was cared for the revival of Christian pointed 
architecture. 

I have described the structure, if not wearying you let me 
briefly allude to the internal arrangements. When I first inspected 
this church I congratulated the rector and the churchwardens upon i 
having so beautiful a building, and one which was so well adapted 
in every way for the requirements of the parishioners. Happily, j 
there was no wish or necessity for disturbing the old structure in | 
the rearrangement of the seats. It is always to be regretted that 
the taking down of galleries involves the enlargement of the fabric. , 



KIB WORTH CHURCH, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



•213 



The three neat galleries which existed in Nichols' time have ceased 
to be ; the old pews are no more, and the nave is, as you see, 
refitted with seats of an uniform height; the pulpit is on the north 
side, and the prayer desk on the south. The font is, as it should 
be, placed at the western end of the church. This is the same 
font, a drawing of which is given in Nichols' history, but is not the 
old one. The old font you will have an opportunity of examining. 
During the Commonwealth, and the so-called incumbency of a 
Captain Yaxley, it was taken out of the church and converted to 
a horse-trough, and was afterwards buried in the churchyard. 
After that it was offered for sale to a late rector ; but as it was 
considered too far gone for restoration, nothing was done until a 
few days ago, when, in company with the present rector, I made 
a visit of exploration, and the old font was dug up in a field, and 
• we now trust will find its way to its original position, and exist for 
many years to come.* The chancel is very properly fitted with 
seats for the choir. On the south side is placed the organ. As 1 
have not had in any way anything to do with these arrangements, 
I have the less scruple in saying how admirable they appear to me, 
and how well suited they are for the wants of the church. A few 
years since, comparatively speaking, we were in doubt as to the 
proper use of the chancel ; now it is far otherwise, and no plan now 
is considered satisfactory by those who have studied the subject, 
and by our architectural societies, if the ritual arrangements are 
not duly considered and carried out. 

I have not said anything yet as to the skreen which separates 
the body of the church from the chancel. 1 was very glad that 
the remnant of this old feature has been preserved. I have pre- 
pared a very rough sketch for its partial restoration. You will 
see at a glance that it is sadly mutilated. It is hardly my purpose 
to go much into the subject, yet a few words may not be altogether 
out of place. By reference to the ancient authorities, there is no 
doubt that a separation between the body of the church and the 
chancel always existed from the earliest times. These skreens 
were often constructed of stone or marble, and were originally 
i low, on which were placed high desks or pulpits, from which the 
; Epistle and Gospel and other portions of the service were read 
or sung, numerous examples of which remain in the ancient 
i basilicas. It is not exactly known when the high skreens were 
j erected with transverse rood lofts. These skreens were constructed 
of wood or stone in every variety of treatment and of richness in 
; detail. In many counties the remnants of these skreens still re- 
main. You will find also the staircase, which is usually con- 
structed in the thickness of the wall on the north or south side of 
the chancel arch. In this instance the staircase is on the south 

• This Font has since been replaced in the church. — T. North. 



214 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



side. I must point out also the two stone corbels from their pecu- 
liar position. I think the rood beam might have been supported j 
on them. The two small windows in this wall appear to have 
been placed there in reference to the rood loft. I cannot account 
for the first clerestory window on the south side being of three 
lights when all the others are only two. I have found instances 
where there have been clerestory or dormer windows constructed j 
on the north and south side only near the chancel arch, as if to 
throw light on the rood loft, when no other clerestory windows I 
have existed. I am unable to say whether these two windows 
were placed for a similar reason. We have no examples of skreens 
in England earlier than the thirteenth century, and from that I 
time down to the present they have been placed in our churches. 
I regret I have not visited many parish churches on the continent, f 
I have always noticed, however, how few examples of skreens 
remain compared to what exist in our own churches. It is quite 
manifest that the skreen has been always retained in our church. 
At Haselbeach there exists an iron skreen, or grille, of the seven- 
teenth century. At Bulwick, in the same county, a Jacobean 
skreen. At Weldon, a high skreen was put up eight years ago. 
Many of the learned who have considered the subject, have thought 
that the best arrangement, and that which is best suited for the 
choral and ritual arrangements, is to have a low skreen or septum 
wall. I confess there is much to be said for this plan, which can 
be defended from ancient authority. 1 could not do better than j 
refer you to a church which all members of this Society should be I 
acquainted with. I mean Theddingworth, where the arrangements ! 
alluded to have been well carried out.* I should myself rigidly 
contend for the retention of the chancel skreen as in the case | 
before us. As I have before remarked, the skreen is of great | 
antiquity, and moreover we find numerous examples of skreens f 
being put up in our churches in all periods since the Reformation, \ 
for instance, Gedington, Martham, in Norfolk ; and, as is well } 
known, at the college chapels at Oxford, viz., Wadham, Baliol, 
old skreens at Magdalene and Lincoln, before the alterations; j 
Peterhouse, Caius College, Clare Hall, Cambridge; and St. Giles' 
in the Fields, London, now destroyed ; and at St. Peter's, Cornhill, 
Sir C. Wren has placed a skreen, who, by the bye, must have been 
well acquainted with the ritual requirements of the Church. A 
sermon was preached at the opening of the church, November 
27th, 1681, by the Rev. Bishop Berridge, who enters fully into the ( 
subject of chancel skreens. The Bishop says, " The place where 
the sacrament is administered was wont to be separated from the f 

* In alluding to Theddingwoiih church I am painfully reminded of the loss we 

have all sustained by the death of Mr. James. It was my good fortune to have been » 

thrown much together with him ever since I was a pupil, and I owe to his kindness j 

one of the first church restorations with which I was entrusted in Northamptonshire. | 



THE TEMPORARY MUSEUM. 



215 



rest of the church by a skreen or partition ; and this was anciently 
observed in the building of all consecrated churches within a few 
centuries after the Apostles themselves, even in the days of 
i • Constantine the Great, as well as in all ages since." 

I have only to add that the sketches which are annexed were 
prepared, not only that the remarks I have made may be better 
understood, but also to serve as memoranda for future times of 
what has been lately done. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Slater's paper, and after inspecting the 
church under his guidance, the company visited several places of 
interest in the village. Mrs. Buzzard invited the Society to in- 
spect a rare collection of tapestry preserved in her house. The 
pannelling of one room is entirely covered with tapestry, apparently 
of Flemish manufacture. There are various scenes depicted, but 
no clue is given towards their elucidation. Mr. Phillips, of the 
Manor House, next shewed the company some historical manu- 
scripts, and many objects of antiquarian interest in addition to 
those shewn by him in the temporary museum. The Society had 
previously directed a trench to be dug through a large Tumulus 
existing in a field known as the Hall Field on the north western 
side of the village with the hope of discovering its origin. The 
rain which came down in torrents nearly the whole of the day pre- 
vented many members from visiting the spot : a few however 
ventured, accompanied by Canon Trollope, who gave at the even- 
ing meeting a short account of the discoveries made. 

THE TEMPORARY MUSEUM 

was formed in the National Schoolroom, a class room being 
devoted to the exhibition of architectural drawings, &c. Among 
the articles lent for exhibition the following may be noticed : — 

By Rev. M. F. F. Osborn : Autographs — Letter of Frederick 
the Great of Prussia to John Osborn, Minister to the Court of 
Dresden, with the insignia of the Order of the Red Eagle ; letter 
of the Queen of Bohemia to Sir Henry Osborn, 1625 ; letter of 
Sir Henry Osborn to the Queen of Bohemia, 1625; pass of 
Speaker Lenthall to Sir Henry Osborn to go to Bel voir, 1645 ; 
letter of Admiral Byng to his sister, the Hon. Mrs. Osborn, written 
from onboard the "Monarque" the night before the execution; 
frank of Sir Danvers Osborn, one of the latest governors of New 
York, 1645; a printed book of the date of 1518, printed at Venice, 

, Pliny's letters. Miscellaneous — Basso-relievo, in wax, of the Last 
Supper; necklace of olive berries, brought from the Mount of 
Olives, 1820; miniature canoe brought from Venice, 1821 ; piece 
of the the Royal George ; three old keys, 1645, one now in use ; 
two Roman coins; a Scotch penny of Alexander; a silver two- 

! penny piece of Queen Elizabeth ; two farthings of Edward 1 ; a 



LKi(U<:sTKi{sim;u auohitkctural society. 



paper cutter of oak, from the timbers of the Bishop Ken's house, 
at Winchester, into which he refused to admit Nell Gwynne ; 
pieces of oak bark from the old timbers of Kibvvorth Church, sup- 
posed to be 500 years old ; an alabaster figure from China ; a 
cross carved in stone by a poor boy employed to break stones on 
the road in Somersetshire ; an ivory Chinese carved card case ; a 
memorial gold medal of the Right Hon. William Pitt, 1800. 

By Rev. Thomas James, Theddingworth : One Gris de Flandres 
jug ; four rings on a card; one gold medal from Naseby ; piece of 
Bidree ware ; Sikh cup engraved in gold ; illuminated MS. 
Koran, in cover; small crystal cup engraved in gold in ivory box; 
Turkish bowl (red earthenware) ; silver dorge (Buddhist symbol). 

By Mr. John Phillips : Queen Elizabeth's poem in her own 
handwriting, signed ; Charles LI.'s autograph, for signing a warrant 
to William Hanbury, Esq., High Sheriff of the county of North- 
ampton, December 1665 ; painting (Murillo) ; King Charles's 
Speech to Parliament ; Bible ; Journal of the Lords (first session 
after the Revolution) ; Ephemerides Persarum, &c. ; tea urn and 
coffee pot ; saddle, fish, and piece of work ; twenty-two buckles 
of various kinds ; six ear-rings ; seven shoes ; table. 

By Rev. J. H. Hill: Roman remains; Ovid, fifteenth century 
(1492) Bernard Bernalium ; St. Jerome (1485) Epiphanius, six- 1 
teenth century ; Speed's Chronicle, seventeenth century. 

By Mr. R. Johnson, Saddington : Knife, silver spoon, two f 
Saxon beads, two tradesmen's tokens. 3 

By Mr. S. W. Cox: Mill stone, bowl, cannon ball, three bullets, 
bayonet, knife, spearhead, three tiles, fancy brooch, coins, three 
books. 

By Mr. H. Goddard : Glass bottle from Rhodes ; two black 
hawks ; two vases from Rhodes ; string of ancient Egyptian porce- 
lain beads, from which hangs suspended a small porcelain figure of j 
Osiris ; two Greek triptiches ; rough olive berries from the Mount J 
of Olives ; four Roman lamps, Roman candlestick, and portion of 
crucible ; scented pottery made by the Nuns of Santiago de Chile, 
seventeenth century ; mug, with portrait of Charles II. rudely ; 
painted, 1662 ; Chinese chopsticks, razor, and lock ; pair of 
stirrups ; ancient key, and a spur gilt found near Bosworth, 1766. 

By Rev. A. Pownall : Large, varied, and beautiful collection 
of coins. 

By Rev. J. Davenport : Five encaustic tiles from Skefiington. 

By Mr. G. C. Neale, Skefiington : Eighteen medals, carving 
No. 1 (Spanish) part of a Triptich ; No. 2, Adam and Eve 
(ancient carving) ; water-colour drawings of Billesdon and Skef- 
fington churches, previous to their restoration. 

By Mr. H. Reynolds: Prize carving at Kensington Museum, 
gained by the carver. 

By Mr. Wm. Collins : Two needlework pictures from Sebas- 



EVENING MEETING. 



217 



topol ; Rider's Almanack, 1684 ; ancient spectacles ; christening 
dress used in 1769 ; two pairs of ancient slippers. 

By Sir Henry Dryden : Water-colours of Rousham House, 
Oxfordshire; and Canons Ashby House, Northamptonshire. 

By Rev J. M. Gresley : Print of a bench end in Nosely 
' Chapel, with a cock (the crest of the Staunton family) at the elbow, 
of the fifteenth century ; order to pay £1038 9s., being for four- 
teen days' pay of five troops of horse of Sir Arthur/ Hesillrigg's 
Regiment, December 31st, 1659, signed by O. Cromwell; order of 
the Council of State, appointed by Parliament for the repairs of 
the Vantguard and Swiftsure, signed by Sir Arthur Hesilri'ge, pre- 
sident, 5th February, 1652 ; value of Kibworth living as now let, 
Lady-day, 1744— the Glebe, £323 16s. 8d. 

By Mrs. Pateman : Brown tea pot, green china tea pot, two 
; blue china sauce-boats, cream jug (white with flowers), China tray 
with metal stand, portrait of Charles II., artist unknown — supposed 
to be an original painting. 

By Mr. R. Johnson Saddington: Knife with agate handle, 
R. Johnson ; silver spoon, W. Hill ; two Saxon beads, W. Johnson ; 
two tradesman's tokens, W. Johnson. 

By Sir Henry Dryden, Bart. : Spearhead, found at Canons 
j Ashby. 

By Mr. John Hunt : Four swords, second of sixteenth century, 
third, seventeenth century ; first, early part of sixteenth century ; 
fourth, ditto ; cross-bow found at Bos worth field; waistcoat, time 
of the Stuarts. 

In addition to these articles there was a large collection of 
i ancient china, coins, needlework, books, wood carving, &c, &c. 

In the room devoted to architectural drawings the following 
; were shown by, — 

Messrs. Goddard and Son : Kilby Church, framed ; Stackley 
I Lodge, framed ; the Grange, East Langton, framed ; Alderman 
| Newton's Charity — proposed New Schools, framed ; West Cotes, 
New Schools, framed ; Illumination on vellum, framed ; Nicholson's 
j Memorial, to be erected on the Leicester Cemetery ; and the Jewry 
j Wall, Leicester. 

By Mr. Smeeton : Oil paintings, framed ; Langton, Langton 
Hall, Wistow Hall, two Views of Gumley, Kibworth from the 
j Carlton-road, Woodhouse, Caversham Bridge on the Thames, 
and Kibworth. 

By Mrs. Islip : Four Continental Sketches, Foston Church, 
Netley Abbey window, and three framed engravings by Vivares. 
Dinner was served at the Rose and Crown Inn at six o'clock. 
| At 7.30 p.m. a public 

EVENING MEETING 



was held in the Grammar School, which was crowded by a vow 



218 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



large audience. The Rev. M. F. F. Osborn, the Rector of the 
parish, presided. 

Mr. Edward Levien, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., British Museum, 
read the first paper, being — 

NOTES ON THE MANORS OF KIBWORTR BEAU- 
CHAMP AND KIB WORTH HARCOURT. 

Although the remarks which T am about to make this evening 
have in them little or nothing of novelty, still I venture to hope that 
they may prove of some interest to this Meeting, inasmuch as I 
shall endeavour to embody in them a short account of the parish 
in which we are now associated. The first grant, then, of land in 
the manor of Kibworth, or, as it was anciently styled, Ckiburde, 
was made in the reign of Edward the Confessor, to Edwin Alferd, 
who also held land at Fleckney and Wistow T , and was no doubt the 
progenitor of the family of Halford, who still reside at the latter 
named place. At the time of the Domesday Survey, the manor 
was granted to Robertus Dispensator, i.e., Robert, the butler or 
steward, whose name was subsequently transmogrified into De- 
spencer, after a process, the legality of which we must leave to be 
settled by the authorities who have recently had so much to say in 
the matter of Messrs. Bugg, of Bedford, and Jones, or Herbert, of 
Clytha, Whatever may be the law concerning this vexata qucestio, 
certain it is that William the Conqueror bestowed lands upon 
Robert Despencer, as he was then styled, on account of services 
performed about the royal person; and in 1221 we find that 
Henry III. granted the manor, with certain privileges, to Walter 
de Bellocampo or Beauchamp, as chief pantler to the king — the 
office, according to Littleton, involving the duties of carrying the 
king's banner, and acting as his butler, sewer, carver, or such like 
office, at his coronation. Afterwards, various members of the 
Beauchamp family were seized of the manor by the same tenure, 
until the year 1389, when Philippa, wife of Guy, Earl of Warwick, 
deceased, held both the manor and the advowson, on condition of 
placing a napkin upon the king's table on Christmas Day ; the 
duties of a butler or carver's place having naturally been con- 
sidered as too onerous to be undertaken by one of the fair sex, 
especially at a period when the nobility were neither hermits as to 
their eating, nor teetotallers with respect to their potations. In 
the year 1384 the Countess Philippa died, and the manor passed 
to some others, descendants of the Warwick family, concerning 
whom there is nothing worthy of record; until, in 1400, it came to 
Richard de Beauchamp, who was one of the most renowned and 
remarkable characters of the period. He was born at Salwarpe, 
in Worcestershire, on the 28th January, 1381 ; and when he was 



KIB WORTH BEAUCHAMP AND KIBWOBTH HARCOUBT. 219 



baptized, King Richard II. and Richard Scrope, Bishop of 
Coventry and Litchfield (afterwards Archbishop of York), stood as 
his godfathers. At the coronation of Henry IV., in 1399, he was 
.cheated a Knight of the Bath ; and in the fourth year of his reign, 
he was appointed by the king to attend him with a body of one 
hundred men at arms, and three hundred archers. At the' corona- 
tion of Joan of Navarre, Henry's second wife, in 1403, he performed 
many gallant feats of arms at the tournaments and festivities which 
were held upon the occasion ; and soon after served in the army 
against Owen Glendower, and in the battle of Shrewsbury against 
the Percies, on both of which occasions he exhibited such personal 
valour that he assisted very much in sustaining the fortunes of the 
field, and was soon afterwards made a Knight of the Garter. In 
1408 he performed a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, an event 
of which an interesting drawing will be found in this Museum, 
copied from a MS. in the Cottonian collection, by my friend the 
Rev. John Hill of Cranoe. 

On the earl's return home through Poland, Russia, Germany, 
and Italy, he behaved himself so valiantly at several tilting matches 
in which he engaged, that he was everywhere received with the 
greatest honour and respect, and established for himself an 
European reputation for excellence in feats of arms. After his 
arrival in England, he was, by an indenture bearing date 2nd 
October, 12th Henry IV., appointed to attend the Prince of Wales 
—afterwards Henry V. — upon all occasions of peace and war, 
both in this realm and beyond the seas; and all readers of Shake- 
speare will remember him, not only in the second part of King 
Henry IV., but also in the glorious speech of Henry V. before the 
battle of Agincourt, when the king says, — 

" Old men forget; yet shall not all forget; 
But they'll remember with advantages, 
What feats they did that day : then shall our names, 
Familiar in their mouths as household words — 
Hairy the king, Bedford and Exeter, 
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester, — 
Be in their flowing cups freshly remember'd : 
This story shall the good man teach his son ; 
And Crispine Crispian shall ne'er go by, 
From this day to the ending of the world, 
But we in it shall be remembered: 
We, few, we happy few, we band of brothers : 
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me, 
Shall be my brother : be he ne'er so vile, 
This day shall gentle his condition. 
And gentlemen in England, now abed, 
Shall think themselves accurs'd they were not here ; 
And hold their manhoods cheap, while any speaks 
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day." 

This was in 14 J 5 ; and in 1417 the earl was sent to France, at- 
tended by 10,000 men, to negotiate the marriage between Harry 



I ,K\C KS T K US 1 1 1 U K AllCH 1TKCTURAL SOCIETY. 



and Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI. of France. While 
there he was met by a body of five thousand horesmen, under the 
Earls of Vendoine and Limousin, which had been sent by the 
Dauphin to oppose him, on the plea that Henry's marriage was 
merely contracted in order to secure to himself the succession to I 
the French crown. The Earl of Warwick engaged this formidable 
force. Both the French generals fell, one of them having been ] 
slain by the earl's own hand : about two thousand of their troops j 
were destroyed or taken prisoners ; and the earl proceeded on his | 
mission, in which, as it is well known, he ultimately, notwithstand- ! 
ing all the obstacles and difficulties with which he had to contend, j 
entirely and completely succeeded. In 1422, when Henry VI. 
succeeded to the throne, the Earl of Warwick was made governor J 
of Calais, under John, Duke of Bedford, as Regent of France; 
and he remained in that country, rendering various important acts 
of assistance to the English cause during all the troublous times ■! 
of the Maid of Orleans, up to the conclusion of the treaty of 2 
Arras, between England and the house of Burgundy, in 1435. 
Upon the death of the Duke of Bedford, on the 14th of Sep- 
tember in this year, at Rouen, the Earl of Warwick was created 
Lieutenant General of the realm of Fiance, and of the Duchy of 
Normandy, which was the highest dignity with which any English 
subject could be invested. He occupied this distinguished and ' 
difficult post with great honour and prudence for four years, and ! 
died in possession of it at the Castle of Rouen, on the 30th of J 
April, 1439. After him, his son Henry held the manor, and he 
also was so distinguished for his martial accomplishments that 
Henry, in the twenty-fourth year of his reign, created him Duke of f 
Warwick, and bestowed upon him various extraordinary honours 
and privileges, among which was one of being allowed to eat meat | 
at Lent. Me granted him also residences out of the counties of 
Warwick and Leicester, for the support of his dignities ; declared j 
him King of the Isle of Wight, and actually crowned him with his I 
own hands. 

The Duke died in the year 1445, and after him we find 
Everard Digby, an ancestor of the celebrated Sir Everard and Sir 
Kenelm Digby, holding lands in Kibworth. The name of this 
ancient family is said to have originally been Tilton, from their 
having resided at Tilton in this county, and they are supposed to 
have altered it upon their going to take up their abode at Digby in 
Lincolnshire, in 1256. In 1461 Everard Digby was attainted for 
high treason, and in 1465 the manor fell into the hands of Richard 
Neville, Earl of Warwick, by his marriage with Ann Beauchamp j 
as heir general of the Beauchamp family. In 1471 the earl was 
slain at the battle of Barnet, fighting against Edward IV. ; and 
the manor having been taken by Act of Parliament from his 
widow in consequence of her husband's rebellion, it was given to | 



MANORS OF KIBWORTH 



221 



her daughters Isabel and Anne. Upon their deaths, however, a 
now Act of Parliament was passed, and this manor, with others 
which their mother possessed elsewhere, were in 1487 restored to 
•her. In 1492 it came to Edward, Lord Lisle, by his marriage 
with Margaret, eldest daughter and co-heir of Richard, Earl of 
Warwick, — and he officiated, according to ancient custom, as chief 
pantler at the coronation of Anne Boleyn in 1533. In 1542 John 
Dudley, Viscount Lisle and Baron Malpas, the then lord, made 
his servant, Thomas Fisher, high steward of the manor. Dudley 
was afterwards made Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northum- 
berland, but having lost his life and all his honours for treason 
against Queen Mary, in 1553, the manor fell to the crown ; and in 
1559 Elizabeth granted it to Sir Ambrose Dudley, eldest son to 
the late Duke, by the tenure of grand serjeantry of the service of 
acting as royal Pantler, in like manner as his father and others of 
his ancestors, the Earls of Warwick, had held it. In 1589 Sir 
Ambrose died without issue, having been created Earl of Warwick 
and a Knight of the Garter, and the manor, therefore, once more 
reverted to the crown. We afterwards find it in the possession of 
Anthony Ward, and in 1602 in that of Rev. Dr. John Berridge, 
who also held the advowson. 

Subsequently to this the title, manor, and advowson were sold ; 
and in 1728 it was purchased by Sir Richard Harford, who peti- 
tioned the Lords Commissioners, at the coronation of George II. 
ano! Queen Caroline, to be allowed to act as Grand Pantler in con- 
sideration of his lordship of the manor. It was, however, ruled 
upon this occasion that, owing to the manor having been granted 
to Sir Ambrose Dudley in tail male, and his having died without 
issue, it reverted again to the crown, and consequently that the 
claim to the service of pannetry by right of family tenure was 
extinct. The Halfords have, however, been lords of the manor 
ever since, although, alas, they are no longer permitted to draw 
corks at the coronation. Harcourt was held by various members 
of the Harcourt family between 1197 and 1347 when the warden 
and fellows of Merton College, Oxford, held the manor of Sir 
William de Harcourt in pure and perpetual alms. In 1633 a con- 
firmation was granted to the College of the manor and all its 
| appurtenances, and in 177] the advowson was purchased by the 
j Society for £3000. 

Having thus briefly endeavoured to sketch the descent of the 
■ manors of Kibworth Beauchamp and Kibworth Harcourt from the 
i earliest period down to comparatively modern times, 1 have only to 
apologize to you for the necessarily imperfect manner in Which my 
] task has been accomplished; and for any errors or omissions which 
: I have made, to beg the indulgence of those who must be so much 
more intimately acquainted than I, as a stranger, can bo, with the 
history and antiquities of this fertile and most interesting county. 
r Vol. 11. 



082 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Rev. M. F. F. Osborn, Hector of Kibworth, and President 
of the Meeting, next read the following Paper on the 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF KIBWORTH. 

Most of those who hear me are aware that the name Kibworth, 
as popularly used, includes the parishes, lordships, or manors of 
Kibworth Harcourt, Kibworth Beauchamp, and Smeeton Westerby, 
although this latter parish by an order of Council, dated 1852, 
has no longer any ecclesiastical connection with Kibworth. They 
are aware, moreover, that Kibworth Beauchamp is ecclesiastically 
the mother parish, and Kibworth Harcourt a hamlet of it; such 
also was Smeeton Westerby (in itself properly two distinct villages), 
though now no longer so, in consequence of the severance just 
mentioned. 

Jn offering to this Meeting a paper on such portions of the 
history and records of the antiquities of Kibworth as I have been 
enabled to trace, 1 will begin with Kibworth Harcourt, as that 
which claims precedence from me out of respect to the possessors 
of the Manor, with whom 1 have the honour of being connected, 
and from the fact that this Manor has been in the uninterrupted and 
undisputed possession of Merton College, Oxford, for almost 600 
years, while the Manor of Kibworth Beauchamp has changed hands 
several times, as also that of Smeeton Westerby. 

MANOR OF KIBWORTH HARCOURT. 

From the earliest date of certain record the family of the Har- 
courts were in possession of the manor of the parish which 
has ever since been called by their name. 1. The earliest docu- 
ment which I have obtained from the Rolls in the Treasury of 
Merton College, is a writing or charter of Richard de Harcourt, 
the Lord of Harcourt, to his son Saer (or Seher), granting to him 
his Manor of Kibworth ; this is attested among others by Simon 
de Montfort, and therefore must have been before the battle of 
Evesham, a d. 1265, at which Simon de Montfort was killed. 

2. The next document is a charter of S. de Harcourt to John 
le Ferrun, a citizen of London, granting to him his Manor of 
Kibworth Harcourt, together with the vivaria, mills, fisheries, &c, 
except the advowson of the Chapel of Kibworth Harcourt, of the 
value of twenty "solidi" per annum, attested by William of Kileby 
(Kilby). 

3. Charter of John le Ferrun to his special friend Walter de 
Merton, late Chancellor of England and Bishop of Rochester, in 
the reign of Henry II., wishing him " sempiternam salutem," grant- 
ing to him the Manor of Kibworth Harcourt, a.d. 1269, attested 
by Robert de Wyvill. 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF KIBWORTH. 223 



4. 1269. Saer de Harcourt confirms the above grant of the 
Manor to Walter de Merton, with a reserved rent of twenty solidi. 

5. 1271. Final agreement between Walter de Merton and 
.Saer de Harcourt. 

6. 1272. Concession of the Manor to Walter de Merton by 
William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, the feudal superior. 

" manerium 
Quod est de feodo nostro." 

Walter de Beauchamp, steward to King Henry L, married 
Emeline, daughter and heir to Urso de Abitor, by Adeliza his 
wife, brother to Robert le Despencer (i. <?., steward) to King 
William the Conqueror, " Cujus terra est Chiburde sc. Roberti 
Dispensatoris." He lived at Smeeton.* 

7. Letter of the same to his bailiffs, to give to Walter de 
Merton peaceable possession of the said manor. 

8. Walter de Merton leaves eight marks to his sister Edith, 
i wife of Thomas Tayllard. 

Although Walter de Merton intended this Manor for the College 
which he had founded at Oxford, and mentions it among several 

• other estates he had assigned to them in his second charter of 
1270, and makes a particular provision out of it in a memorandum 
at the eud of his charter, and although in the preceding instru- 
ment I have lately quoted by William de Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, and also the composition between Richard de Harcourt 

• and the college, made in the twelfth year of Edward I., each 
j assert the Founder's concession of this manor to his college, yet 
» there is no legal conveyance of it extant, as there is of his other 

estates ; on the contrary, he made grants out of it before he died, 
; as, e.g., to his sister Edith as in the immediately preceding instru- 
ment. Accordingly by an inquisition held at Leicester in the 
sixth year of Edward I. (1281), it was declared that Walter de 
Merton died seised of the Manor of Kibworth, and that his six 
j heirs were — Christiana de Wortynge, Agnes de Ewelle, Edith 
j Tayllard, Peter de la Clyve, Richard Olyver, Alan de Portesmue. 
J This being the case, each of these six heirs shortly after gave up 
their shares in the manor to Merton College for a certain con- 
\ sideration in money, but with a view to carry out the founder's 
intentions, and for the good of the College. Christiana de Wor- 
! tynge, Agnes de Ewelle, and Edith Tayllard, devised their shares 
to their sons, and these sons' shares were bought by the College, 
' together with the share of Alan de Portesmue, previously to which 
1 Peter de la Clyve and Richard Olyver had sold their portions 
Part of the consideration in the case of Peter de la Clyve was that 

* See Kibworth Beauchamp. 



221 



I, !''!(' HST UUSl TIRE AROHITECTD HAL SOCIETY. 



his two sons should be educated free at Merton College, and 
should have a reasonable allowance for food and clothing, one 
gown and cap a year, two pair of linen " pannovum," six pah; of 
socks, and three pair of shoes, " si tanto indigeant." 

While these surrenders of the shares of the heirs of Walter de 
Merton were going on, Sir Saer de Harcourt gives up the whole 
reserved rent of 20s, "totum dominium manerii," except half a 
mark from his tenement of Newton (Neuenthon) and Glen, " provisu 
franchii plegii ; quern visum deo Epo et haeredibus cum manerio 
dimisi." Thus the college, in virtue of these grants, became in 
the place of the former superior lord, besides their actual posses- 
sion of the manor. 

The next document in connection with this manor is a compo- 
sition between Richard de Harcourt (the succeeding heir of Saer 
de Harcourt) lord of Bosworth, and Merton College, whereby he 
grants the estate and chapel of Kibworth Harcourt to the College, 
to be held of him and his heirs for ever, as of the appurtenances 
of the manor of Bosworth, rendering half a mark a year, and a 
knight's fee on the death or cession of every Warden of the 
College. Receipts of this half mark, called the Harcourt noble, 
occur in 1394 and 1416 ; it is also mentioned as a yearly charge 
from the manor in the rentals of 12 Henry VII. c. 28, Elizabeth 
1586. It seems to have been paid as late as 1748, but not since. 

In 1297, Henry de Fotheringhay and Robert de Candevere 
assigned certain lands to the Warden and scholars of Merton 
College, and in 1325 the said Warden held the lands of John de 
Harcourt by the service of half a knight's fee. 

Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick (1314) gave up to John de 
Wantyngge, Warden of Merton College; and Thomas de Beau- 
champ, his son (1345), gave up to Robert de Trenge, Warden, all 
his right over the lands bought from Henry de Fotheringhay and 
Robert de Candevere by the college " prseter servitia." * 

Lastly, in 1633, (I. Pars. Original 9 Car. I. Rot. 65,) a con fir- \ 
mation was granted to the college of their property at Kibworth ] 
and in other counties. There was a chapel of Kibworth Harcourt 
concerning which I speak more particularly in a subsequent part 
of this Paper: it was probably founded about 1260, and the King 
granted the advowson to Walter de Merton in 1270; the founda- 
tion may, however, have been earlier. 

MANOR OF KIBWORTH BEAUCHAMP. 

The first grant of land in the manor of Kibworth or Chiburde, 
was made in the reign of Edward the Confessor to Edwin Alford, 
mho also held lands at Fleckney and Wistow, and was no doubt 
the progenitor of the honoured family of Halford of Wistow. 
At the time of the Domesday Book Survey (1080) the manors ; 



THE MANOR OF KIBWORTH BEAUCHAMP. 



225 



were granted to Robertus Dispensator, i.e., Robert the Steward or 
Sutler, whose name was subsequently refined into Despenser by a 
self-legalizing process. William the Conqueror bestowed lands 
-upon him for services performed about his royal person. In 1221 
we rind that the manor of Kibworth Beauchamp was held of King 
Henry III. by Walter de Bello Campo, or Beauchamp, by the 
service of being chief Panteler* to the King on the day of his coro- 
nation. This service was performed by him in 1246. In that 
year the King granted to him to hold a weekly market on his 
manor of Kibworth on Monday. This manor continued in the 
family of the Beauchamps till 1369, when Philippa, wife of Guy, 
Earl of Warwick, deceased, held both the manor and advowson 
of Kibworth on condition of placing a napkin upon the King's 
table on Christmas day, the duties of a butler being naturally con- 
sidered unsuitable for one of the fair sex. In 1384 the Countess 
Philippa died, and the manor passed to some other descendants 
of the Warwick family, respecting whom there is nothing specially 
worthy of record, until in 1406 it came to Richard de Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick, who was one of the most eminent and distin- 
guished personages of the period. He was born at Salwarpe, in 
Worcestershire, in 1381, and King Richard II. and Scroope, 
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, afterwards Archbishop of York, 
stood sponsors at his baptism. I must pass over his many and 
distinguished military exploits, only recalling to your recollection 
Shakespeare's mention of him in the second part of King Henry 
IV., and the heart-stirring speech of Henry V. before the battle of 
Agincourt. He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, and on 
his return home through Germany, Italy, and other countries of the 
Continent, he behaved himself so valiantly at several tilting 
matches in which he was engaged, that he was everywhere received 
with the greatest honours, and established for himself a European 
reputation for feats of arms. In return for his pre-eminent military 
and diplomatic services, he was created Lieutenant-General of the 
realm of France and of the Duchy of Normandy, the highest 
dignity which an English subject could attain. He died in pos- 
session of it in 1439. After him his son Henry held the manor, 
and he was also so distinguished for his martial accomplishments 
that King Henry created him Duke of Warwick, and bestowed on 
him extraordinary honours and privileges. He granted him lands 
in the counties of Warwick and Leicester, made him King of the 
Isle of Wight, and actually crowned him with his own hands. 
The Duke died in 1445, and afterwards we find Everard Digby, 
ancestor of the celebrated Sir Everard and Sir Kenelm Digby. 
holding lands at Kibworth. In 1461 Everard Digby was attainted 
of high treason, and in 1465 the manor passed into the hands of 



* Variously called Panteler, Pautler, or Panueter. 



836 LEICESTEBSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, by his marriage with Ann 
Beauohamp, as heir general of the Beauchamp family. In 1471 
the Earl was slain at the battle of Barnet, fighting against Edward 1 
IV. The manor was taken from his widow and afterwards restored J 
to her. In 1492 it came to Edward, Viscount Lisle, by his marriage j 
with Margaret, oldest daughter and co-heir of Richard, Earl of j 
Warwick, who officiated as chief Panteler at the coronation of Anne I 
Boleyne. In 1504 one Grey died seised of the manor held of the t 
King in capite. Dudley, Viscount Lisle, afterwards (1547) Earl 
of Warwick and (1551) Duke of Northumberland, having lost his 
life and lands for treason against Queen Mary in 1553, the manor 
fell to the crown, and in 1559 Queen Elizabeth granted it to Sir [ 
Ambrose Dudley, who died in 1589 without issue, having been 
created Earl of Warwick and a Knight of the Garter, and it once 
more therefore reverted to the crown. In 1590 Anthony Ward was 
seised of the manor. In 1602 Doctor John Beridge,* Precentor of 
Lincoln Cathedral and Rector of this parish, possessed the manor 
and also the advowson of the church. His son William was also 
Rector, and John the son of William died without issue. The 
manor and advowson were then sold. The advowson was redeemed ; 
but in 1685-8 a fine was levied on manor and advowson, under 
which Sir Richard Halford, Bart., purchased the manor and held 
it till his death in 1727, keeping courts there annually. In 1728 
Sir W. Halford petitioned to be allowed to execute the office of 
Great Panteler at the coronation of George II., an office which had 
been attached to the holder of the manor of Kibworth Beauchamp, I 
but the claim was disallowed. At the end of the last century the 1 
Earl of Denbigh was lord of the manor in right of his Countess, 
relict of Sir Charles Halford, Bart. The lordship of the manor 
is now in the family of the Halfords of Wistow, and their courts 
have been held here from time to time. 

MANOR OF SMEETON WESTERBY. 

This place consisted formerly of two distinct villages, Smeeton and \ 
Westerby. Smeeton is variously written, Smitone, Smetherton, 
and Esmeditone in ancient writings. In Domesday book one 
ploughland and two oxgangs are described as being of the royal 
demesne, being part of the manor of Great Bowden. Robert 
Despenser held three ploughlands in Esmeditone; he also held 
one ploughland and two oxgangs in Witenesta, which from its 
situation in Domesday Book and from the similarity of the name, 
seems to be Westerby. In 1297, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, the j 

| 

*His lineal descendant, and munificent church restorer, the Eev. Basil Beridge, 
Rector of Algarkirk, Lincolnshire, lately visited this parish, and restored the memo- ■ 
rial brass, in the north chancel wall, to the memory of his ancestor, who was Bector f 
of Kibworth for thirty years. 



SMEETON WESTERBY. 



227 



king's brother, died seised of lands at Smeeton. The family of 
the Braybrokes, in Northants, were formerly lords of the manor 
| here, and it passed by marriage into that of the Latimers. Mem- 
bers of this family and others were seized of lands held under the 
Karl of Warwick, and of the Turviles of Normanton. In 1361 
I Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, died seized of a knight's 
fee in Smeeton and Westerby, held by Hugh Turvile. In 1415 
Henry V. granted the manor of Smeeton and Westerby to Henry, 
, Archbishop of Canterbury ; Henry, Bishop of Winchester, Thomas, 
! Bishop of Durham, and several others. Sixteen years later, Mar- 
; garet, wife of Edward Latimer, died seised of the same, held of 
! Richard de Turvile. In 1509 it was held of the King by the family 
' of Griffin, which family alienated it in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

In 1628 it was granted with the manor of Foxton to Charles 
, Harbord, and shortly afterwards it was conveyed by him to William 
Lewis and others. The present lord of the manor of Smeeton is H. 
H. Hungerford, Esq. of Dingley. 

THE PARISH CHURCH, VILLAGE, &c. 

I shall not enter at length upon the subject of the parish church 
. of Kibworth, dedicated to S. Wilfrid, Founder of Ripon Church 
) and Monastery, and Bishop of York. We have had the oppor- 
tunity of hearing an account of it from Mr. Slater to-day. I 
! will confine myself here to remarking that it evidently occupied 
» an important position among county churches, befitting an impor- 
tant village. This probably is, in a great measure, attributable to 
the possession of the manor by persons of distinction * It is pro- 
bable also that as the present church was built soon after Merton 
! College came into possession of the manor of Kibworth Harcourt, 
j they may have taken an active share in, or at least promoted, the 
j enlargement and improvement of the church, especially as this 
was built about the time (say 1350, the date of the nave, aisles, 
and chancel) which is worth noting, that the chapel of Kibworth 
Harcourt ceased to exist. For in 1379, Thomas Hulman, S. T. B., 
' " Wicliffii Sectator," was inducted into " the ground of the said 
chapel," thereby showing that no fabric then existed ; but the 
chapelry was endowed with a certain amount of land, and the 
College continued to present to it till 1509, or near the Reforma- 
tion, though it had long become a sinecure. Some time previously 
j the Bishop of Lincoln directed a court of inquiry concerning the 
| vacancy of the chapel ry.f The spot on which the chapel stood 

* There is considerable similarity between Kibworth and Wigston churches, ami 
j it is probable that both churches had the same architect. 

f List of Priests or Chaplains of the chapel of Kibworth Harcourt. — 1274, Master 
Walter, an acolyte (it was then called the chapel of Wytsido). 1366, Simon de 
I Lanborne. 1370, Thomas Hulman. 1385, John Bloxham. 1440, Thomas Roberd 
(died). 1446, Henry Sever. 1447, John Arundell. 1450, Henry Sever. 1509, 
' William Spark (resigned). 1500, William Knight. 



228 



LK1C1SSTERSHIKE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



has been pointed out to you to-day (it forms a corner of the 
upper portion of the field called " The March," ) and it was 
called "The Sanctuary," in the remembrance of persons now 
living. There was also a church or chapel at Smeeton or Westerby, 
for accounts vary ; but certainly for between 400 and 500 years 
S. Wilfrid's church served as the church of the three parishes 
till 1849, when the present church at Smeeton was built. The 
chancel or priest's door, which is of the style called "Early 
English," or " First Pointed," shows that a church of that style and 
date, i.e., the twelfth century, preceded the present; and this 
doubtless succeeded an earlier church.* 

When the Rector of the parish was forcibly ejected from the 
living in the time of the Commonwealth, a person who styled him- 
self the Rev. John Yaxley, but who was really a captain in the 
army, and had served for many years in the Parliamentary army 
against King Charles L, usurped the living by appointment of the 
Parliamentary Committee at Leicester for thirteen years, till the I 
lawful Rector was again restored. Yaxley turned the font out 
of the church, and it became a trough for watering ; and some ) 
years after it was in the yard of one Robert Brown, one of the 
officers under Captain Yaxley. This font was buried in the church- 
yard for many years ; it was afterwards — about twenty-four years 
ago — in the possession of the Rev. James Reresford, late Rector of 
this parish. At his decease it came into the possession of J. 
Marriott, Esq., of Kibworth Harcourt, who, having had it repaired 
where necessary and placed on a new base, restored it to the 
church. The style of this font exactly coincides with that of the 
rest of the church. 

On July 23rd, 1825, the beautiful tower and spire, 159 feet I 
high, fell down while under repair, and after a long delay the 
present tower was built, after the model of East Carlton in the 
county of Northampton. The old tower and spire greatly re- 
sembled that of Brampton-Ash, in the same county. In 1846 the 
whole of the interior of the church was refitted with open seats ; 
in 1854 the whole of the stone work of the church — windows, 
arches, pillars, and porches — was relieved of numerous coats of \\ 
whitewash and colouring. In 1860 the flat roof and ceiling of the 
chancel, and the blockade of the chancel arch were removed, a 
new roof erected, and a new east window inserted. Four new ! 
buttresses also, in character with the other buttresses of the church, 
were built on either side of the east wall of the chancel, replacing i 
two hexagonal buttresses at the angle of the wall. The western 
arch was restored, or rather reconstructed, to replace that which 
was destroyed by the fall of the tower in 1825 and not rebuilt, 
thereby throwing open the tower and west window to the church. | 

* It is possible that the capitals and base of the sedilia are coeval with the chancel j 
door. I 



KIBWORTH FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



229 



During the last year three new roofs have been placed upon the 
nave and aisles, replacing old ones more or less in a state of 
decay, and which had been underceiled about fifty years ago. The 
whole of the whitewash also has been removed from the walls and 
doors, and rough stucco substituted. An organ was placed in the 
church in 1856, and the east window of the north aisle was filled 
with stained glass in memory of the late J. B. Humfrey, Esq., of 
Kibworth Hall. In the course of the late restorations a piscina 
was opened in the east end of the south aisle, corresponding to, 
though not precisely in the same position as, that in the north 
aisle. There is a staircase leading up to the skreen from the end 
of the south aisle, but as the steps were much dilapidated, and the 
entrance unsightly and inconvenient, and also caused a draught, 
it has been closed up, though to the great regret of Archaeo- 
logists.* The present piscina in the chancel is after the pattern 
of the original one removed and not restored when the east end 
of the chancel was rebuilt in 1817. The curious deeply splayed 
window in the south chancel wall, the use of which is not clearly 
intelligible, was opened in 1852; the two still more singular 
windows over the chancel arch more recently. The rebuilding 
of the spire, which of course could not have the same character as 
the former, which was a very beautiful " broach" spire, is a question 
which I will leave to the opinions of our learned friends here 
to-day. 

The Free Grammar School in Kibworth Beauchamp in which 
we are now assembled, is of a date so ancient as to be unknown. 
Nichols thinks it was founded probably towards the close of the 
fifteenth century, or about one hundred and fifty years after the 
church. But in the year 1722, some persons who made a com- 
plaint respecting its management to the Court of Chancery, state 
7 that several hundred years ago divers messuages, lands, and 
tenements, had been vested in trustees for the maintenance of a 
free school at Kibworth." In a bill in Chancery, in the time of 
Henry VII., the plaintiffs set forth that certain lands and tene- 
ments in Kibworth Beauchamp, Kibworth Harcourt, Smeeton 
Westerby and Carlton Curlieu, were heretofore given for the mainte- 
nance of a free Grammar School and schoolmaster in Kibworth. 
In 1601 the statute about charitable uses was made, and a com- 
mission of inquiry into Kibworth school was directed in 1614 
upon this statute to certain commissioners ; and on an inquisition 
held in 1625, it was found that certain messuages, lands, &c, in 
the occupation of Thomas Kilpeck, Thomas Vale Rowland Wood, 

* The chancel skreen has heen most effectively and faithfully restored, 1868, by 
Mr. J. Wilson, of Kibworth Beauchamp, under the direction of W. Slater, Esq., but 
much of the details is original on his part. It is, in fact a re-constructioii. as but 
very slender relics of the ancient skreen remained. 



feSO LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Christopher Glover Marriott, Nicholas Kind, John Foxton, Zachary 
Chapman and others, had been given to the maintenance of a free 
Grammar School and master, the commissioners decreed and con- 
firmed this use ; and that the schoolmaster should build a school- 
house in Kil peck's close, and make leases for twenty-one years, 
not under the proper value. Two leases are extant, of the date of 
Henry VII., for Kil peck's farm of two yardlands to be held in 
perpetuum. Since then there have been various disputes respect- 
ing this charity, and various enfeoffments and orders made there- 
upon. In 1725, Francis Edwards, Esq. (the representative of a 
family possessed of considerable property at Kibworth Beauchamp 
and Smeeton, which has since been alienated by sale), a great bene- 
factor, took down the school-room, an inferior building and much 
out of repair, and rebuilt it in the present form, with the master's 
house adjoining, about fifty yards from the site of the old school, 
at his own expense ; hitherto there had been no schoolmaster's 
house. This Grammar School is free to the sons of all parents 
resident in Kibworth Beauchamp, Kibworth Harcourt, and Smeeton 
Westerby : about the end of the last century there were about 
one hundred scholars. The earliest documents on record, referred to 
in 1709, require that reading, writing, grammar, and arithmetic, 
and Latin if desired, shall be taught, and that the master shall be, 
and shall remain, a clergyman of the Church of England. The 
last scheme from the Court of Chancery for the management of 
this school was made in 1822, and the last election of Trustees 
took place in 1860. The National School was built in 1842. 

The old Rectory house — almost in living memory — occupied 
the position of the present Railway Station, and there is a tradi- 
tion that Oliver Cromwell slept in it the night before the battle of 
Naseby ; a room in the house was always called " Oliver's room." 

There was an ancient stone cross which used to stand nearly 
opposite the manor house in Kibworth Harcourt on the opposite 
side of the road. It was somewhat dilapidated, and was unfortu- 
nately taken down forty-five years ago instead of being restored. 
The base may still be seen in one of the opposite fields. 

The oldest house in Kibworth Harcourt and in the whole 
parish is the manor house ; in Kibworth Beauchamp the house 
occupied by Mr. Buzzard ; and in Smeeton Westerby the house 
occupied by Mr. T. Jesson. The remains of the oldest house 
may be seen a little higher up the road on the same side, formerly 
occupied by ancestors of the family of Cobley in this parish. 

In a close in Kibworth Harcourt, called Hall Close, is a large 
mound surrounded with a single ditch, with a circumference at the 
bottom of 122 yards, and its diameter at the top about sixteen 
yards. There is an elevated barrow connected with it, which as 
you know has been just opened under the auspices of the Archaeo- 
logical Society, and is believed to have been a burying place. 



HISTORY, &c, OF KIBWORTH. 



231 



Fragments of bones and pieces of Samian pottery have been dis- 
covered on the present occasion. 

In 1564 Nichols says there were eighty-two families in Kib- 
worth Beauchamp, Kibworth Harcourt, and Smeeton Westerby ; 
and the freeholders in 1630 were William Ward, William Innocent, 
Richard Clarke, Thomas Parsons, and John Storer. In 1722 
twenty-two freeholders polled at an election from Kibworth Beau- 
champ, fifteen from Kibworth Harcourt, thirty from Smeeton, and 
one from Westerby. In 1775 twenty-three from Kibworth Beau- 
champ, nine from Kibworth Harcourt, and thirty-one from Smeeton 
Westerby. Nichols, writing at the end of the last century, says, 
that the population was 1300 (the present population is 1867, viz., 
Kibworth Beauchamp 868, Kibworth Harcourt 466, Smeeton 
Westerby 533), and that two-thirds of the men were employed 
in husbandry, and some few manufacturers ; that in the whole 
parish there were twenty-four teams kept ; in Kibworth Beachamp 
there was formerly a tannery manufactory carried on, now nearly 
laid aside ; in the other parishes there is a little stocking weaving ; 
spinning of worsted with the two-handed wheel is very generally 
used, being the principal employment of the women. In 1779- 
1780, the enclosure of the parishes took place, and 3900 acres* 
were enclosed. The present gross acreage of the parish is 3967, 
of which 1370 are in Kibworth Harcourt, 1359 in Smeeton Westerby, 
and 1238 in Kibworth Beauchamp. Since the enclosure the propor- 
tion of pasture land to arable has much increased, though of late 
years a slight reaction has taken place. Sir F. Morton Eden, 
author of a valuable book called " The State of the Poor, or a 
history of the labouring classes in England from the Conquest to 
the present time," (1797) says, speaking of this parish at that time — 

" The prices of provisions are, beef, 4|d. to 5d. a lb. ; mutton, 5d. ; 
veal, 3£d. ; butter, 9|d. to lOd. ; bread 3£d. a lb., or Is. for 4 lbs. ; coals, 
Is. Id. a cwt. ; potatoes, 6d. a gallon ; milk, Jd. the pint, but of this little 
is sold. The wages of labour vary much ; a common labourer in 
husbandry earns about 8s. 6d. a week in winter, and 10s. or 12s. in 
summer; women spin worsted, and can earn 6d. to lOd. a day; children 
of twelve or fourteen years old earn about 6d. a day by spinning. In 
Kibworth Beauchamp there are two alehouses, in Kibworth Harcourt four, 
in Smeeton Westerby two. The average value of land is about 25s. an 
acre ; nine-tenths of the land is pasture ; there are no commons nor 
waste lands in the parish. The rates before the enclosure of the parish 
were not one-third of what they are at present ; and the people attribute 
the rise of them to the enclosure ; for they say before the fields were 
enclosed they were solely applied to the cultivation of corn, and the poor 
had plenty of employment in weeding, reaping, threshing, &c, and 
could collect a, great deal of corn by gleaning, but that the fields being 
now in pasturage, the farmers have little occasion for labourers, who, 
being thrown out of employment, must of course be supported by the 



* About 148 yard-lands. 



232 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



parish. One-third or one-fourth of the men who were required twenty 
years ago, would now be sufficient to perform all the farming work in the 
parish. At this time many labourers are getting work at a canal cutting 
in the neighbourhood, otherwise the rates must have been higher. In 
the winter when a man is out of work he applies to the overseer, who 
sends him from house to house to get employ ; the housekeeper who 
employs him gives him his victuals and 6d. a day ; the parish adds 4d. 
for the family. Persons working in this manner are called roundsmen. 
The tradesmen, small farmers, and graziers are very loud in their com- 
plaints against those whom they call monopolizing farmers and graziers, 
an evil which they say increases every year. The poor complain of bad 
treatment from the overseers, and the overseers accuse the poor of being 
saucy." 

This complaint on the part of the labouring population on 
account of the laying down arable into pasture is not new ; in the 
reign of Henry VIII. we hear of riots in parts of the country from 
the same cause. Reflections on political economy form no part of 
my subject ; I will not therefore go beyond the above statement of 
facts. Although the stocking-frame bad been invented long before 
this time,* yet probably it had not come into the villages to any 
great extent many years before, but it must certainly have assisted 
to employ part of the surplus population thrown out of employ by 
the enclosure. In 1680 it is generally asserted that stocking 
making began in Leicester in a house at the North Gate. But 
great opposition, as you well know, was shewn to the new frames 
by the knitters for many years, and in 1792 three thousand frames 
were employed in Leicester and the surrounding villages, Kibworth 
no doubt being among the number. The first cotton-stocking 
frame was made in 1760. Owing to riots and destruction of 
machinery by the Luddites, an Act of Parliament passed in 1812, 
made it death to break a stocking-frame. Sir F. M. Eden, before 
quoted, gives an account of the regular pensioners on the poor list 
of Kibworth Beauchamp in 1795, and this may serve as a specimen 
for Kibworth Harcourt and Smeeton Westerby.f 



* By Rev. W. Lee, of Calverton, Nottinghamshire, 1589. 



AGE 

+ 


MONEY 

s. d. 


COALS 

s. d. 




AGE 


MONEY 

s. d. 


A weaver's widow 50 


3 


6 


0 


n 


A bastard child 




1 


6 


A man with two grand- 










Two old men at Lei- 








children . . 65 


10 


0 


0 


Hi 


cester 




4 


0 


A stocking weaver 60 


1 


0 


0 


7* 


A spinster 


55 


5 


0 


A labourer and family 40 


0 


0 


0 




A weaver and family 


40 


4 


0 


A stocking weaver 55 


0 


0 


0 


n 


A weaver and three 








A labourer . . 50 


0 


6 


0 


n 


children 


40 


2 


0 


Ditto. . . 50 


1 


6 


0 


7§ 


A weaver and four 








Ditto. 55 


2 


0 


0 


n 


children 


30 


3 


0 


A labourer's widow 55 


0 


0 


0 


n 


A labourer and six 








A soldier's child 7 


2 


6 




children 


35 


4 


0 


A spinster . . 40 


1 


6 















Money 2 6 0 
Coals 0 5 111 



£2 11 Hi 



HISTOEY, &c, OF KIB WORTH. 



233 



The following appears to have been taken down from the lips 
of a labourer in this parish by Sir F. M. Eden, in August, 1795 : — 

"The labourer is forty years of age; has a wife and five young 
children ; about half the year he worked at the canal, and had 2s. a day ; 
when the weather prevented his working, the parish allowed him Is. 2d. 
a day. For the twenty-six weeks from Michaelmas he earned £11. Is., 
for the Spring quarter he earned £5. 17s.; for the Summer quarter, 
including victuals allowed, £8. 18s. 6d. ; eldest girl earns 2s. a week by 
spinning; total earnings, £31. 10s. 6d. The parish pay the man's rent, 
find him coals, occasionally give him wearing apparel, and lately 2s. a 
week. Six pounds of bread are used daily; this used to be 10d., but of 
late has been 2s., and now is Is. 6d. ; this alone is £27. 6s. a year. The 
man says they use little or no potatoes, seldom get butter, nor oatmeal ; 
buy a little cheese, and sometimes have meat on a Sunday ; his wife and 
daughter drink a little tea ; that they would use much more bread if 
they could afford it, that his children are almost naked and half-starved ; 
he has lately worked many days with only bread diet, and has not tasted 
beer for many weeks. In 1776 the poor rates for Kibworth Beauchamp 
were £65. 16s. 6d. ; for Kibworth Harcourt, £54. 9s. 6d, ; for Smeeton 
Westerby, £78. 6s. 8d. In 1784, £147. 14s. 4d. = 2s. 9d. in the pound 
in Kibworth Beauchamp, and in 1 795, £205. = 4s. in the pound ; in 
Smeeton Westerby much higher." 

The following I have gathered out of the Parish Registers as 
some of the most interesting specimens of their contents. 

*** 1641. Know all men, that the reason why little or nothing is 
registered from this year till the year 1649, was the civil wars between 
King Charles and his parliament, which put all into a confusion till 
then, and neither ministers nor people could quietly stay at home for 
one party or the other. 

" 1651. Buried Elizabeth Bryan, an ancient maide of Kibworth Har- 
court, March 15. 

" 1654. On W ednesday, the 5th of April, about nine o'clock at night, 
the English Commissioners and the Dutch Ambassadors (after many 
great sea fights, and much loss both of the Dutch and English side), 
totally finished the ratifications of the peace, the articles being wholly 
agreed for Holland and Denmark with us, and they were then signed 
by the Lords Ambassadors on the one side, with full power from the 
Estates ; and the Lords Commissioners, with full power from the Lord 
Protector, on the other side ; and sealed and delivered on both sides ; 
(then, in another handwriting) ' To God be all the glory.' 

" 1658. Know, that Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories 
thereunto belonging, departed this life, September 3, 1658, and that his 
eldest son, the Lord Richard Cromwell, was immediately proclaimed 
Lord Protector. 

" 1660. Buried, Richard West, of Kibworth Harcourt, about one 
hundred years old. 

" 1665. The towne of Smeeton was visited with the plague this year. 
" 1678. Given towards the rebuilding the Cathedral Church of S. 



'234 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Paul's, London, £3. 18s. 8d., whereof 40s. was given by the Rector of 
the Parish, £1. 18s. 8d. by the Parishioners. 

" 1680. Collected in the whole parish towards the redemption of the 
English captives in Algiers, £4. 8s. 8d. 

" 1681. Collected towards the French Protestants, £1. 13s. 3d. 

" 1684. Collected for the fire at Newmarket, and paid to Master 
Ward, Bookseller at Leicester, by the Archdeacon's order, 14s. 2d. 

*« 1695. Collected towards the relief of the sufferers at Warwick, the 
summe of £C. 17s., and paid in to the Archdeacon. 

" 1706. " Joyce Eastwood, widow, in the 106th year of her age, of 
Kibworth Beauchamp, bury'd May 2. 

" 181 L Collected for the British Prisoners in France, after a sermon 
preached for them on the occasion, May 5, the sum of £8. 8s. 7d. J. 
Goodman, Curate." 

The Parish Register dates from 1574, or two hundred and 
ninety years ago ; the oldest names of that date now remaining 
among us are, Brian, Carter, Grant, Innocent, Iliff, Smeeton, 
Lenton, Clarke, Goodman, Swingler, Osvvin, Bale, Mitchell, Cole- 
man, Branston, Mattock, Bent, Cobley, Weston, Ward; most, if 
not all, of these being two hundred and fifty years old, some two 
hundred and ninety. The word "husbandman" occurs for 
labourer in the earlier parts of it. 

The first coach from Leicester to London commenced running 
through Kibworth in 1774, and the first mail in 1785. The If 
former was drawn by six horses, and the passengers slept two t 
nights on the road, at Northampton and Dunstable. For some 
years before the construction of the London and North Western 
Railway, twenty-eight coaches, up and down, ran through Kib- 
worth daily. The first milestone on the Glenn Road, was the 
half-way stone between London and Manchester. The portion of 
the turnpike-road between the " Rose and Crown" and "The 
Lodge," was made about 1806 ; previous to which date it took the 
winding course by the " Fox," the " Old House," and the " Manor f 
House," until numerous accidents induced the alteration. 

Many, doubtless, have been born, or passed their lives in Kib- j 
worth Harcourt, Kibworth Beauchamp, or Smeeton Westerby, 
men of renown or of distinguished merit, whose names are un- 
known or unrecorded. Walter de Merton, Bishop of Rochester, 
and Lord High Chancellor of England — more than once Regent 
of the Kingdom in the King's absence — one of the most eminent 
and honoured men of his day, the pious and munificent founder of 
Merton College, died 1277. John Bloxham, Warden of Merton 
College, and Archdeacon of Winchester, died 1387 ; Henry Sever, 
Chancellor of Oxford, 1443 ; Provost of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1441, and Warden of Merton College ; men of wide re- 
nown, may fairly be mentioned as having been Chaplains of Kib- 
worth Harcourt. Passing over the eminent mediaeval Lords of the 



THE PEESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



235 



Manor,* we have in later times the Rev. Dr. John Beridge, the 
Rev. J. Jennings, who kept a School in Kib worth Harcourt, and 
had the eminent Dr. Doddridge for a pupil, who at his death in 
1723 succeeded to his school. Dr. John Aikin, the physician 
and literary writer, was born here in 1747; Mrs. Barbauld and 
Lucy Aikin, both well-known writers, were his sisters. 

S. Wilfrid's Church has looked down from its " Church Hill" 
on many interesting changes and events for more than five hundred 
years, which we should like to have seen with our eyes, or re- 
specting which we should like to have heard some trustworthy 
account, e. How was the first Kibworth Feast kept? But our 
work lies with the present, and so to do it, that we may each of us 
leave some mark for good behind us for the future. 

Mr. Vincent Wing next contributed the following Paper (read 
in his absence by Mr. North), on 

THE PRESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE 
IN ORDER TO A SUCCESSFUL COMPETITION 
WITH ANTIQUITY. 

At the beginning of the present century, and for some time pre- 
vious, our cathedrals and the great works of antiquity were placed 
amongst the " Seven Wonders" without a thought of any future 
rivalry ; now, however, such immense strides of art and engineer- 
ing are made, that the time has arrived when it ill becomes us to 
strike our colours ignobly to a less tutored age The institution 
of this and like societies having for its object the promotion of 
architecture, we have to expand the narrow views that are taken ; 
nor are we to yield to the feeble imputations of absurdity when 
we propose to emulate the successes of former times. Progress is 
the rule of life, and it behoves us, gigantic as the task may be, to 
strive to come up to, and excel, those who as yet leave us so far 
behind. 

To improve the system in the practical working, and to increase 
the encouragement, are the two points to be attended to. With 

i this view it is important, in our efforts for the advancement of 
architecture, to inquire into the secret of its success when it most 
flourished ; we therefore propose to consider the advantages of 
former periods, with the suggestions for the recovering of them. 
We shall confine ourselves to the Gothic style ; and intend to 

* corroborate our remarks with criticisms upon some examples both 
ancient and modern. This latter part of our Paper must form a 
sequel at a bi-monthly meeting, as time and circumstances forbid 

* In the absence of any known derivation, I can only conjecture that the 
" Warwick Road," from Kibworth Harcourt to Saddiugton, takes its name from the 
. Warwick family. 



236 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



its being so extended on the present occasion. The ancient re- 
mains which we possess are chiefly ecclesiastical, and they show 
that an almost incredible amount of interest in the art was sus- 
tained for some five centuries ; after which the interest subsided, 
and the indigenous style was abandoned for such as was more or 
less borrowed and wretchedly insipid in comparison. Now we 
ask — What was it that kept up this great architectural movement, 
and securer! so great success? And what past advantages, or 
equivalents, can we regain ? 

We will name for consideration five things, which we imagine 
mainly contributed: — 1. The demand for cathedral and abbey and 
other churches of great splendour. 2. The fascination of Gothic 
design. 3. Seclusion allowing concentration of the architect's 
whole mind upon his work. 4. No more being carried out under 
one individual than could receive unlimited attention. 5. Col- 
lective help : valuable suggestions in design being accepted by the 
chief architect from ecclesiastics or others, including the trained 
body of Freemasons, and not rejected as officious ; the religious 
and artistic object over-riding every other interest. We venture 
to say it is not that our professional men are inferior in taste and 
skill to their forefathers — it is owing to a change in the system 
and patronage of art — that such prodigious fruits do not now appear; 
and it devolves upon us to make every effort to recover as much 
as is practicable of the facilities and helps which we have lost. 

] . As to ecclesiastical demand — which we mention in the first 
place ; no doubt the feudal system, united with some conscientious 
feeling of duty on the part of the lords of the soil, was favourable 
to pecuniary supplies, whilst peculiarities in religious ceremonies 
and religious life rendered imposing edifices a matter of all ab- 
sorbing consideration ; and we do not expect, nor do we wish for, 
a return of such times — as one of our poets has it in an exquisite 
effusion on the Ruins of Kendal Castle — 

" Times of rude faith, and ruder men — 
God grant they never may come again !" 

But we hope to succeed without those auspices. A sense of what 
the house of God ought to be in priority over the dwellings of men 
is all that is required, and that is reviving amongst us ; instances 
are not entirely wanting, where the mansions, or superb " ceiled 
houses," as the lament of the prophet expresses it, are surpassed, 
as they should be, by the costly character of the temple. To this 
quarter — the Church — it is not only right still to look, but we are 
compelled to do so ; for it is not sufficient, in the higher interests 
of architecture, that secular public buildings and domestic struc- 
tures be required ; the church is infinitely the best sphere, and 
until the erection of magnificent and gorgeous ecclesiastical edifices 
comes again into vogue, encouragement to architecture cannot 



THE PRESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



237 



recover its full proportions. We know it will be said — having as 
a nation done with monastic establishments and gorgeous cere- 
monial, the scope for such grandeur is gone. Still, we demur to 
the inference ; and we aver that it is not idle to contend for, at 
least, the erection of cathedrals of great magnificence. This we 
must insist upon, much as the contrary impression may prevail ; 
and we can do so on principle as well as in the interest of art. 
We recommend to be read Mr. Beresford Hope's Cathedral of the 
Nineteenth Century. The notion is erroneous that our Protestant 
ritual is so precise and simple that it forbids altogether imposing 
processions; the inspired seutiment of the Hebrew Psalmist 
: teaches better. Much less can it be said, that our principles are 
so ultra-puritan, that the " sublime and beautiful" of the cathedral 
are incompatible with Anglican worship. What man, having taste 
united with his piety, every found it to be so? Who would not 
deplore the loss of those noble buildings which we possess? Who 
would condemn the efforts expended on the modern Cathedral of 
St. Paul ? Who would not like to see the insufficient ones of 
Manchester and Oxford exchanged for better?— or, with the 
demanded extension of the episcopate, a corresponding provision 
for the highest solemnities of our religion in the new dioceses ? 
The procession and the large gathering at an ordination, at a 
visitation, or confirmation, or on any other great occasion, so much 
aided in effect by cathedral grandeur, with its concomitant sublime 
tones of music, are not empty pomp pandering to a pseudo- 
religious feeling, but legitimately impress the mind and heart that 
the spiritual benefit may be the more lasting. Nor, independently 
of this, is vacant space in the cathedral a waste, as we hear it 
objected. The nave as a spacious avenue is most effective for 
j solemnity: the house of God naturally symbolizes heaven, the 
\ dwelling-place of the Infinite, and is not necessarily a mere pale 
for a congregation. The influence of immensity is felt to be not 
a little potent, and that even in the ordinary services. Witness 
the confessions of those great men, Milton and Robert Mall, to 
which even their unecclesiastical spirits were constrained to give 
utterance. The former, referring to cathedral architecture with 
the " pealing organ," has the glowing lines, — 

" Dissolve me into ecstasies, 
And bring all heav'n before mine eyes." 

And the latter remarked that " he could not enter York Minster 
without the sublimest and most devout imaginations pouring into 
his mind." Equally fallacious is the objection, that higher claims 
would have their support diverted. Our ideas may seem large to 
those who are not prepared for the demand we make, and they may 
be greatly distant from realization ; but it is little more than a 
j dream of despondency, arising out of the niggard spirit in honouring 
s Vol M. 



238 



[,K1('KSTKI{SII I UK AUOHIT KCTURAL SOCIETY. 



our Great Creator, that at present represses nobler aspirations. 
England's elder University rests content with a provisional cathe- 
dral ! — an interesting antiquity, but a priory fragment, and little 
better than a village church ! Could we but stir up the people to it, 
and combine in a new one at Oxford the continental grandeur with 
the English superiorities — the high vault of Amiens, with the higher 
lantern, the spacious transept, and k< the long drawn aisle" of York 
— it would produce a consciousness of national advance and uni- 
versal congratulation. Nor is there occasion for despair : individuals 
are found now whose offerings to church architecture amount to the 
hundred thousand ; and, with the rapid increase of the country's 
wealth, it is but reasonable to bespeak this standing acknowledg- 
ment and honour to the Giver of our substance. Such becoming 
employment of the highest class of talent would go far to guarantee 
to architecture the culmination to be aimed at; for edifices of trans- 
cendent magnificence are necessarily very many years in hand, and 
their erection would furnish what the art most needs, namely, an 
enduring field for its highest cultivation. On the contrary, if 
cathedral building is to be passed off as visionary, it is equivalent 
to quitting in despair : the very sphere required being abandoned, 
antiquity will only mock the modern architect's attempts at rivalry. 
In the promotion of architecture, then, our views must be expanded 
in reference to the Church ; the Church must not be left, as it is, in 
dwarfed proportions, but partake of the general progress. We 
ought no longer to allow the huge tavern to be looking down on the 
steeples of our churches ! And we hesitate not to say, — if our 
attainments in the art are to equal those of the ancients, if we are 
to resuscitate its bygone splendour, and to bequeath to far-off 
generations equal monuments of our times, magnificent cathedrals 
and churches must, as formerly, furnish the leading encouragement. 
To this then it behoves us to stir up the people. We have the 
superiority in wealth, in intelligence, in mechanical power, and in 
advantages generally, together with purer inducements, — why are 
we not in this chief sphere, as in others, aroused to surpass our less 
favoured predecessors? 

2. The next thing we have to allude to is, the fascination ex- 
perienced by those who designed the structures of the Middle Ages. 
The extreme pleasure afforded to them is seen unquestionably in 
the effects. And on this it is unnecessary to dwell, for we doubt not 
that it will be felt again in a similar degree, if the unlimited oppor- 
tunities of indulging it return. The sphere itself has no bounds ; 
if the seven notes in music are found inexhaustible, the combina- 
tions in Gothic art must be as much so. Be it that a peculiar 
charm would accompany when all was new ; yet, notwithstanding, 
if the means and demand be presented, the gifted practitioner, 
finding no limit to his encouragement, will have the same fascination 
in design as formerly, and revel in a luxury that will never satiate. 



THE PRESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE. 239 



Those only who have a true taste for it know its untiring interest. 
As far as the pleasure in the work is essential in order to recover 
the success of former times, all is assuring, provided that equal 
munificence can be called forth. 

3. We have, in the third place, to consider, that formerly the 
whole mind of the man of genius was, in a manner, concentrated 
unremittingly on his creations. We may imagine how some Peter 
Lightfoot, or cloistered monk, would pursue uninterruptedly his 
avocation, as if he lived only to beautify his abbey church ; or the 
aesthetic brilliancy that would be brought to bear from some arch- 
bishop devoted to the work, as William de Melton, it may be, during 
the rise and progress of the nave of York Minster. In this respect 
past advantages are not to be recovered, for we cannot ask for such 
seclusion again ; but we submit the question, — Can we in our great 
works, upon the adoption of a more perfeot practice and study, 
obtain its equivalent ? If less were undertaken in order that 
increased attention might be given, possibly equal excellence in 
design might be attained to ; but the difficulty is in the compensa- 
tion, which must be so regulated as to admit of the required 
application. 

4. This brings us, in the fourth place, to inquire more particu- 
larly into the system of practice in the olden time, which gave a 
circumscribed and a more fixed sphere of labour to the responsible 
architect. Upon this somewhat obscure subject we cannot enter 
without first briefly referring to an institution which has its bearing 
on more than one point before us, we mean Freemasonry ; not in 
the form it has existed in since its revival in the seventeenth century, 
but in its mediaeval system. Much secrecy and mystery attended 
it, which, connected as it was then with architecture, partly ac- 
counts for the obscurity in which history leaves us as to architects 
and their operations. We know, however, that from a very early 
date there was an organized fraternity of masons, who, from travelling 
and observation, as well as practice, gained intelligence, and by 
well devised plans, communicated the benefit to their whole body 
as far as practicable ; the members constituting an order, partly 
religious, in some sort, and partly professional, with one object and 
interest in common. The importance which architecture then 
possessed as an art can scarcely be overrated ; for which reason 
the organization was fostered by the clergy, the rearing of religious 
structures was allowed to be monopolized by the freemasons, and 
it is a fact that ecclesiastics were frequently associated ; which 
circumstances render more intelligible the zeal of the masons, both 
in accumulating, and in confining to themselves the knowledge of 
their art. It is also evident, from the curious correspondence in 
the details of work, that the organization was very complete ; 
and, as it is to be inferred from the remains of structures of the 
later period of the Roman empire, from an universal similarity of 



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U . I ( 1 KST K RS 111 UK A KCHIT RCTURAL SOCIETY. 



arrangement, that there was a central control, the same principle 
may have been transferred from Roman usage. The silence of 
history leaves us very much to conjecture concerning the main 
agents in the erection of our ancient edifices. The rearing of 
them, as a trade, would be in the hands of the freemasons (that 
name implying workers in freestone, or freestone masons J, and 
much would depend on the wardens, who were the foremen of 
parties of ten of them, and upon the masters ; but in a great under- 
taking some presiding man of genius, whose skill alone qualified 
him, must have had the chief control. Priests possessing a taste 
for it were not only associated in freemasonry, but really initiated, 
and from that class sometimes would arise the preeminent archi- 
tect. Whether or not practice without association was allowed 
as legitimate may remain a question, but architectural ability seems, 
in a great measure, to have w r orked its way to this position by asso- 
ciation with, or development amongst, the freemasons. With the 
mysteries and emblems that are said to have come down through 
this channel, from the Greeks and Egyptians even, our enquiry 
has no concern ; but it is material to note that the secrets of the 
masonic art, whilst confined to themselves, were disseminated 
unreservedly amongst that body. Selfish ambition and jealousy 
would thereby be obviated ; every man of taste could enter the 
association, and thereupon his suggestions became the common 
stock of the fraternity, available to the architect, who would be 
associated with them in his labours. Hence we may infer that 
architecture derived no small advantage from freemasonry. In 
proceeding to consider the limited sphere of the chief architect, 
we have to note how originality in design was prized as a prin- 
cipal item of merit. For, in contemplating the extraordinary 
productions of the Middle Ages in the better period, one is struck 
with the variety and the prolific invention. How diverse is York 
cathedral from Lincoln for example ; how unlike are both to Ely ; 
and so on to Salisbury, Wells, and almost all others. Now this 
indicates as many chief architects as varieties, and the sphere of 
labour accordingly limited. It w T ould be a historical problem, to 
find the same architect to have been the designer of many 
cathedrals ; rather was he engaged only for what he could entirely 
devote himself to. And, unless similar advantages can be secured, 
it is vain to look for equal originality and beauty in modern 
productions. Is it possible then, we are tempted to ask, in any 
way to bring about a change in the present system ? To apportion 
in some degree, for instance, to leading architects what is more 
strictly design only; relieving them of much of the constructional 
responsibilities, and giving such compensation as would command 
their time more exclusively for the important part devolving upon 
them ? This is a question, which, we are aware, the profession 
only are competent to grapple with ; but as those great attainments 



THE PRESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



241 



to which we aspire seem in some measure dependent upon it, we 
shall not be out of place in pressing it on public attention. We 
conceive such a change is not altogether impracticable. Progress 
has, in the present century, completed a separation of the labours 
of the architect from those of the builder ; a diversion has 
been made too in favour of the civil engineer ; and we may 
suppose that a further subdivision of labour in the highest 
sphere is within the range of possibilty. Or we may ask the 
question, — can the labours of leading men in any other way be 
lessened ? At present any one, whose brilliant attainments have 
raised him to eminence, has his reward in a killing amount of 
work, whereby one great genius, at least, has already fallen a victim ; 
only the same percentage is paid as to the inexperienced. How 
much better would justice be done on both sides, if, instead of 
advantage being obtained by the ablest men in the extent of their 
employment, it were given in increased percentage ; this might 
secure the necessary limitation of labour, and therewith more 
satisfactory results. It must be evident, that they, whose works 
are to endure in a manner for all time — being ecclesiastical and 
national, or of the first class — can only receive and do justice 
when the opportunity of sufficient application is secured to them ; 
unlimited application carried the day formerly, and without it equal 
success is not attainable. In a small way France seems to be 
taking the lead in this matter; there, " some architects, having 
private property of their own, only make use of their professional 
acquirements, in the carrying out of the design of one or more 
tombs, either for their friends or for some great personage : a tomb 
being regarded by French architects as the highest possible ideal 
of the art." It is, we apprehend, mainly a question of large and 
adequate compensation. If so, to obtain it we must look to a 
greater appreciation of design ; this will advance in proportion 
as a general taste is cultivated ; and whilst the effect of such 
cultivation will be also a corresponding improvement in the art, 
success in design will attract attention and reciprocally encourage 
the cultivation of taste. Then, if the movement be fairly com- 
menced such is the disposition of the various influences to run in 
the same current, that we need not despair of a revolution that 
will eventually advance architecture again to its supremacy in the 
school of arts ; and the result will leave vestiges, which will com- 
mand for us an honourable position in the estimate of succeeding 
generations. The munificient offer for designs for the Liverpool 
Exchange may be regarded as a good experiment, and encourages 
what we have ventured to advocate. 

5. Lastly, it has been intimated that in mediaeval practice help 
was acceptable to the architect from any quarter. There must 
have been encouragement to, and ingenuousness in receiving sug- 
gestions. At all events, the chief architect would accept them from 



242 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



his ecclesiastical employer, whether an associated mason or not, in 
many cases ; and in others, where the ecclesiastic might be chief, 
he would be on terms of candid partnership with his masons. 
In present circumstances, the amateur part of our question is 
difficult to be brought to bear, and delicate to broach; but it is 
necessarily connected with the subject, for the part borne by the 
amateur in the old system is a leading feature. That formerly 
Wykeham and others, not professed architects, had their fingers in 
work which is now held in such rapturous admiration, can scarcely 
be denied. Alan de Walsingham, the sacrist at Ely, became archi- 
tect of the cathedral, and after the fall of its centre gave its cul- 
minating grandeur. A bishop of Noyon was originally an artisan, 
and rose to that eminence from his skill as a goldsmith. Other 
examples might be referred to ; but these are sufficient to show 
how, in those days, the interests of the church, excluding considera- 
tions of personal fame, gave to skill and taste an open door. 
Assistance then was accepted wherever merit recommended it, and 
taste was invited in whatever brain it existed ; appetite for beauty, 
together with religious zeal, having sway over every other feeling. 
The bishop, with the clergy around him and a troop of freemasons, 
would form a college of artists ; eager, not only to devise, but to 
obtain from every source, whatever would tend to the adornment 
and splendour of their cathedral. It is true that circumstances 
are now very different ; we live not in a recluse, but a mercantile 
age, and the trade element is perhaps unavoidably too preponder- 
ating to give free course to the practice of art. We shall venture 
to say, however, that the crudeness which attends the amateur need 
not make his suggestions contraband now any more than formerly; 
and — in recovering past advantages — does it not enter into the 
question, what auxiliary service he can be useful for? Can this 
suggestive element, if we may call it so, any way re-enter, and the 
amateur again take his part ? — or, in other words, can we have a 
benefit by adopting some plan for taking advantage of the draw- 
ings of non-professional persons, when anything new and valuable 
occurs to them ? If institutions for exhibiting and rewarding de- 
signs were candidly open to amateurs in competition with others — 
whilst every advantage would still remain with the educated archi- 
tect, exceptionally an amateur might be brought forward, and, not 

"born to blush unseen," 

quit his false position and join the profession. Taste has its occa- 
sional inspirations in the rough, and sometimes of the richest qual- 
ity, possibly, without the pale of professional cultivation. Provided 
amateurs could — not by botching on their own account, but in some 
legitimate way — be made useful, it would moreover tend as much 
as anything to that general diffusion of taste, which is the only at- 
mosphere in which the profession can vitally prosper. As a polite 



THE PKESENT REQUIREMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE. 243 

accomplishment, architecture to some extent (we refer to artistic 
design only) admits of private pursuit like other fine arts; and it 
is important to remark, that the public, since they have the patron- 
age, should be adequately educated that they may better exercise 
it. The mediaeval system, like the ocean, received the sti'eam 
from every channel ; and if architecture for its own sake is to be 
promoted, — if a general taste is to be fully cultivated, and the 
attainments in this age rival the past, — whilst the responsibilities 
rest with the profession, the practical study of the art, it would 
seem, should be open to all who are capable of it, and, in a sub- 
ordinate form, non-professional help again become tributary. 

Upon reviewing, however, the circumstances that favoured archi- 
tecture in times gone by, it must be owned that the difficulties of 
competing with antiquity are great. The advantages grasped by 
the art were more than peculiar, — human faculty was then in a 
manner sold to it ; in the Dark Ages we see genius arbitrarily ex- 
tinguished save in this one phase ; and the whole light of the in- 
tellectual firmament at that time may be regarded as absorbed from 
others to be concentrated on this subject. We can point to a hun- 
dred years, iu which about a hundred abbey and cathedral churches 
of first class character were erected in this country, when it pos- 
sessed but a tithe of the present population and means. Now, the 
modest demand for only one such cathedral to recommence with 
may be too much to be realized ; and, if so, puny in comparison is 
the revival of Gothic architecture. Without going to mediaeval 
extremes, to impart but the necessary feeling is no small matter; 
for, not the despotic potentate and feudal lords, nor a paramount 
hierarchy, but a whole people have to be moved to do themselves 
credit. Yet, notwithstanding, the present age having the ability 
demanded, with far greater wealth, greater facilities for travelling, 
and various better helps for acquiring intelligence and proficiency, 
we ought not to succumb to the past. And if taste received only 
the utmost rational fostering and encouragement, it is not presump- 
tuous to say that, instead of being behind, we might hope to 
distance our forefathers in the race of architectural development. 

At the close of this paper : 

Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, was invited by the President to 
address the meeting, which he proceeded to do, descanting upon 
topics recently brought by him before the notice of the Society in 
connection with the South Kensington Museum : " the framework 
of roofs, the construction of pews, &c, &c," lvs remarks being 
illustrated by a series of diagrams drawn by himself. He, how- 
ever, principally directed his remarks against so-called Church 
" Restoration " which he said so frequently meant Church " De- 
struction," and he earnestly protested against the practice too com- 



244 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



mon among professional architects, of removing all vestiges of 
ancient work in churches and substituting their own work in its 
place. He contended that the churches were national monuments, 
and that people had no more right to destroy them than the officers 
of the British Museum had to burn the ancient documents belong- 
ing to the nation. They and the churches were for the public well- 
being, and should be preserved in their integrity. The churches 
especially ; for they, more than the manuscripts, could at all times 
be read by any one going along the road. Castles, houses, and 
churches, formed a history in themselves if left as they originally 
stood. The foreigner was attracted by the churches. He con- 
tended that no one had any right to destroy the churches any more 
than a gentleman had a right to melt down his family plate. He 
maintained that they had no moral right to mutilate, mess, or to 
" restore" their old churches. What they called restoring when they 
came to deal with an old church he called unredeemable destruc- 
tion. If they would give twenty millions of pounds they could not 
put in the east end of a church as it originally stood, after doing 
what they called restoring. That part was lost — lost for ever ; a 
part of the history of the church was gone, and could not be re- 
covered. They destroyed so much of the ancient history of the 
place when they removed one and added another piece of architec- 
ture. 

The Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A., of Leasingham, was then 
invited to give the meeting his views respecting the tumulus at 
Kibworth, which the Local Committee had taken measures to open 
on the occasion of the Society's visit. He described it as a " ring 
barrow," and probably as that of a Roman military officer or agri- 
cultural colonist. Mr. Trollope minutely explained the mode of 
disposing of the bodies of the dead by burning, in Roman times, and 
stated that portions of pottery were thrown upon the funeral pile. 
As far as the excavations at Kibworth had gone, it was quite clear 
it was a Roman tumulus from the discovery in the earth of pieces 
of pottery (which he exhibited) called "Samian" ware, and of 
other fragments, which he also exhibited to the audience. A bone 
bodkin had also been found, and traces of burnt material, and of a 
paved flooring. These details were listened to with the closest 
attention.* 

* The following bit of folk-lore appeared in a local newspaper shortly after the 
visit of the Society to Kibworth : — 

THE LEGEND OF THE TUMULUS AT KIBWORTH. 

Our correspondent at Kibworth has supplied us with the following legend, which 
is current in the locality : — " The field in wbich the mound is situate, is called the 
'Hall Field,' and before the present owner held it — was in the possession oftbe 
Rev. Thomas Thomas, D.D. The owner then let a farm, including this field, to a 
farmer named William Gilbert, who appears to have been somewhat of a favourite 
with his landlord, and also on the most familiar terms with him. This mound for 
many years was known as Gilbert's ' Munt,' which is the corruption, no doubt, of 



THE EXCURSION. 



245 



On the motion of Mr. James Thompson, seconded by Mr. S. 
Sharpe, votes of thanks were accorded to the Rector, to Sir H. 
Prvden, to Mr. Levien, and to Mr. V. Wing for their papers. Mr. 
.Thompson confirmed the views of Mr. Trollope respecting the 
Roman origin of the tumulus ; the site of which he said, near the 
old Roman-road formerly called by the Rev. Mr. Leman the " Via 
Devana," which crossed the county from south-east to north-west, 
with the size, indicated the mound to be that raised over some 
Roman of military rank. 

Thanks were also given to the contributors to the Museum and 
to the President, and the company then separated. 



THE EXCURSION. 

After a public breakfast on the following morning, Wednesday, 
, the 5th August — a large party left the Inn at Kibworth for the 

Annual Excursion, arranged according to a programme supplied, 

as usual, to all the members of the Society. 

It was a cause of much disappointment and regret to all present, 
* that the serious illness of the Rev. Canon James, who had under- 

' mount.' It was also affirmed that a King Kibbeus was buried here, and that this 
king was either brought from Wales, or came from that country ; but of his where- 
abouts, at the time of his reign, no one ever appeared to know anything. We give 
this as an old tale which used to be very prevalent, and always used to be repeated 

j with great evidence of belief. It is said that the former owner, Dr. Thomas, was a 
native of Wales. The present owner (John Phillipps, Esq.) is also a native of the 

i principality. We said Dr. Thomas was on the most friendly and familiar terms 

I -with his tenant, Gilbert. At that time, the legend of King Kibbeus being buried be- 
neath the mount was very strongly believed, and Dr. Thomas caused one of the sons 

: of the farmer to be named Kibbeus ; the Doctor promising the child that this field 
should become his property, and that when he arrived at the age of tAventy-one, this 

j mound should be opened, to see what it contained. We may say, unfortunately for 
the boy, his proposed benefactor did not live to carry out his intention. The will 
was made, and the close was devised to Kibbeus ; but through some neglect or other, 

; the will was not signed ; so Kibbeus did not obtain the field, nor was the mound then 

■. opened, as promised. This said Kibbeus Gilbert (who is about fifty years of age) is still 
living, and carrying on a respectable business at Atherstone, Warwickshire. The 

i notion of some one being buried under the mount still clung to the inhabitants, and 

i about twenty-seven years ago, a number of gentlemen obtained permission of the 

1 owner to be allowed to open it. An entrance was made from the western side to the 
centre, and some articles were found, which were sent to the late Proctor's Office, at 

! Leicester. Since that date, but little has been said of King Kibbeus; but the visit 
of the Archaeological Society to Kibworth, and the reopening of the mount caused 

i much speculation. The mound has again been excavated, and it was cut through 

: from north to south. The depth of the cutting was in the centre eight to nine feet. 

I About five deep was found a layer of black soil, and what sometimes appeared ashes 
and pieces of burnt wood. In this layer were found bones, t^eth, and one or two 

j pieces of Roman pottery. On a level with the same layer a pavement of large stones 
about four feet by two, was discovered. A bone bodkin was also found, and an iron 
candlestick. At the depth of from eight to nine feet there was a regular layer of 
black soil ; looking as if that was the old natural ground, and the above the made- 

i up ground." 



24(> 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



taken to act as Architectural guide, prevented his being present. 
He had, however, with his accustomed thoughtfulness supplied the 
Secretary with notes upon most of the churches to be visited.* 
The Rev. Prebendary Trollope, F.S.A., the General Secretary of 
the Associated Societies, promptly undertook at the last moment 
to supply, so far as was necessary, the void occasioned by the 
absence of Mr. James. 

The carriages first stopped at 

THORPE LANGTON. 

On arriving at the church at this place, Mr. Trollope remarked 
that he was sorry to say that he had to announce the absence of 
Canon James, the state of whose health prevented him attending 
and making such observations as he had intended that day. He 
had been requested to fill his place, and would endeavour to do so 
as well as he was able. Mr. Trollope then briefly described the 
church, pointing out its architectural peculiarities. Without follow- 
ing the order of his description, it may be remarked that the church, 
dedicated to St. Leonard, has a broach spire, nave with aisles, and 
chancel. The tower of the early English style with pinnacles at 
the corners, and a low broach spire, below which is a corbel-table. 
A window of the same period (thirteenth century) remains at the 
west end of the south aisle, and the rest of the church appears to have 
been rebuilt in the following century, and exhibits good specimens 
of the decorated work of the time, especially in the tracery of some 
of the windows. In the capitals of two piers on the north side the 
ball-flower ornament is introduced with good effect. In the fifteenth 
century the church again underwent alterations. Clerestory win- 
dows were added, the chancel walls were raised, the chancel arch 
destroyed, and a nearly flat roof carried along the whole length of 
the edifice. A new font of perpendicular design was introduced, the 
ornamentation of the stem of which is particularly worthy of ob- 
servation. On the south side of the chancel is a stone seat below 
a window for the officiating clergy, and a piscina. On the north 
side is a range of the pre-reformation seats. The altar is a table of 
the middle of the seventeenth century. Between the chancel and 
nave the lower part of a perpendicular rood skreen remains, and steps 
to the rood loft led out of the corner of the south aisle. A portion of 
the pulpit is of the same character. Some of the bench ends are 
remarkable as being probably of the time of James the First, 
as appears by arches carved upon them and the pyramidical finials 
of some, while others are square. There are fragments of stained 
glass of the fourteenth century in several of the windows, and 
some ornamented quarries. 

* These notes were, it is believed, almost the last work of the kind undertaken by- 
Mr. James, and as such will be much valued by the members of this Society. 



THE EXCUKSION. 



247 



The Rev. Canon James thus describes this church in some 
notes which he had prepared : 

Thorpe Langton is a chapelry of Church Langton. The 
church, consisting of a nave of three bays, with north and south 
aisles and chancel, is dedicated to St. Leonard. I fear the most 
interesting of the churches to be visited to-day comes first on 
the list. The whole church, which is of one date, is an excellent 
example of the Early Geometrical Decorated of the fourteenth 
century. The tower might, at first sight, appear somewhat 
earlier, but probably the whole church was built at the same 
time. The proportions and tracery of the windows are remarkably 
good. In the head of several of the windows are fragments of 
painted glass coeval with the windows, and with which they were 
originally glazed. Every fragment of this should be most reli- 
giously preserved, and each bit restored to its proper place. The 
great defect of the interior is the want of a chancel arch. This, 
no doubt, originally existed, but in the fifteenth century, when the 
high pitched roofs of the earlier style (the old story !) had become 
decayed, the repairers probably found the gable over the chancel 
arch inconveniently in their way, and wishing to make a " neat 
job " of it, and carry the clerestory and roof right through at the 
same level, they disannulled the gable and arch altogether, and left 
no other separation between nave and chancel than the rood skreen, 
the base of which still exists, and which is of this later date. The 
staircase to the rood loft also yet remains, entered from the south 
aisle. The pitch of the old roof before the clerestory was added 
may yet be seen against the east wall of the tower. Though, in 
restoring this church, I would not reinsert a chancel arch, yet I 
could mark the distinction of the chancel by bringing down one of 
the principals of the roof in this spot, so as to form a wooden arch 
of a marked character. Other noticeable features in this church 
are, the font, placed in its present position probably at the time of 
the great repairs in the fifteenth century, of which date it is, and the 
very beautiful and not common arrangement of the steps in the 
form of a cross; the pulpit, which is of the same date; and a very 
early and simple panneled bench end, near the north entrance. 
There are several open seats on the south of Jacobean pattern. 1 
sincerely hope that the restoration of this church may be a conser- 
vative one ; that the font, pulpit, and base of rood skreen may be 
preserved ; the stalls in the chancel repaired, and made the model 
for the chancel fittings; and that the bench back referred to may 
be retained, and the new seats made to follow that pattern. The 
small number to be provided for will not necessitate crowding the 
church with seats, and ample passages may be left ; the tower arch 
will of course be opened, the modern west doorway blocked op, 
and new tracery inserted in the east window ; but 1 hope the rest 
may be as little tampered with as possible, and the windows left as 



248 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



they are, even if some of the tracery has got a little askew. Above 
all, 1 hope that there will be no scraping and pointing of the out- 
side. The walls are now rich with the lichens of five centuries, 
and no possible amount of restoration could compensate for the 
beauty which this church would lose by the removal of this delicate 
time-painting. If the joints are to be raked out and fresh pointed 
after the most approved modern fashion, the great external interest 
of this church will be gone. If any one wishes to compare an 
ancient with a modern wall, please to keep this church in mind 
when you look at the smart black mortared pointing in the new 
aisle of Tugby chancel. If the societies feel with me on this 
point, I trust they will express a strong opinion thereon. For- 
tunately, the gentleman into whose hands this church is likely to 
be committed is an antiquarian, as well as an architect. 
The party then proceeded to 

CHURCH LANGTON. 

The Tower is of the Perpendicular style, and is a fine example, 
though devoid of ornament. The west end of the south aisle has 
a very Early Decorated window, and the walls of both aisles are of 
the same style, but later, probably 1320-50. The tracery of the 
east window is reticulated. Much of the church was rebuilt in the 
fifteenth century, to which period the very beautiful roof belongs, 
ornamented with elaborate bosses, and embattled work on the tie 
beams. The lion of St. Mark is also among its decorations. A door- 
way on the north side of the chancel led into a small external chapel, 
now destroyed, the piscina of which remains. West of this are 
the stairs to the rood loft. In the south wall are three sedilia and 
a piscina. The locker in the north wall has a door, and contains 
candle-ends, &c. The north aisle has a small square headed 
piscina, and there is a bracket on each side of its east window, 
one of them large and much ornamented, and supported by two 
heads. Upon these no doubt images once stood. The south 
aisle had also an altar at the east end, above which, below the win- 
dow, is a space recessed for a carved altar-piece or " table " as 
then called. Each of the aisles has a recess for a monumental 
effigy of the Decorated period with rich canopy. That on the 
south side was a second time made use of for Sir Richard Roberts 
in 1644. Probably they were originally designed for members of 
the Langton family, of whom Walter de Langton died Bishop of 
Lichfield in 1321. The effigy shown as of him in his Cathedral 
Church, and engraved in Nichols' Leicestershire, must, however, be 
of earlier date. The Font is dated 1662, and has a curious high 
cover, seemingly of somewhat older workmanship, ornamented with 
semicircular arches. Near it is fixed an old alms box, of probably 
the same date, with two locks to secure donations, but now it is a 
depository for torn books and rags. The pulpit, its steps and 



THE EXCURSION. 



249 



sounding-board, are of Jacobean character. There is also a 
i remarkable square pew of this style, with finials at the corners. 
Some older bench ends have the linen pattern. This church (as 
also Thorpe Langton,) is about to be "restored," and it is much 
to be hoped that when undergoing- that operation these remains of 
antiquity may not be destroyed. 

Of this church Canon James says: 

Church Langton is the mother church of Thorpe Langton and 
' Tur Langton, and contains within itself East and West Langton. 
! From this place sprung Walter de Langton, Bishop of Lichfield 
| and Coventry, in 1*295. He was a great favourite of Edward I., and 
j benefactor to his cathedral. He died in 1321, and his monument 
'. is still seen in Lichfield Cathedral. We might possibly connect him 
1 with this church, and that of Thorpe Langton ; but if the inscription 
J described by Burton, is correct, we may assume Thomas de Lang- 
j ton as the founder at least of the mother church. Under the 
i monumental arch of the north aisle of this church was originally a 
! monument with the inscription — 

" Ora pro anima Thomas de Langton." 

! The existence of another arch, identical in character, in the south 
\ aisle, may possibly point to a joint founder. In this arch is now 
« interpolated, after the fashion of the day, an effigy, with arms and 
I inscription, notifying that Sir Richd. Roberts, Knight, aged 80, is 
; buried here, with the date 1644. This is at least 300 years later 
j than the arch which contains it. The nave, it will be seen, con- 
j sists of four bays, the outer walls being all of the fourteenth century ; 

but in the fifteenth century, the whole of the piers and arches have 
j been swept away, and the present arcade, clerestory, and roofs 
inserted. At the same time, the eastern windows of the aisle have 
replaced Decorated windows of a far better character than the present 
debased specimens. The chancel was probably of much of the same 
date, though nothing of the fourteenth century now remains, but the 
I three sedilia and piscina, and the door, originally opening into the 
: vestry. Bits of the original fourteenth century glass remain here, as 
in Thorpe Langton, and deserve the greatest care. Some of the old 
j seats remain of a late type. The font is a plain specimen of the 
! fifteenth century, with Jacobean cover. There is also an old alms 
, box, of Jacobean date, which should not be thrown away at the resto- 
ration. The rood loft staircase may be seen on the outside. On the 
1 exterior north wall of the chancel are the vestiges of a former 
vestry, with the remains of a beautiful fourteenth century piscina, 
! which Nichols states "is believed to be Saxon" The church 
I is dedicated to St. Peter, and the tower, which is an exceed- 
ingly fine specimen of its date, contains eight bells, three of 
j which were added by Mr. Hanbury, the founder, of whom we must 
; presently speak. In this neighbourhood, where fine towers are so 



250 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



rave, th at of Church Langton deserves especial attention, not only 
from its size, its simplicity, its massiveness, and fine masonry, but 
from the peculiar form of its buttresses, clasping as they do the 
angles, with shallow projections, more like those of Norman date 
than of the fifteenth century, as these are. Mr. Poole first called 
attention to this local characteristic, which may also be seen in the 
towers of Welford, Theddingworth, Braybrooke, and many other 
churches of the neighbourhood." 

The Mausoleum of the Hanbury Family — an octagonal building 
in the churchyard — was inspected. It contained five coffins, 
among which was pointed out that of the " Founder " of the Han- 
bury Charities, and the projector of a scheme of great magnitude 
for church extension in his parish. 

NOSELY 

Was the next place visited. Upon arriving at the church, Mr. 
North (Hon. Sec), read the following short paper prepared by 
Canon James: "We read that in 1275 Sir Anketil de Martival 
founded a chantry chapel in his Manor House at Nosely. It was 
afterwards enlarged by his son Roger, for a collegiate church. He 
(Roger) died, Bishop of Salisbury, in 1326, having previously 
bestowed many gifts upon the wardens and priests of his college 
at Nosely. There can be little doubt that the existing building is 
the collegiate chapel of Roger de Martival, not only from the 
style of architecture agreeing with his date, but from the distinctly 
collegiate form of the building. Nichols assigns a much more 
modern origin, misled probably by the character given to the 
windows on the south side by the absence of mullions (which have 
of course been destroyed). It is one of the advantages which the 
more accurate study of ecclesiastical architecture has brought 
about, that we are enabled unhesitatingly to connect the present 
building with the original foundation, and thus give it the addi- 
tional interest which this fact supplies. The whole of the original 
building remains, with the exception of the vestry, and probably 
a priest's chamber over, which connected the chancel with the 
detached tower. The chapel was originally nearly equally divided 
by a skreen, into nave and choir, each having four two-light win- 
dows on either side (except where the vestry interfered). The 
western bay was probably parclosed off as an anti-chapel, having 
north and south doors, and a larger western one for grand proces- 
sional occasions. The east and west windows are poor Perpendi- 
cular insertions of the fifteenth century. On the jamb of the fifth 
window from the west, on the north side may be seen the mark into 
which the skreen, which separated the nave from the chancel, was 
formerly fitted. The present proprietor remembers a skreen exist- 
ing here some forty years ago, but that is described by Nichols as 
' modern.' The base of the old skreen may, I believe, be dis- 



THE EXCURSION. 



251 



covered worked up in the present pews. The stalls, which are of 
very fine execution for their late date, are obviously not in their 
original position ; they must have originally stood eastward of the 

• .chancel skreen, within the choir. Against the west side of the 
skreen probably existed two altars, one on each side of entrance. 

' This will account for the position of the two piscinas, which may 
still be seen in the middle of the church with their wooden cre- 
dence shelves remaining entire. The three sedilia and double 
piscina in the choir are of the date of the original building, as is 
also a very beautiful font at the west end, which we should not 

j have expected to find in a collegiate chapel, unless it had been 
attached (as it was) to the Manor House ; and it is singular that the 

| privilege of baptism was especially secured to this chapel by the 
original agreement, and confirmed by the Bishop, in 1405. The 

1 right. of bells, the celebration of matrimony, and the churching of 
women attached to the Manor, were also allowed by the same 
document. There is a holy water stoup close to the south door. 

• In the east window are some very valuable remains of the original 
fourteenth century glass, in delightful contrast to some of the nine- 

i teenth century in the head of the window. Two wooden altar can- 
' dlesticks of carved renaissance work and gilt, should be noticed, as 

• showing how soon the family of the great Puritan, Sir Arthur, re- 
i turned back to its loyalty to Church and State. It would be 
1 impossible thoroughly to describe, but equally impossible alto- 
\ gether to pass over, the remarkable and uninterrupted series of 
j family monuments which have escaped alike spoliation and re- 
j storation. The earliest among the Alabaster slabs is the com- 
mencement of the series — that of Thomas Hazlerig, who married 

\ Elizabeth Martival (through whom the property came to the pre- 
I sent family) being the oldest. The inscription is worth noticing 
; from the addition of the words " Litera Dominicalis D." An un- 
] common addition to a date. A bell lies on the outside, " Thomas 
j Haslerig S. Squier made me 1590." The clapper is gone, but it 
; would be well to preserve it by bringing it within the chapel." 

Mr. Trollope directed the attention of the visitors to the very 
j remarkable series of incised monumental slabs in the pavement to 
\ members of the Hazlerigg family. They are in an unusually per- 
fect state of preservation. The earliest date is 1467. Two altar- 
j tombs are also much to be noticed ; one to Sir Thomas Hazlerigg, 
■ his wife, and children, whose dresses are given with great accuracy 
' of detail, and it is recorded that their mother made the material of 
them ; the other to the Sir Arthur Hazlerigg of the time of the 
1 Great Rebellion, his two wives, and their children, several of whom 
I are represented with flowers and skulls in their hands, significant 
! of their early death. 

The visitors then proceeded to Nosely Hall, where they were 
j received by Sir Arthur and Lady Hazlerigg. Among the many 



252 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



paintings of value and interest exhibited may be noted one of the 
Protector Oliver Cromwell, remarkable for less severity and determi- 
nation of aspect than usually given him. It was painted by Walker 
for Sir A. Hazlerigg, of whom there is a portrait in black armour, 
with long hair flowing on each side a pleasing and intelligent face. 
It has the date 1640. Several original letters of Cromwell to Sir A. 
Hazlerigg of the Commonwealth, were read by the Dean of Water- 
ford and by Mr. North. One was written the day before the 
battle of Dunbar, expressing the great danger he conceived his 
army to be placed in ; another the day following the battle. These 
letters had passed from the Hazlerigg family, and a few years ago 
were on the point of being thrown into the fire, when it occurred 
to the owner that they might still be valued by the present baronet, 
and were therefore sent to him.*; 

" To the Hon ble . S r . Ar. Heselridge at Newcastle or elsewhere. 
" These hast hast. 

" Deere S r . 

" Wee are upon an engagement very difficult, the enimie hath 
blocked up our way att the passe at Copperspith,f thorough w ch wee 
canott gett w th out almost a miracle, Hee lyeth soe upon the Hills that 
wee knowe not how to come that way without great difficultye, and our 
lyinge heere dayly consumeth our men, whoe fall sicke beyond imagina- 
tion. I perceave your forces are not in a capacitye for present releife, 
wherefore (whatever become of us) itt will be well for you to gett what 
forces you can together, and the South to helpe what they can, the businesse 
neerely concerneth all good people. If your forces had been in a readi- 
nesse to have fallen upon the back of Copperspith itt might have oc- 
casioned supplies to have come to us, but the only wise God knowes what 
is best, all shall worke for good, our Spirits are comfortable (praised bee 
the Lord) though our present condition bee as itt is, and indeed wee 
have much hope in the Lord, of whose mercy we have had a large ex- 
perience. Indeed doe you gett together what forces you can against them. 
Send to friends in the South to help with more. Lett H. Vane know 
what I write, I would not make itt publick least danger should acme 
thereby. You know what use to make hereof. Lett me heere from you. 

" Sept. 2 d . " I rest 

" 1650. "Your servant, 

" O. Cromwell. 

" Its difficult for mee to send to you, lett me heere from (you) after." 

* # * " This letter is indorsed ' Gen'. Cromwell's tre of the Army's con- 
dition neer Copperspith — Scotland, 1650 — 2 d Sept which was the day 
before the memorable Battle of Dunbarr in Scotland, where Gen 1 . Crom- 
well routed all the Scotch forces totally. And instead of returning to 
England he turned to Edinburrough and conquered Scotland, This 
letter is every word writ with his owne hand, the Superscription allso." 

* By the courtesy of Sir A. Gr. Hazlerigg, we are enabled to give copies of two of 
these letters, which he has had transcribed for the use of the Society. 



t Cockburnspath. 



THE EXCURSION. 



253 



u For the Hon ble . S r . Arthur Heselridge, Govern* of Newcastle. 
" These hast hast. 

M S r 

" I cannot but hasten you in sending up what forces possibly you 
can, this inclosed was intended to you on Saturday, but could not come. 
We are not able to carry on our businesse as we would untill we have 
wherewith to keepe Edinburgh and Leith untill we attempt and are acting 
forwards. We have not in these parts above 2 months to keep the 
field, therefore expedite what you can, and I desire you to send us free 
masons, you know not the importance of Leith. I hope your Northerne 
guests are come to you by this time, I pray you lett humanitie be 
exercised towards them, I am persuaded it will be comely. Lett the 
officers be kept at Newcastle, some sent to Lynn, some to Chester, I have 
no more but rest, 

" Your affectionate Serv\, 

" O. Cromwell." 

" Edinburgh, 

"September 9 th , 1650. 

r I desire as the forces come up, I may heare from time to time what they 
are, how their marches are laid and when I may expect them. 
" My service to the Deare Ladye." 

Most of the visitors being assembled in the Entrance Hall, the 
Rev. E. Tower, of Earls' Shilton, briefly expressed the thanks of 
the company to Sir Arthur and Lady Hazlerigg for the kindness 
they had manifested in laying before the Society the interesting 
relics of their household, and expressed the pleasure all felt in 
finding one of the old families of England in its ancient seat, and 
his hope that it might long continue to remain there. 

Sir Arthur Hazlerigg acknowledged the compliment, on his 
own and Lady Hazlerigg's behalf, and added that if the Society 
had derived any gratification from the visit, it had afforded him 
great pleasure. 

The company then left the hall to take their places in the car- 
riages, and were soon bowling away to 

TUGBY CHURCH. 

The Tower is Norman, of four receding stages, the upper one 
having a corbel-table. The lowest string-course has a carved de- 
coration. One of the windows is divided by a shaft with the 
chevron ornament. The west doorway has by some been thought 
to be Saxon ; it is of " long and short work the head of it is an 
obtusely-pointed arch. Mr. Trollope was of opinion that it was of 
early Norman date. Over it is a small semicircular headed recess. 
The South doorway in the porch is very fine, semicircular with 
bold roll moulding. A few Early English remains are in other 
parts of the church, but most of it was rebuilt in 1858, The 
T Vol. II 



•_>;> 1 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



stained glass windows, one of which is heraldic, are the work of 
Messrs. Ward and Nixon, superintended by Mr. Winston, whose 
writings upon ancient glass are well-known. Later in the day an 
ancient paten, probably of the fourteenth century, used in Tugby 
church was exhibited : in the centre of it is engraved the " Veronica." 

Canon James remarks upon the edifice There is little archaeo- 
logical interest about this church with the exception of the very 
ancient tower, which is well worth the accurate study of the church 
antiquarians. The west door seems to have indications of " long 
and short" work, which is generally considered to mark out Saxon 
execution. The primitive formation of the arch points to the same 
date, and the small single-light window on the south with its flat 
dripstone is identical with the work esteemed Saxon at Barnack 
and elsewhere. The two-light window on the south is somewhat 
later, and may be considered transition between Saxon and Norman. 
But the west door and lower window may fairly be assigned to the 
Saxon period, giving an especial interest to this church. I know 
of no equally early remains in the neighbourhood. The church is 
dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, which must have therefore been 
its second dedication. 

The carriages were next driven to 

KEYTHORPE HALL. 

Here the Society received a most kind and hospitable reception 
from Lord and Lady Berners. His Lordship exhibited several 
objects of interest and antiquity; a fine old key, some circular 
pieces and dice of bone, and comb, found with a skeleton near 
the hall ; a carved chessman from Ashmethorpe, in Norfolk ; also a 
wooden cup with lid of the time of Charles II., about ten inches 
in height, found in a cottage at Tugby by Mr. Winslow, carved 
with birds, animals, &c., and the following inscriptions : 

" The Lord make joyful all his Saints that on earth doth dwell, 
And prosper all such as dothe in true goodness excel] ; 
Drink well of that which will do you most good, 

With honest hearts delight God's word to hear ; 
Suffer with him while here ye do remaine, 

Who hath redeemed you with a price so deare ; 
In endless glory such shall with him reigne, 
So runne that sure ye may obtayne ; 
If you have faith working by sincere love, 
Your names are written in heaven above, 
Then in all good works ye will faithful prove." 

This cup is of a long cocoa-nut shape. Lord Berners also i 

exhibited a matchlock, elaborately inlaid with gold, taken from j, 
the last great Mogul, the Emperor of Indostan, Mahomed Shah, 

on the 21st September, 1857, on which day he surrendered to > 

Captain Hodson, commanding a corps of irregular horse, and \ 



THE EXCUESION. 



255 



was delivered by that officer to Major General Archdale Wilson, 
who commanded the force which assaulted and captured the city 
of Delhi. Sir Archdale Wilson presented it to Lord Berners the 
head of his family, on his return from India in May, 1858, as a 
testimony of his esteem and affection, with the wish that it may 
be preserved as a heirloom. 

The members of the Society then sat down to a sumptuous 
luncheon in the dining room, after which his Lordship proposed 
the health of the Queen, the prosperity of the Society, and the 
strangers who were present. 

Canon Trollope replied in a lengthy speech, and referred to 
his Lordship's kindness, not only that day, but to his generosity 
and the assistance which he has generally rendered in church 
restoration. His beneficence was known to all of them. He 
indulged in the highest eulogiums as to the entertainment, and 
gave in a complimentary manner, the health of Lord and Lady 
Berners. 

Lord Berners replied, his speech being commendatory of the 
party, and expressive of his happiness in entertaining the company 
before him. His Lordship was repeatedly cheered, and concluded 
by proposing the health of Archdeacon Moore, who had made 
suggestions to him with regard to the work of church restoration 
in which he had taken part. 

Archdeacon Moore replied ; and Mr. Levien's name being 
mentioned in connection with the British Museum, that gentleman 
likewise responded. 

The dining room being unable to accommodate all the visitors, 
a lunch was laid out in the library, presided over by Mr. Chester. 
The Rev. Mr. Winslow proposed the healths of Lord and Lady 
Berners, and Mr. Chester thanked the company on behalf of 
his uncle and aunt. The Rev. Mr. Rollestone proposed success 
to the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
coupling with the toast the name of Mr. Goddard, of Leicester. 
Mr. Goddard in responding, said he felt honoured in having 
his name associated with a Society whose principal object was 
to restore their ancient churches. The sacred edifices he had 
restored, some of which they would visit, he hoped had given 
satisfaction. Mr. Neale, Skeffington, returned thanks on behalf of 
the Architectural and Archaeological Society. 

The next place visited was 

EAST NORTON. 

The church there, dedicated to All Saints, had been recently 
restored under the direction of Mr. Goddard. The south wall is 
ancient, and contains a lancet window. The south doorway is 
'. remarkable, the interior face of it is a square-headed trefoil, and 



1 



256 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 

the outer an ogee arch with square dripstone. It is probably of 
late date. The ancient font remains ; the four legs upon which it 
stands indicate a Norman or Early English date ; probably the ' 
basin was originally square, but cut into an octagon in the four- 
teenth century, when fenestrated decorations were sunk in the 
sides. In the east window an old bit of stained glass remains, 
representing a chalice with the host in it. The old prejudice in 
favour of pews with doors prevailed when the church was reseated. 
The old carved seats mentioned by Nichols, of course have not 
been preserved. Plate glass is used in some of the windows. 
Mr. Trollope defended the introduction of modern inventions into 
our churches, which in many cases is right, but as plate glass is 
rather for the purpose of obtaining a good look-out, the advantage 
of its introduction into churches may be questioned. 

ALLEXTON. 

Leaving East Norton the cavalcade of carriages proceeded by 
Allexton Hall, late the residence of Lord Berners (then the 
Hon. Mr. Wilson), and of his ancestors, by whom it was probably 
built in the seventeenth century, to Allexton. A merry peal upon | 
the five bells in the steeple welcomed the Society. This church 1 1 
had been lately restored by Mr. Millican under the superintendence 
of Lord Berners. The north wall of the nave was found to contain j 
two very beautiful Norman arches with chevron and lozenge orna- 
ments, and the south wall two pointed arches. The aisles into j 
which they opened had long been destroyed, but are now rebuilt. I 
The chancel is of greater length than the present nave, but this J 
was evidently once longer, and the tower has been built within it | 
in the Perpendicular period. The chancel arch has Norman 
capitals. A low side window in the north wall remains ; another if 
on the south was not restored. Mr. Trollope spoke at length upon 
the use of these low side windows, and inclined to the belief that I 
they were used for administering the holy sacrament and other 
rites of the church to lepers who were not admitted among the | 
congregation. The prevalence of leprosy in former times he 
attributed to the quantity of salted food eaten. As these windows 
are by far the most frequently found in churches of the thirteenth 
century, it would be of use to investigate whether at that time the 
leprosy much prevailed, and afterwards decreased. The old 
piscina remains, and has a foliated basin for the water. A portion I 
of the chancel is still Early English, and it has a Decorated and a • 
Perpendicular window. The porch has a record of its erection in 
1594. In a window in the north aisle are collected some fragments 
of stained glass : part of a figure with a rod and a bell, may 
indicate a representation of St. Anthony. After the Dean of | 
Waterford had addressed the visitors, and described the progress ■ 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



257 



of the restoratioD of the church, the carriages were again filled 
and returned to Kibworth and elsewhere, and the Congress 
terminated. 



The following amusing lines appeared in a local newspaper, 
October 26, 1861, with reference to Mr. Bloxam's remarks upon 
the so-called Wycliffe Relics (vide pp. 77 to 80). 

" The Wickliffe lots put up by Bloxam ; 
First one then t'other, down he knocks 'em ; 
Till some among the antiquaries, 
Who see how far the sport he carries, 
Alarm'd, are anxious to be knowing 
If John himself will next be ' going ?' " 



28th September, 1863. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

I 

j Resolved that the General Summer Meeting in 1864 be held at 
Hinckley. A statement respecting the condition of the Jewry 
Wall, Leicester, having been read by Mr. James Thompson, a Sub- 
committee was appointed to carry out his suggestions.* 

* This Sub-Committee, shortly after its appointment, issued the following state- 
l ment : 

" The Jewey Wall, Leicester. 

" A recent examination of this interesting Relic of Antiquity by an Architect of 
_ great experience, has proved that it is in an extremely dilapidated and unsafe 
i condition. Owing to the removal of a large portion of the Wall, on a line with the 
. present road passing by it, it is found that there is an overwhelming mass of 
• masonry in the upper part which has no adequate support, and which, at any time, 
may fall, and the whole be reduced to a mass of ruins. 

" Excavations made by the Council of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, about a year ago, instituted in order to ascertain whether there were traces 
of a continuation of the piers of the wall in the direction of the adjoining church, 
revealed the extent and nature of the portion of the structure now buried, and of 
the foundation. In this way, it is considered by local antiquaries, much information 
was gained respecting the original purpose of the wall, and the proportions of its 
; fagade were exhibited in all their completeness. 

" Under these circumstances, the Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural 
and Archaeological Society has come to the conclusion that it is desirable to take 
measures to prevent the fabric from falling, permanently to remove the earth in 
front of it down to the original level of the Roman way, and to protect it from injury 
by raising before it a low wall, surmounted with iron palisades, through which the 
1 entire front will be seen, from the uncovered bases of the piers to the tops of the 
arches. 

" These proceedings, it is estimated, will involve an outlay of at least fifty pounds. 
The Society undertakes to bear a share, believing that in attempting to preserve a 
relic which is unique in character, and of unusual interest, all friends to archaeology 
. will cheerfully assist. 

! " The consent of the Vicar of St. Nicholas' parish and that of the Highway and 



258 



I , K 1 C KST 1*: US II [ RE ARCHITECT URAL 



The following Gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : 
The Right 1 Ion. the Earl of Lanesborough ; the Right Rev. Bishop 
Spencer; The Hon. and Rev. A. G. Campbell, Knipton Rectory; 
Edward Basil Farnham, Esq., Quorndon House, Loughborough; 
Major Edward Dyson, Rothley Temple; Captain Lowndes, High 
Croft, Husbands Bosworth ; the Rev. Cave Humfrey, R.D., Laugh- 
ton; the Rev. R. E. Haymes, Stanwick, Higham Ferrars ; the 
Rev. Gerard Neville, Tilton Rectory ; the Rev. Robert Dalby, R.D., 
Belton ; the Rev. R. Fawssett, Smeeton Westerby ; the Rev. 
Edgar Sherlock, Peckleton ; the Rev. W. H. Cleaver, Kibworth ; 
the Rev. L. Wood, Claybrooke ; Arthur Haymes, Esq., Great 
Glen ; Ambrose Lisle March Phillipps de Lisle, Esq., Gracedieu 
Manor; Edward Warner, Esq., Quorndon Hall; Thomas Pares, 
Esq., Hopwell Hall; Alfred Whitby, Esq., Glenfield Frith; Wm. 
Johnson, Esq., Peatling Parva ; Mr. Wm. Price, Church Langton ; 
Mr. Superintendent Deakins, Lutterworth; the Rev. T. H. Wright, 
Leicester. 

The following articles, &c, were exhibited :— 

By the Rev. J. H. Hill. — A shilling of Queen Elizabeth, 
recently found at Cranoe, dated 1573. 

By Thomas T. Paget, Esq. — A groat of Edward III., lately 
found in Calphia Wood, Huntingdonshire. Obverse: EDWARD. 
D.G. REX ANGL Z. FRANC. D. HYB. round a crowned head 
of that monarch with full face, and hair much extended on each side f 
of the face, within a tressure of nine arches. Reverse : outer circle, f 
POSVI. DEVM. ADIVTOREM MEUM ; inner circle, CIVITAS 
LONDON, with a cross extending through the circles to the rim I 
of the coin ; pellets within the inner circle. 

By Mr. North (by permission of T. T. Paget, Esq.), some relics 
from Little Oxendon, which he explained in the following memoir: 

" A few antiquities connected with the Battle of Naseby having 
been placed in my hands by Mr. T. T. Paget, upon whose estate i 
they were lately found, I have pleasure in exhibiting them to ; 
this Society, inasmuch as the interest attaching to them as relics j 
of that memorable engagement is considerably enhanced by the [ 
circumstances under which they were discovered. If the traveller,! 
going along the highway from Market Harborough to Northampton,! 
will turn into the fields on the right hand, when he has walked 
about a mile and a half from the former town, and proceed a few 
hundred yards in a westerly direction, he will find himself in a; 

Sewerage Committee of the Town Council of Leicester, has been obtained by the. 
Society for these works. 

A Sub-Committee of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
consisting of Mr. G. H. Nevinson, Mr. Thomas Nevinson, (Probate Court, Wycliffei 
Street,) Mr. James Thompson, (Chronicle Office,) Mr. Henry Goddard, (Marker 
Street,) and the Honorary Secretaries of the Society, Mr. G. C. Bellairs, Friar Lane ; 
and Mr. Thomas North, Southfields, Leicester, has been formed for carrying out the.- 
scheme, and by whom contributions towards the cost will be gladly received. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



259 



large field, shewing every indication of being the site of former 
extensive roads and buildings. I visited the place a short time 
since, and found the indications I mention strongly marked ; a 
. main road, a shorter road or street running parallel with it, and the 
marks of the foundations of many houses on either side of these 
being distinctly visible. It was here that the village of Little 
Oxendon stood prior to the Battle of Naseby. Very little is known, 
I believe, of the history of the place, and that little need not here 
be reproduced. Tradition says that when the victorious Par- 
liamentary troops, routing the Royalists, pursued them towards 
Market Harborough, they came across the village of Little 
Oxendon, and finding the inhabitants favourable to the cause of 
their King, almost totally destroyed the place. There was, within 
the memory of men now living, a solitary house standing upon the 
; site of the ancient village. That, however, has been taken down 
many years, and the materials removed for use elsewhere. It was 
in the spring of the present year that the gentleman now occupy- 
ing the farm under Mr. Paget, in which the field is comprised, 
requiring stone for his roads, determined to avail himself of the 
buried remains of Little Oxendon He accordingly dug in several 
places, and procured abundance of stone for his purpose. He 
' found the road and street T have mentioned covered with loose 
■ stones, whilst on either side he occasionally found, apparently 
running in front of where some of the houses formerly stood, 
j lengths of "pitched pavement," that is, stones placed in the 
, ground close together, edgeways. He discovered the foundation 
'■ of many houses, with much rubble scattered about; but, in addition 
. to those, very little or no wrought or squared stones; which leads 
| him to infer that the houses were chiefly built of mud, upon stone 
foundations. He also came across the remains of a building of a 
considerable size, which he assigns to a church or chapel ; but 
there again, no stones beyond those of the foundation, carved or 
plain, were turned up, corroborative of his theory. Pieces of burnt 
or charred wood were found, pointing to the destruction of the 
village by fire. A well, cased with stone, belonging to one of the 
houses, was accidentally opened. This — with a praiseworthy desire 
to recover any relics that, in the confusion of time, might have 
found their way into it- — was thoroughly cleaned out to the bottom, 
. a depth of about fifteen feet; but without any result It is now- 
covered over with a slab, upon which the earth is again thrown. 
' It was during the excavations just referred to, that the articles I 
now exhibit were found. They consist of a spur, a portion of a 
bit of a bridle, a pocket knife, two coins, and some tobacco-pipe 
1 heads — trifles in themselves, but not uninteresting as reminiscences 
of an engagement famous in English history, and of an obscure 
Northamptonshire village, which suffered so much from the horrors 
; of that civil war. The spur, which is not quite complete, is of the 
I 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



ordinary typo, with a small rowel or wheel, evidently intended, 
from its being strong and devoid of decoration, for work and not 
for mere ornament. The portion of a bit of a bridle is only a 
fragment. The knife, though much corroded, is curious, the form 
of the blade being peculiar. The coins are, a shilling of Elizabeth 
(apparently one of the first or ' hammered shillings' of that reign), 
bearing, with the usual inscriptions, the date 156 . and a half- 
penny of William TIL, dropped, of course, at a subsequent period. 
The two tobacco-pipe heads are somewhat alike in form, though 
very different in size. The smaller one belongs to the class usually 
called i Fairy pipes;' so called, I presume, from their small size. 
They both have a milled border round the mouth, but the spur of 
the small one is flat, enabling the smoker to place his pipe on the 
table in an upright position ; and the bowl swells in the centre and 
assumes the barrel form, thus indicating an earlier make than the 
larger one, where the spur is pointed. They coincide in form with 
the pipes in use in the time of Charles I. As illustrative of these, 
T also exhibit two tobacco-pipe heads, lately found by a Member 
of this Society — Mr. Sarson — in excavating in his garden, near to 
the Church of St. Nicholas, Leicester. They, too, have the milled 
edge, and are very similar to the small one from Oxendon. It is 
possible that the one set were used by the Royalist soldiers, after 
the capture of Leicester, on the last day of May, 1645 ; and the 
other set by the equally exultant Parliamentary troopers, at the 
battle of Naseby, on the 1 4th of the following June." Mr. North 
further remarked, with reference to Little Oxendon, that there is 
only one house in the parish, that occupied by Mr. Kirkman, the 
gentleman referred to above, and who, as occupier of all the land 
in the lordship, is the only ratepayer, he consequently was his own 
surveyor and assessor, and maintained his own roads in repair. 
Under the new Highway Act he is his own Waywarden, and as 
su$h takes his seat at the Board. Little Oxendon pays poor rates 
to Little Bowden, but in every other way is a distinct and 
independent parish. 

By The Rev. W. B. Moore, a Greek coin of one of the 
Ptolemies, and several small brass Roman coins, which we hope 
to describe on a future occasion. 

By The Rev. J. H. Hill, two rubbings of monumental brasses 
to members of the Cholmondley family in Burton Coggles Church, 
Lincolnshire : inscriptions destroyed. 

Drawing of details of windows, doors, &c, in the same church. 

By John Phillips, Esq., of Kibworth, an unpublished Poem in 
manuscript, supposed to be in the handwriting, and to bear the 
signature of Queen Elizabeth, upon which Mr. James Thompson 
read the following remarks : 

" The manuscript now exhibited to the Society is a poem 
written by Queen Elizabeth. It is a moral and sententious com- 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



261 



position, in seventy-eight lines, of which every succeeding two lines 
rhyme together. 

"The manuscript has been obligingly forwarded by John 
Phillips, Esq., of Kib worth, for your fuller inspection to-day ; 
having been already shown at our Annual Meeting. Of its authen- 
ticity I think there can be little doubt. Mr. Levien of the British 
Museum, pronounces the writing to be Queen Elizabeth's. It is 
also remarkable that it closely resembles in character that of Lady 
Jane Grey, which 1 had recently the pleasure of examining in the 
Museum at Zurich, in her three letters to Cwinglius, the great 
Swiss reformer. Lady Jane's letters are higher and narrower than 
those of her kinswoman ; but as in our own day there is a dis- 
tinctive, angular style of female caligraphy, so it would seem in the 
early part of the sixteenth century there was in practice a style at 
once rounder, bolder, and more formal. Queen Elizabeth and 
Queen Jane illustrated the latter kind of handwriting. 

" The way in which the paper came into Mr. Phillips's possession 
also, I think, proves its genuineness. It has long been a relic 
preserved by his maternal ancestors, the Howells. His uncle, a 
clergyman named Howell, was a collector of antiquities, and earlier 
maternal ancestors indulged the same tastes. Descended from 
Thomas Howell, who was a merchant trading with Spain in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and who gave a hall in London to the 
Company of Drapers, they had for a later ancestor James Howell, 
Esq., one of the clerks of James the First's Privy Council. Into 
the hands of this gentleman (who was also historiographer to 
Charles the Second) various State manuscripts seem to have fallen ; 
and, among the rest, the manuscript from the pen of Queen 
Elizabeth, which he transmitted to his descendants, or rather the 
descendants of his brother, and hence they have found their way 
to Mr. Phillips." 

THE POEM. 
" All God's Commandments are divinely pure 
By keeping them Men keepe their soules secure. 
Brave virtues Emanations Charme the Eyes 
Of all that are sincerely good and wise. 
Count that day lost whose low descending sun, 
Viewes from your hand noe noble action done. 
Depressed virtue like the palm oprest, 
Eaises more high the heaven saluting crest. 
Doe nothing rashly, rashnesse numerous wayes, 
The rash Attempter to contempt betrayes. 
Eor toyes and trifles we contend and fight, 
And our concerns farr mor substantial slight. 
Conscience abused in the midst of furies, 
It will condemn more than ten thousand juries: 
Commend not day till Night, nor Censure Man, 
Till death with his dart done what he can. 
Despise not learning's meanest introduction — 
Imbrace her rules, and hate to hate instruction. 
For public good with zeal your time expend, 
Since Virtue's sonns make that their Aime and end. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



Many thoir livings by the pen procure, 

And no Manns Living but for tbat were sure. 

Mans Reason, will, and power then most transcend, 

"When most they Answer their Creations end. 

Meete complements, with complements, and smiles, 

with smiles ; be not enslaved by others smiles. 

Good works perform in equity excell, 

The Noblest prize is gained by doeing well. 

Onely to see proves of small consequence, 

But to foresee shewes wisdom's excellence. 

Others concerns who mindes not he shall finde, 

More opportunities his own to minde. 

Hazard not precious times expense but make, 

A quick dispatch in what you undertake. 

Let moderation your Request commend, 

by thus demanding you command your friend, 

Come above Conscience who preferr would know, 

when 'tis too late it is below, below. 

" Religion is the Soule of Innocence, 

Moving in an unspotted Conscience. 

Remuneration like soft Aprill showers, 

In virtues May produces gallant flowers. 

Rare virtues emanations farr transcend the prize, 

Of the wost Indies Gold or Eastern spice. 

Starrs, Sands, and Sinns, vast numbers are, yet are 

But Cyphers, when God's mercies we compare. 

"When lands and friends are gone, and wealth take wing, 

Then Learning's priz'd, then Learning's a great thing. 

Where Reason, will, and power all comply 

With Heavenly wisdom their's rare Harmony. 

Worth too base mindes is Envy propagation, 

But in Heroick soules gaines Emulation. 

When men make presents to the best of Kings, 

They wisely should present the best of things. 

Vices, which seeme to lie within conceal'd 

Are by our words and Actions soon Reveal'd. 

Vallour for Honour, grace for glory calls, 

Brave Heroes Fames survives their Funeralls. 

Read Bookes, Men, manners Times, and you'l confesse 

That the Worlds Supreme virtue is Successe. 

Quit this worlds stage you must when your part's play'd 

Get earnest, timely for a better laide, 

Quote in the folio of your best Affections, 

Him thats a faithful friend beyond objections. 

Quilt Earths vast ball with Numbers, all imply, 

But Cyphers to Immense Eternity. 

" Patience disquiet calmes, charmes discontents, 

And Arms Men's minds against the worst events. 

In Dubious Matters pruden Council chuse 

This Solomon himselfe would not Refuse, 

Not wealth, but wisdome doth adorn our State, 

Virtue not Honour makes men fortunate. 

Would you Buy Arts, and parts which Men most prize 

Their price is Industry and exercise. 

If Nature's gifts shine forth in every part, 

Let grace and virtue crowne her Curious Art. 

If her Choice favours Nature doth denie, 

Let grace and virtue those defects supply. 

" Da 
" Elizabeth." 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



263 



Mr. James Thompson read a description of an ancient Gothic 
house now standing near Ulverscroft Priory, on Chitterman Hill, 
as follows : — 

Every hill in Charnwood Forest has a name suggestive of 
some association with the past, when the entire district was 
covered with oaks, and the home of the stag, the wolf, and other 
wild animals. Markfield, on its verge, was (as its name indicates) 
an enclosure on the " mark" or boundary of the Forest. The rocks 
surmounted by a windmill standing close to Shaw Lane, are named 
Runcliff, a corruption of "Raven's Cliff," Rafn being a man's 
name well known among the Danes, and the Cliff having once 
probably been the property of a Scandinavian adventurer, who 
may also have been the founder of Ravenstone or Raven's town. 
Benns Cliff, Hammer Cliff, Ive's Head, Lub Cloud, Pelder Tor, 
High Cadman, and others, are designations which only tend to 
stimulate rather than to satisfy curiosity. Among this class also 
may be mentioned another elevation, u Chitterman Hill," less 
known to fame than any of its contemporaries ; but which, if less 
lofty, commands a most extensive view reaching to Stathern Rise, 
in the Vale of Belvoir, Burrow Hill, and other well known points 
remote from the spectator, Leicester and its spires shooting 
distinctly up in the lower prospect, six or seven miles away. But 
the view from " Chitterman Hill " is even less attractive to the 
antiquary than the object which lies on one of its slopes, a Gothic 
House of the fifteenth century. Of this kind of structure there 
are not many examples in this county ; though it will be re- 
membered that the attention of the society has been drawn to 
specimens, either now or recently in existence at Appleby, Don- 
ington on the Heath, and Medbourne. The house at Chitterman 
Hill is a peculiar specimen. It is not large enough for the squire's 
mansion of olden time ; It has no embattled parapet, no tower of 
defence, no moat and drawbridge. It consists of bays, one lying 
at right angles to the other ; one of these is still nearly in its 
original condition, and will be here briefly described ; the other 
has been much altered and repaired. The ancient bay lies north 
and south, its sides of course facing east and west; on the east 
face are two windows in the upper story or solar, and two in the 
lower apartment, all square-headed and having stone mullions. 
The principal window has three lights, each of which is trifoliatcd, 
and the jambs and mullions are moulded. On the west side are 
two windows, namely, one opposite to the three-light window, 
and one below it, lighting the ground floor. The one opposite the 
three-light window is pointed, and has two lights ; it is closed up 
with mortar, and all the lower windows are partially concealed by 
the earth heaped up against them. But one of the most notioeable 
parts of the building is not seen on an external view, being 
concealed by a lean-to ; this is the doorway of the house, which 



864 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

apparently was once approached either by a ladder or an outside 
staircase. The tradition is that the former was the means of 
access to the interior. It does not seem that the two bays are 
coeval, though they may have been nearly so. To determine their 
relative dates would require a minute examination of architectural 
details by a student more competent than I profess to be, to under- 
take the investigation. I may however mention there are some 
matters indicative of the antiquity of this portion of the structure. 
For example, there is the wood work, and there is a door with 
hinges or straps, and latch of Gothic pattern. Altogether, the 
house is evidently of the Perpendicular period, and was erected 
between the year 1460 and 1500. It seems well adapted for the 
residence of a yeoman ; and probably as it stands within a mile of 
Ulverscroft Priory, whose richly endowed monks owned all the 
district for miles around, it belonged originally to that society. It 
may have been the house of the Priory Bailiff, who had charge of 
the labourers on the estate, and who directed the agriculture of the 
land for the Prior and his brethren. It is certainly an interesting 
structure. As the visitor contemplates it, he is carried back to the 
age in which it was thus occupied, when the spot (now secluded 
enough) was solitary, and tranquil as a log hut in a forest ; and 
when the tenant isolated himself from the world, and cut off the 
approach of strangers by drawing up the ladder at the door 
nightly ; being able, by means of an unglazed opening near the 
south-west angle of the building, to look out on the unknown 
visitor, and bow in hand, with bolt ready to discharge, to keep off 
unwelcome intruders. The house has long been known as ' Pil- 
grim's.' Here, for successive generations, Elnathan Pilgrims 
dwelt— freeholders and farmers. One of them was a steward to an 
Earl of Stamford, dying about the year 1730. He bore arms 
allusive to the name. What more probable than that on the 
downfall of the priory, some pilgrim connected with it got posses- 
sion of the building and the freehold, which until lately the Pilgrim 
family possessed ? At my request, Mr. Dudgeon, the artist, has 
obligingly forwarded for your examination to-day, two views in 
watercolour of the old structure, and one of the doorway. He has 
produced not only accurate and charming representations, but 
works of art of a high order, in which he has seized and vividly 
delineated the antiquarian aspects of this old forest abode. Such 
sketches are indeed invaluable to all admirers of ancient and 
picturesque architecture. 

At the conclusion of the paper, Mr. Thompson produced two 
watercolour drawings, by Mr. Dudgeon, of Leicester, of the east 
front and north-west side of the house, as illustrations of the paper. 
They elicited the admiration of the meeting, not only as preserving 
the antiquarian features of the building, but from their high excel- 
lence as artistic productions. 



N OS ELY. 



265 



With reference to Mr. Thompson's paper, Mr. North produced, 
by permission of the Curator of the Leicester Museum, a Lough- 
borough Tradesman's Token, found some time ago near the above- 
mentioned house, issued by Henry Somerville ; and which is 
included in the List of Leicestershire Tokens already published by 
this Society. 

Mr. North further produced (by permission of the Curator of 
the Leicester Museum) a fragment of Samian Ware, discovered in 
Jewry Wall Street, Leicester, the peculiarity of which consists in 
having the maker's name, Paterni, stamped on the outside, the 
almost invariable custom having been to stamp the potter's name 
or mark on the bottom of the inside of the vessel. Mr. Wright 
gives the name " Paterni" in his list in the The Celt, Roman, and 
Saxon. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill, Rector of Cranoe, read the following 
paper upon 

NOSELY. 

In the reign of King Edward the Confessor, the lordship of 
Nosely was worth twenty shillings a-year, and in 1266 it was twice 
that value. Hugo de Grentesmainell was the possessor. The land 
was equal to eight ploughs, two of which, with three bondmen, 
were employed in the demesne, and sixteen villains, with a priest 
and eight bordars, had six ploughs. There were twenty acres of 
brushwood (Domesday, fol. 232, a. col. 2). 

Grentesmainell, in the year 1085, gave the church of Nosely 
and two virgates of land here to the priory of St. Ebrulph, (Ord. 
Vit. 603,) and the lordship then descended to the Earl of Leicester, 
under which it was held by the family of Martivall. 

William de Martivall (de Mortua Valle) with the consent of 
Robert Earl of Leicester (being present) gave to the abbot and 
convent of St. Mary in the meadows of Leicester, two virgates of 
land here ; afterwards Ralph Martivall gave four virgates. 

Stephen de Segrave exchanged a virgate of land, at Nosely, with 
the abbots and convent of St. Mary, at Leicester, for lands of that 
abbey in Segrave. 

The abbot and convent of Croxton also possessed some property 
in this lordship. 

Anketin de Martivall was lord of Nosely 1250. In 1268 he 
was Sheriff of the County. 

In 1273 Sir Anketin de Martivall, son of the preceding, formed 
a chantry in the chapel of his mansion house here, which was 
afterwards enlarged by his son Roger to a collegiate church. 

In 1297, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I., 
died seized of divers lands at Nosely. 

In 1303 (32 of Edward), Roger de Martivall had leave to ghfa 



266 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



to the chapel of Nosely three messuages, six virgates of land, and 
eight marks rent, in Stretton, Nosely, and Gilmorton ; the mes- 
suages and land at Nosely being then held in capite under the 
Earl of Leicester, by the annual acknowledgment of a rose flower. 

In 1306 (35, Edward I.), the King confirmed a gift which had 
been made by Anketin de Martival to the chapel at Nosely, and 
the chaplains there performing divine service, of one messuage of 
divers land in Hallaton, Slawston, and Houghton, — " cum villanis, 
predicta, tenementa tenentibus, et eorum sequelis, in perpetuum. 
Teste rege apud Scum Albanum. 16 Die Junii." 

Roger de Martival is ranked by Fuller among the Worthies of 
the County of Leicester. He was educated at Merton College, 
Oxford, to the library of which college he gave several MSS., as 
may be learned from the inscription at the beginning of them ; and 
his name, with the title of Archdeacon of Leicester, occurs, with 
several others of that college, in a manuscript in their Exchequer. 
It was in 1294 that Roger de Martival was collated to the prebend 
of St. Margaret's, and the Archdeaconry of Leicester. Willis says 
he gave up the prebend, but accepted the archdeaconry, which he 
held until the fourth year of Edward II. (1310), when he was 
elected Dean of Lincoln. He was elected Bishop of Salisbury, 
April 27th, J 315, and died March 18th, 1329, and was buried at 
Salisbury. " Now seeing Bishop Godwin," says Fuller, " hath 
nothing more of him save his name and date." — (Roger de Mar- 
tival, Dean of Lincoln, consecrated 1315 (9, Edw. II.), died 1322, 
about the middle of Lent. Godwin) ; " it is charity to inform 
posterity that he was the last heir male of his house, and founded 
a college at Noseley." He left Joyce, his sister and heir, who was 
married to Robert de Waddington, whose daughter and sole heir 
was married to Sir Ralph Hastings, who by her had an only child, 
Margaret, heir to her mother, and married first to Sir Roger Heron, 
by whom she had issue three daughters — Isabel, Margaret, and 
Elizabeth. There is a monument in Nosely Church to Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Ralph de Hastings, Kt., widow of Sir Roger Heron, 
afterwards of Sir John Blacket, Kt., of Nosely, with this inscrip- 
tion : — " Hie jacet domina Margareta, uxor Johannis Blacket, 
quondam, uxor Rogeri Heroni, militis Jilia Radulphi Hastings — 
obiit an. 1406, cujus anima propitietur Deus. Amen." Arms, 
Azure, a bend coticed between six cross crosslets, fitchy, or, for 
Blacket, quartered with gules, three hatchets or axes, or. 

The family of Hezilrigge descended from Roger de Hezilrigge, 
Knight, who accompanied William the Conqueror to England. 
The manor of Nosely came into the family of Hezlerigge by Isabel 
Heron, who married Thomas Hezelrigge, of Fawden, County of 
Northumberland ; and Wotton says that this family assumed their 
surname from the town of Hezilrige, County of Northumberland. 
This Thomas de Hezilrige was the third son of William and Joan 



NOSELY. 



267 



Hezelrigge, and greatly advanced his estate ; for, by his wife he not 
only gained Nosely, but also the manor of Gilmorton. He married, 
4, Henry IV. ; and died, 3, Henry VI. (1424); He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Thomas de Hazlerigg, Dominus de Nosely, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Brocket, Knight. By an 
indenture between himself and John Jobby, custos, or rector of 
Nosely, he and his son William granted to the custos, chaplains, 
and their successors, a 'piece of land in Nosely called Le Barne 
Yard, and a croft, with standing water, &c, for twenty-eight years, 
upon the payment of two roses annually, on St. John the Baptist's 
day, and performing divine obsequies in the manner following, viz., 
that the rector, chaplains, and their successors, after the deaths of 
Thomas and Elizabeth, his then wife, and William and Elizabeth 
his then wife, should say once a year, for the health of their souls, 
the full service for the dead, with the mass in Crastino de 
Requiem, and the service to be said for any of them that died 
first, once a year, until the death of them all. Dated October 9, 
(5, Edward IV.). He died in 1467, possessed of the manor of 
Nosely, held of the King by the service of half a knight's fee, as of 
the honour of Leicester. He was buried in Nosely Church, and 
the following is his epitaph, upon an incised alabaster stone : 

" Hie jacent Thomas Hesylrige, armiger, et Elizabeth, uxora 
ejus, qui obiit die Sancto Michcelis archangeli, litera Domi- 
nican D. Anno Domini milesimo cccc n0 sexagesimo septimo : 
quorum animabus propitietur Deus. Amen" 

The arms upon the slab are, 1 Hesilrige, 2 Martival, 3 a chevron, 
between two leopards' faces ; Broket impaling three choughs. Two 
figures are sculptured upon the slab: Thomas Hesilrige, in armour, 
and Elizabeth his wife, in long robes and a close veil ; both in a 
posture of devotion. 

Thomas Hesilrige was succeeded by his son William Hesilrige, 
who married Elizabeth, the daughter and co-heir of Thomas 
Staunton, of Staunton and Castle Donington. By their marriage 
they had — 1 Thomas ; 2 Robert, one of the gentlemen ushers to 
Henry VIII.; 3 John : and two daughters — Catherine, married to 
Thomas Ashby, of Quenby ; and Ruth, married to Richard Neale, 
of Prestwold, Justice of the Common Pleas. William died in 
1473, and was buried at Nosely, near to his father. His epitaph 
runs thus: 

" Hie jacet Will's Hesilrige, armig'* et Elizabeth uxor ejus, 
quo'd'm d'nus de Nowesley, qui Willielmus obiit die Sancti 
Mathei, litera Dominicali . . . Anno mcccclxxiii , quor' animal)' 
propitietur Deus. Amen." 

This alabaster slab is partly covered by a monument, but the in- 
scription has been supplied from Burton, who noticed on the tomb 
the arms of Martival, and also those of Staunton ; and also Staunton 
impaling Hazelrig. The figure of a cock was the family crest of 



268 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Elizabeth Staunton ; and the figure of the cock is carved upon the 
stalls, which are of very fine execution for their late date. 

" It was not uncommon at this time to impale the wife's coat 
before the husband's ; for oftentimes when the branches of families 
had married great heiresses, and thereby had much enlarged their 
own estates, they did not only impale the woman's coat before the 
man's, but many times waive, and quite leave out the bearing of 
their own, substituting their wife's or mother's coat in its room." — 
Barton. 

The next possessor of Nosely was Thomas Hazelrige, who was 
Sheriff of this County in 1501, and who in 1520 was Esquire of the 
body to King Henry VIII., in a treaty of peace held in London 
between the Kings of England and France. Leland mentions him 
under the head of " Gentilmen of Leycestershire that be of most 
reputation." He married Lucy Entwyssel, of the old family of 
Entwyssel, who died October 8, 1525, having had eighteen children, 
ten sons and eight daughters. Thomas de Hesilrige died at Nosely, 
and was buried in the church, and was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Bertram Heselrige, Esq., who married the daughter of John 
Southill, Esq., of Stockerston ; he died in the July of 1565, pos- 
sessed of the Manor of Nosely, and the advowson of the charity or 
college there, valued at £20. per annum, and held of the king, as 
the honour of Leicester, parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, by the 
service of half a knight's fee. 

His epitaph in Nosely Church runs thus: 

" Hie jacet corpus Bertini Heselrige, Jrmigeri, qui obiit 25 
die Julii, anno 7 Elizabethce, 1565. The dayes of man are 
determined, and the number of his years are with the Lord, which 
boundes no flesh can passe." 

We next come to Miles Heselrige as possessor of Nosely, who 
married Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas Griffin, of Braybrooke, 
County of Northampton, of which marriage proceeded two sons, 
Thomas and Edward, who died 1566, leaving Thomas his son and 
heir. Edward married Anne, daughter of Thomas Nichols, of 
Hardwicke, County of Leicester. 

Thomas Hesilrige was Lord of Nosely by descent from his 
father, and marrying Ursula, daughter of Sir Thomas Andrewes, 
of Charwelton, knight, had one son, Thomas, and three daughters : 
Bridget, who died without issue ; Mary, married to William 
Stafford, of Blatherwick ; and Joan, wife of Anthony Forest, of 
Maborne, County of Huntingdon. 

In 1590 the manor was extended for a debt of Thomas 
Heselrige, Esq., and let by Queen Elizabeth to Andrew and 
Edward Heselrige for ninety years. 

Thomas Heselrige died May, 1600, and was succeeded by his 
son Thomas, who was High Sheriff of Leicestershire 1613; he was 
chosen knight of the shire 1614 and 1623, and in 1622 was 



NOSELY. 



269 



advanced to the dignity of a baronet. He married Frances, 
daughter and heiress of William Gorges, of Alderton, County of 
Northampton. By this marriage were fourteen children, Donald, 
Robert, Thomas, who died s.p., Sir Arthur, John, and Thomas, 
and several daughters. 

On a brass plate in Alderton Church is the following epitaph 
to Thomas Heselrige : 

Tempore ereptum 
iEteruitati custodit hie lapis 
Johanneni Heselrige, armigerum, 
Thomae Haselrige, baronetti, filium natu tertium 
Qua nobilitate genitus sit, testatur nomen : 
Qua educatus, Pietas : qua vixit, Fama : 
Tria hsee moriens reliquit asternum sibi roonumentum, 
Luge, Lector, sed parce : est ubi convenias, in Dei manibus. 

Sir Thomas Heselrige died Jan. 11, 1629, aged 66, and was 
succeeded in his estate and baronetcy by the celebrated Sir 
Arthur Heselrige, his eldest surviving son. 

Against the North wall of Nosely Church, there is a large tomb 
of alabaster erected to the memory of Sir Thomas Heselrige and 
his wife. The figures of Sir Thomas and his lady are lying at 
length, his head on his helmet and plume, hers on a cushion, their 
hands closed, raised in prayer. Sir Thomas, in a military dress, 
with large beard and ruff, his gauntlets under his feet, and below 
them the family crest. The Lady Heselrige in close robes, large 
ruff, hair combed back under a cap, studded with gold, and at the 
back of her head a veil unopened, over them in the pediment were 
placed the figures of their eight sons and six daughters, also in the 
attitude of prayer. 

The following is the inscription : 

" Here lyeth Sir Thomas Heselrige, Knight and Baronett, who, 
while he lived, was trusted with the places of greatest honour and 
power in the country. He was prudent and of impartial justice, of 
great temperance and sobriety, he died Jan. 11, 1629, aged 66. 

" Here lyes by him Dame Frances Hesilrige, daughter and heire 
of William Gorge, of Aldington, in the County of Northampton, 
Esq., she was of choice endowments, both of mind and body : she 
adorn'd her family with fine cloth of her owne spining. 

" Sir Thos. had by her eight sons and six daughters. 
" She died in the year 1668." 
At the west end of the monument is the following inscription : 

64 Vivit solum post funera Virtus." 
At the east end: Arms. Hesilrige and Gorge. Also the arms 
and quarterings of Heselrige and Gorge. They we described in 
"Harl. MSS., 1180," p. 42 

We come next to Sir Arthur Hesilrige, who was elected a 
representative of the County of Leicester, 1640. Lord Grey of 
Ruthin was his colleague. Sir Richard Halford having said that 
u Vol. II. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



his countrymen bad chosen (in Sir Arthur Hesilrige) a knight who 
had more will than wit, was, on a petition from the freeholders and 
inhabitants of the County, sent for by the Commons as a delinquent, 
and committed for some days to the Tower. The history of this 
illustrious republican is well known. Sir Arthur commanded for 
the Parliament, as colonel, a regiment of Cuirassiers, called 
"The Lobsters," which performed some signal services. He died 
in the Tower of London, and his remains were permitted to be 
honourably conveyed to Nosely with great funeral pomp, and 
interred amongst his ancestors at Nosely. There is a fine monu- 
ment erected to his memory in Nosely Church, whereon at length, 
on a tablet, is the figure of Sir Arthur in a full suit of mail, his 
head upon a cushion placed upon his helmet, in his right hand a 
baton, in his left his sword. Both his wives are in full but very 
close robes, their hair concealed under their caps, over which are 
large veils. One of the ladies has her right hand falling down her 
garment, the left hand laid upon the breast. The other lady is 
represented sideways, her head resting on her right hand ; her left, 
holding a book, falling down on her robe. The inscriptions are as 
follows : 

Here lyes Sir Arthur Hesilrige, Bart., 
Who injoyed his portion of this life 
In ye times of greatest civill troubles, 
Yt ever this nation had. 
He was a lover of liberty, 
And faithfull to his country. 
He delighted in sober company ; 
And departed this life 7th of January, 
In England's peaceable year, a.d., 1660. 



Here lyes Dame Frances Heselrige, 
Daughter of Thomas Elmes, of Lilford, 
In the County of Northampton, Esq., 
She was charitable, prudent, vertuous, and a loving Wife. 
Sir Arthur Heselrige had by her two sons and two daughters. 
She dyed in the year 1632. 
Here lyes Dame Dorothea Heselrige, sister to Robert Greevil, 
Lord Brooke, and Baron of Beauchamps Court. 
God gave to her true and great wisdome, and a large and just heart: 
She did much good in her generation. 
Sir Arthur Heselrige had by her three sons and five daughters. 
She left this life January 28, 1650. 

On the bordure of the tomb below, all kneeling, are the figures 
of the children mentioned above. Against the eldest son of the 
first wife is the following: 

■ This is Arthur Heselrige, eldest son of Dame Dorothea. He 
was of rare endowments and incomparable learning for his age, 
both in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French ; of singular witt and 
judgment; of sweet nature, and very pious. He dyed in the 12th 
year of his age, 1649." 

Sir Arthur Hesilrige was succeeded by his only surviving son 
by the first marriage Sir Thomas Hesilrige. By the mediation, 



NOSELY. 



271 



of. the Duke of Albemarle, and by services rendered to the cause 
of royalty, he was restored to those lands which his father enjoyed. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of George Fenwicke, Esq., of 
. Brinckbourne, County of Northumberland (the ancestor of Rev. 
Gerard Fenwicke, of Blaston, Leicestershire), and had issue one 
son, Sir Thomas, who succeeded him. Sir Thomas died February 
24, 1680 ; his wife May 30th, 1673. 

Sir Thomas Hesilrige, his only son and successor, was high 
sheriff of Leicestershire, 1686, and was member for the county 
1690. He died unmarried 1700, cstat. 36, devising a considerable 
part of his property to his sister Arabella. 

The dignity and entailed estate after his death devolved upon 
his uncle, Sir Robert Hesilrige, Bart., the eldest surviving son of 
Sir Arthur. This Robert Hesilrige resided for some time in St. 

i Peter's parish, Northampton. He purchased from the Corporation 
of that town, in 1678, the site of ground upon which Northampton 
Castle stood, about three acres, for the sum of £50. He married 

\ Bridget, daughter of Sir Samuel Rolle, of Heanton, Devon, Knight, 

i by whom he had five sons and four daughters. Sir Robert died 
May, 1713, and was buried in Nosely Church where is a free- 
stone slab placed in memory of him. He was succeeded by his 

i son, Robert Hesilrige, who married Dorothy, second daughter of 

■ Banaster, Lord Maynard. He resided principally in St. Peter's 
parish, Northampton. He died May 19, 1721, leaving one son, 

] Sir Arthur, and one daughter. 

Sir Arthur Hesilrige, Baronet, his successor, was a great patron 
] of the fine arts. He went to Rome, 1723, and brought home many 
| curiosities, with which he adorned the house at Nosely, which was 
\ partially rebuilt. It was Sir Robert who modernized the inside of 
| the Collegiate Church ; but after making these alterations, he still 
continued to make Northampton his chief residence. He married 
j Hannah, daughter of Mr. Sturges. By this union he had nine 
sons and seven daughters. He died at Northampton, 1763, and 
was succeeded by his son, Robert Hesilrige. Sir Arthur Hesilrige 
repurchased (by Act of Parliament) the estates which had been 
severed from the inheritance of his ancestors at Nosely. 

Sir Robert Hesilrige, Baronet, married Sarah, daughter of 
Nathaniel Waller, Esq., and had one son and two daughters. 
[ Sarah, married to David Henly, Esq., and Hannah, married to the 
Rev. Thomas Abbot. At the death of Sir Robert, Sir Arthur, his 

■ son, succeeded to his title ; but he died without issue at Bengal, 
when he was succeeded by Sir Thomas Maynard Hesilrige, who, 

5 though twice married, died in 1817, without any issue. The late 
' owner of the manor of Nosely was Sir Arthur Grey Hesilrige. He 
was the grandson of Sir Arthur Hesilrige, the seventh baronet of 
Nosely, and son of Colonel Grey Heselrige, and he married Hen- 
j rietta Anne, daughter of John Bourne, Esq., of Stanch Hall, 



272 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



Hants., by whom he had issue three sons and one daughter. Sir 
Arthur died, October 24th, 1819, when he was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Sir Arthur Grey Hazlerigg, as twelfth baronet, who 
married Henrietta, daughter of Charles Allan Phillipps, Esq., and 
has a numerous issue. The present baronet is highly respected in 
the County of Leicester, as a generous landlord, a kind friend to 
the poor, a liberal supporter of the Leicestershire charitable insti- 
tutions, and is ever forward in promoting every good work. 

I believe that the existing Church of Nosely is the collegiate 
chapel of Roger de Martivall, archdeacon of Leicester, not only (as 
Canon James says) from the style of the architecture agreeing with 
his date, but from the distinctly collegiate form of the building. 
Nichols gives it a much later date, owing to the windows having 
been deprived of their mullions ; which happened, no doubt 
(together with other alterations), when Sir Arthur Hesilrige 
returned from Rome, in 1723. There was a great rage for modern- 
izing churches in those days ; an instance of a like kind having 
happened in 1724, in the parish church at Welham. In the 
Registry of Bishop D'Alderby, at Lincoln, is a regular agreement 
between Roger de Martivall, then Archdeacon of Leicester and 
Lord of Nosely, and Simon de Rothwell, rector of the parish 
church, containing several privileges allowed to the chapel, and 
confirmed by the Bishop of Lincoln ; and, as a compensation for 
the loss which the mother church might receive from these privi- 
leges, a messuage at Nosely, and a virgate of land there, were 
settled on the rector and his successors. The parish church stood 
about a quarter of mile from the collegiate church, in a field still 
called the churchyard close; but since the year 1344 no further 
mention has been made of the parish church of Nosely. 

I cannot conclude this without making a remark about the 
manner in which the service is conducted at Nosely. It is with 
great gratification that I can say, the musical services are per- 
formed in a truly admirable manner, much to the credit of the 
ladies of Nosely Hall. The church itself, in neatness and cleanli- 
ness, is second to none in the county ; and when you enter it, you 
see at once that you are entering a fine remain of the olden time. 
One of the most interesting ecclesiastical buildings in the county 
is the church of Nosely, built by Roger de Martivall, the worthy 
Archdeacon of Leicester ; and long may it stand, a monument of 
his piety. 

The name of Hazlerigg has been spelt in various ways, as is 
common with families of long standing, viz. : Hezilrigge, Hazlerigg, 
Hesylrige, Hazelrige, Hasilrige, Hesilrige, &c. 

The Very Rev. The Dean of Waterford was unanimously 
elected an honorary member of the Society, after which the 
meeting closed. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



273 



30th November, 1863. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

Letters were read from Earl Howe, W. S. Dugdale, Esq., of 
Merevale, and other gentlemen, stating the pleasure it would give 
them to further the wishes and interests of the Society, at its 
intended meeting at Hinckley, next year. 

Mr. North (Hon. Sec.) announced the following donations 
towards the preservation of the Jewry Wall : The Right Hon. Earl 
Howe, £3. ; W. Perry Herrick, Esq., £3.; Sir H. Dryden, Bart., 
<£L; Sir H. Halford, Bart., £l,: Lord John Manners, M.P., £1.; 
W. U. Heygate, Esq., M P., £l. Is.; Thomas Stokes, Esq., £l.; 
J. D. Harris, Esq., £1. ; Josh. Whetstone, Esq., £i. ; Alfred Ellis, 
Esq., £1. ; Messrs. Evans and Stafford, 10s. 6d. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill proposed the following resolution, which 
was seconded by Mr. Alfred Ellis, and carried unanimously : 
" That this Society takes this, its first opportunity, of recording 
its deep sorrow at the decease of the Rev. Canon James, late Vicar 
of Theddingworth, and one of its first honorary members, and of 
expressing its conviction of the great loss this and kindred societies 
have sustained in his death, and of its high appreciation of his 
many amiable qualities and scholarly attainments." 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society 
for the coming year, 1864: Thomas Cope, Esq., Osbaston Hall; 
Roger D. Miles, Esq., Keyham ; Thomas Haymes, Esq., Thirsk ; 
H. L. Powys Keck, Esq , Stoughton Grange; Wm. Slater, Esq., 
Carlton Chambers; the Rev. H. L. Watson, Sharnford ; the 
Rev. Richard Waterfield, Thurcaston ; the Rev. Thomas H assail, 
Rearsby. 

The following antiquities, &c, were exhibited: 
By Mr Superintendent Deakins, a shilling and a sixpence 
of Queen Elizabeth, both dated 1572, and lately found in an allot- 
ment garden near the parish church, Lutterworth ; also a farthing 
of Charles I., found in removing the foundation of the old school 
at Shawell, preparatory to the erection of a new building, in 1862. 

By Mr. North, two Tradesmen's Tokens, found with other 
coins in Market Harborough Church, during its restoration, a few 
years ago. One, issued by Robert Bass, of Market Harborough, 
at the Hart Inn, in 1668, and, in allusion to that sign, heart- 
I shaped ; the other, coined by George Almond, of Medbourne, 
in 1667. The other coins found at the same time included a 
Northamptonshire Tradesman's Token, issued by John Collier, 
"IN ROELL, 1658"; a farthing of Charles I., inscribed on the 
obverse, "CARO. D.G. MAG. BRI.", and on the reverse, "FRA. 
J ET HIB. REX," being one of the authorized farthings, the privi- 



274 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



lege of making which was granted to private individuals, for their 
own benefit, and which caused endless discontent among the 
people, from the fact of their being much below their nominal 
value ; they, in consequence, failed in superseding the Tradesmen's 
Tokens, notwithstanding the proclamations for abolishing the latter; 
and several Nuremburg tokens, issued by Hans Kranwinckle, two 
of which bore the inscription, "GOTTES. GABEN, SOL, MAN, 
LOB." 

By Mr. Joseph Goddard, a small bronze coin of Constantine 
the Great, struck at Treves, lately found near the Horse- water, 
Belgrave Gate, Leicester. 

By the Rev. A. Pownall, of South Kilworth Rectory, what is 
believed to be an unique penny of Athelstan I., found in Northamp- 
tonshire, and upon which he communicated the following remarks : 

This coin presents an unpublished type of the money of that 
Athelstan who is supposed in some way to have been governing in 
East Anglia during the reign of Egbert, about the middle of the 
first half of the ninth century ; and who is probably the son of 
Ethelwolf, to whom, on succeeding to the throne, that sovereign 
gave " the kingdoms of the Kentish men, and of the East Saxons, 
and of the men of Surrey, and of the South Saxons," as is 
recorded in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" under the year 836 a.d. 
Besides this prince, there are two others bearing the name of 
Ethelstan, whose coins we possess ; one of them being, of course, 
the grandson of Alfred, and sole monarch of England in 925 a.d. 
6e Rex totius Britannia? he is styled on some of his coins ; and, 
judging by the high sounding titles used in many of the charters of 
his reign, it was not an appellation he disliked. His money is 
comparatively common for he had sixty places of mintage in the 
kingdom, and we know the names of more than a hundred of his 
moneyers. More rare, however, are the coins attributed to the 
Danish leader Guthrum, who assumed the name of Ethelstan when 
he was baptized, in the year 878. At first the enemy, at last the god- 
son and friend of Alfred, we find this Guthrum mentioned, with two 
other Danish chiefs, as " sitting down" before the town of Cambringe, 
for a whole year, 875 a.d. ; and three years afterwards, in the summer 
of 878, he was beaten into right good friendship by our great king. 
Taking up his abode in East Anglia, as a sort of lieutenant or 
deputy for Alfred, Guthrum, alias Ethelstan, appears to have 
contributed by his efforts towards the peaceable settlement of that 
portion of the English domain. On a certain occasion, also, he 
was employed in a more private capacity, with one Sighelm, " to 
carry to Rome the alms which the King had vowed to send 
thither" ( Anglo-Saxon Chronicle J ; this was in 883 a.d., and 
seven years later he died. Scarcer than the coins of the King of 
all England, his money is, however, more common than that of the 
prince I have named first, one of whose coins forms the subject of 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



275 



the present communication. It reads ETHEL ST ANI on the 
obverse, having the letter A in the centre, as is usually found on 
the money of East Anglia ; and it bears the moneyer's name — 
TORHTHELM — a name already known: but the cross moline on 
the reverse distinguishes it completely from all other published 
types of this prince's coinage, and connects it closely with a coin 
of his father Ethelwolf, which is figured in Ruding (Annals of 
Coinage, plate xxx. 16 J. The forms of the letters on these curious 
pieces are very remarkable ; indeed, it is chiefly by them, and by 
the general character of the workmanship, that numismatists are 
enabled to arrange the various mintages of that early period of 
English history. I would specially call attention to the shape of 
the letter M, and to that which for the Saxon eye represented 
the sound "TH." In the coin exhibited, these letters are very 
different in form from the same letters as they appear on the coins 
of King Athelstan, a hundred years later. I will only say, in 
addition, that this singularly rare and interesting coin came into 
my possession recently, through the kindness of a friend in 
Northamptonshire, in whose parish it was found about two years 
ago. Turned up by a farm labourer with the plough, I am told it 
only just escaped the "drill," for its first owner was greatly 
tempted to pierce it, and then wear it at his watch chain, in 
compliance with the present fashion. 

By Mr. Henry Goddard, a small pectoral cross of bronze, 
about two inches high ; a small bronze coin of Valens, both lately 
found in Leicester ; and the neck of an amphora, of very large 
size, found in excavating for the new Gas Office, Millstone Lane, 
Leicester. 

By the Rev. J. H. Hill, drawings of a flint celt, and of two 
pieces of pottery, found some time ago at Nosely, and now in the 
possession of Sir A. G. Hazlerigg, Bart. Judging from the orna- 
mentation of the pottery, as shown in the drawings, it would belong 
to the Early British period, being chiefly composed of zigzags and 
parallel lines. 

Mr. North communicated the discovery of a small leaden 
coffin, in the parish of Smeeton-Westerby, in this county. The 
coffin (which is two feet seven inches in length, by eight inches in 
width, at the one end, and twelve inches at the other,) was dug up 
by men procuring gravel in an orchard, at the southern extremity 
of Smeeton, that is, midway between the hamlets of Smeeton and 
Westerby, now forming the parish of Smeeton-Westerby, at a 
depth of about three feet from the surface. It is rudely made of 
two pieces of tolerably thick lead, without solder or any fastening 
at the ends, the lead being merely folded up, and the ends bent 
back over the sides. The piece forming the lid or top was also 
bent over the sides, in the same manner as the ends, and had been 
fastened with nails, as may be judged from the holes, but the nails 



27(> LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

themselves have rusted away. Within the coffin was a small human 
skeleton, which when first seen, was apparently perfect, but it was 
quickly disturbed, and some of the bones crumbled to dust. Mr. 
Macaulay, surgeon, having examined the bones, pronounces them 
to be the remains of a young child. The leaden coffin is much 
corroded at the place where the head of the child lay. Its lid, 
which is tolerably perfect, bears no letter or marks of any kind 
upon it. There is no appearance to indicate the presence of a 
wooden coffin having been used with the leaden one. Upon the 
coffin a number of large rough stones had been thrown before the 
earth was replaced. Nothing of a similar kind has been found in 
the immediate neighbourhood of this coffin ; but an aged pa- 
rishioner remembers some skeletons without coffins being dug up, 
many years ago, in another part of the same gravel-bed, about 200 
yards from the spot where the coffin lay. He also reports that his 
grandfather used to relate, that before his time the plague was 
very bad in Smeeton, and that many bodies were buried in various 
parts of the village without coffins or funeral rites. 

ALDERMAN NEWTON'S NEW SCHOOLS. 

Messrs. Goddard and Son, architects, produced for the inspec- 
tion and criticism of the Society, their approved plans and working 
drawings of the new schools shortly to be erected in St. Martin's, 
Leicester, by the trustees of Alderman Newton's charity. 

The Schools, which will be Gothic in style, of the Late Per- 
pendicular period, will stand back from the street about 140 feet. 
The ground in front (a portion of which, it is hoped, will eventually 
be used as the site for the master's house,) will partly be planted 
with shrubs, and partly used as a play-ground for the children. The 
school-room, which will, internally, be a parallelogram in form, 
will measure sixty feet by twenty-five feet, and the height from the 
floor to the level of the wall-plate will be twenty-four feet, with an 
open high-pitched roof above. A class-room, twenty-four feet by 
fourteen feet, will be on the south-east side, with cloak and book 
rooms on each side of the porch. Externally, the buildings will 
present, without the expense of much ornamentation, a handsome 
and picturesque appearance ; and they will be a great improve- 
ment to the locality in which they will stand. 

The Society congratulated the trustees on the choice of the 
national style of architecture for the new schools, in place of the 
exotic or no-style buildings, which until lately were so generally 
erected. 

Considerable discussion took place with respect to some of the 
internal features of the school, which were, however, satisfactorily 
and clearly explained by the architects. With regard to the plan, 
as a whole, Mr. Alfred Ellis, one of the trustees of the .charity, 



RAGDALE HALL. 



277 



remarked, that without desiring a building of too ornate a character, 
the trustees did wish the schools to be in some sort a memorial of 
their munificent founder, and as such they were anxious to have 
them built, architecturally, as good and as handsome as the funds 
will permit. 

After remarks from Mr. Ordish, Mr. Thompson, Mr. North, 
and other gentlemen present, the following resolution was unani- 
mously carried : 

" That the Society having examined the designs and working 
drawings of the new school in connection with Alderman Newton's 
Charity, is of opinion, that in pictorial effect and general arrange- 
ment they are highly satisfactory." 

RAGDALE HALL. 

Mr. Dudgeon, artist, sent for exhibition several extremely 
beautiful watercolour and india-ink drawings of Ragdale Hall, in 
this county. 

Mr. James Thompson (using Mr. Dudgeon's pictures as illus- 
trations to his remarks) read the following paper upon Ragdale 
Hall: 

Rakedale is supposed by Nichols, the county historian, to have 
taken its name from a remarkable break, or rake, which forms a 
very deep dale, beginning about a quarter of a mile above the 
village, through which it extends itself a considerable distance, 
till it gradually diminishes to so small a breadth as only to allow 
the passage of a little brook, which runs to Hoby, and there falls 
into the river Wreake. 

Ralph, Lord Basset of Drayton, was the proprietor of the 
manor, in the reign of Richard II. He died without issue, in the 
year 1389. As he was then seized in fee simple of the estate, he 
entailed Ragdale and the adjacent lordship of Willows upon his 
nephew, Sir Hugh Shirley, Knight, the son of his sister Isabella, 
who had married Sir Thomas Shirley. The condition of the entail 
was repugnant to Sir Hugh Shirley, who refused to assume the 
arms and name of Basset. He was a high-spirited man, and 
prouder of the name of Shirley than he would have been of that of 
Basset. He was the grand falconer of Henry IV„ and the "valiant 
Shirley" of Shakespeare. At the battle of Shrewsbury, when 
Douglas encounters King Henry, the dramatist introduces Prince 
Henry, who enters to rescue his father, and who, before attacking 
the Scotch warrior, says : 

" The spirits 

Of valiant Shirley, Stafford, Blunt, are in my arms." 

Sir Hugh fell on the field, clad in royal armour. 

Through the refusal of this knight to fulfil the condition of his 
uncle's entail of Rakedale, law disputes ensued between him and 



278 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



the Earl of Stafford, who claimed under an old entail, made in 
1310, by Ralph, Lord Basset, his grandfather. Between thirty 
and forty years elapsed in litigation, when Rakedale was finally 
released to Sir Ralph Shirley, Knight, by the feoffees of the said 
Ralph, Lord Basset. 

Thenceforward the Shirleys remained in undisputed possession 
of Rakedale. Their original nidus in this county was here ; for it 
was not until some generations had passed away that they were 
seated at Staunton Harold. That property came into their pos- 
session, in fact, through the marriage of Sir Ralph Shirley (the 
grandson of Sir Hugh) to Margaret Staunton, sister and heir of 
Thomas Staunton, their son, John Shirley, Esq., inheriting Staun- 
ton Harold, in right of his mother. He died in 1485, and was 
buried at Garendon Abbey. 

As his son and his grandson did not live at Rakedale, but at 
Staunton Harold, it may be assumed there was no resident lord of 
the manor in the former village in their lifetimes; but early in the 
reign of Elizabeth, John Shirley, Esq., the great grandson of the 
inheritor of Staunton Harold, settled at Rakedale ; and it is no 
unfair presumption to suppose he built the manor house of that 
period. He died in 1570. 

His son was Sir George Shirley, who was sheriff of this county 
about the year 1603, and who, eight years after, was created a 
baronet. To him may be attributed the enlargement of the Eliza- 
bethan manor house in the style prevalent in the reign of James I., 
and the substitution of red brick, as a building material, in the 
place of timber. He died in the year 1622. 

To Sir George succeeded Sir Henry, whose alliance with the 
Devereux family ultimately raised his descendants in rank, and grati- 
fied their ambition. The lady to whom he was allied was Dorothy 
Devereux, daughter of Robert, Earl of Essex, and co-heiress to 
her brother, Robert, Earl of Essex. In the days of Sir Henry and 
Lady Dorothy the old manor house of Rakedale was considerably 
" beautified." They were proud of their ancestry, and delighted 
in the insignia of the races from whom they had descended. Sir 
Henry, therefore, added the east bow and projecting porch to the 
front, about the year 1629; and above the door he caused to be 
carved in stone the family coat of arms, containing fifty quarter- 
ing^ ; thus showing the families with which he was connected, by 
alliance and descent ; the last of the fifty quarterings being that of 
Paris, of Lincolnshire, from which, obviously, the shield of Pares 
has been derived. On each side of this coat of arms are two others, 
that to the left of the spectator being the coat of Sir Henry's mother, 
who was Frances, daughter of Edward, Lord Berkeley, and that 
to the right the coat of Devereux, his wife's family. On the sides 
of the doorway are the crests of Shirley and Devereux. In the 
parlour, on a finely emblazoned shield, carved in wood, over the 



RAGDALE HALL. 



279 



chimney breast, are eight quarterings ; those on the dexter being 
the coats of Shirley, and those on the sinister the quarterings of 
Devereux. The date of the work is fixed on one of the pseudo- 
classical pillars, which stands by the side of the panel, namely, 
1631; and the initials H. D. S. (Henry and Dorothy Shirley) 
plainly indicate under whose directions the carving was executed. 
In the oak wainscot of the chamber over the parlour the arms of 
Shirley and Devereux were also carved. Sir Henry was a great 
lover of genealogy as well as heraldry ; as by his directions the 
fine family pedigree (now preserved at Staunton Harold) was 
completed, in 163*2. In the year ensuing he died. 

Sad times for the Shirleys followed. The only son of Sir 
Henry who lived to perpetuate the stock was his second son, who 
was a devoted royalist, and who was imprisoned seven times in the 

• Tower, where he died in 1656, under thirty years of age. He 
erected the beautiful Gothic chapel at Staunton Harold, which 
remains a monument of his good taste, imperfect as may be the 
execution. 

The misfortunes of the father, however, made the fortunes of 
1 the son, Robert. Only six years of age at his father's decease, he 
was elevated to the Barony of Ferrers of Chartley, in 1677, by King 
Charles II., who iu this way recognized the great services of his loyal 
parent. The claim to the Barony of Ferrers, it should be stated, 
was based on the young baronet's descent from his grandmother, 
| Dorothy Devereux. In the year 1711, he was created Earl of 
j Ferrers and Viscount Tarn worth. Towards the close of Charles 
I the Second's reign, he built the largest bow to the old manor 
' house at Rakedale, near its western extremity, and he made the 
place his hunting-seat, where he kept the hawks he used in 

• falconry, the stone trough upon which they were fed being in 
existence about 1800, when Nichols published his volume of East 

' Goscote Hundred. 

It may be inferred that when the old house became a hunting- 
seat, the Shirleys gradually abaudoned it as a residence ; and this 
would take place after the decease of the first Earl, in 1717. 
About that time, doubtless, the proprietors let the place to a tenant 

j named Henton. In the adjoining church lies George Henton, 
who died in the year 1731, aged 70; and who may be supposed to 

, have been the first occupier after the first Earl's decease. Born in 
1661, he was eleven years younger than that nobleman, and was 
probably a confidential tenant, treated on familiar terms by Lord 

I Ferrers in his hunting seasons. Nichols (writing in 1799) says: 
" The old mansion house is at present inhabited by Mr. Henton, a 
substantial farmer, Earl Ferrers' tenant"; and it may be thence 
inferred that the oldfashioned tie of landlord and tenant had been 
preserved unbroken from the first lord's time to that of the seventh 
Earl Ferrers. 



280 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



From these particulars, chiefly compiled from Nichols's History, 
we learn something of what the old hall has been in ancient times', 
and the history of the structure is so intimately inwoven with the 
history of the family that both gain in interest in consequence. 
I have therefore laid the pedigree details before you, previous to 
inviting your attention to two watercolour drawings of Rakedale 
Manor House, from Mr. Dudgeon's pen and brush, which have 
been kindly lent to me for exhibition to-day. 

The first of these represents the building from a point south 
west of it. It gives the whole range of the front. The two 
gables nearest the spectator surmount the Jacobean portion of 
the edifice, that added by Sir George, the first baronet ; the bay 
beneath the first gable having been added (as above stated) by 
the first Lord Ferrers, towards the close of Charles the Second's 
reign. Next to the two gables is the porch erected by Sir Henry, 
the second baronet, where often the falconer may be supposed to 
have stood, waiting for his master and Lady Dorothy, hawk on 
wrist, before they set out for the morning's recreation. Above the 
door is the shield with the fifty quarterings. Beyond the porch 
to the right, is the timbered dwelling of the reign of Elizabeth, 
raised by John Shirley, Esq., the father of the first baronet. To 
the right of this is a third gable, with bay beneath it, the latter 
made by Sir Henry. The facade is completed by an ancient 
w T ing with a modern frontage. It is not difficult to perceive from the 
roof lines that different parts have been erected at different periods. 

In the second picture the front is taken from a south eastern 
locality, It shows the church, and the old market cross on its 
south side, more fully than the other view ; the latter being 
particularly elegant and striking. The church has been much 
mutilated, and possesses little interest. All the other details of the 
hall will be recognized after the explanation of the first drawing. 

From the two illustrations it will be seen that Rakedale Manor 
House stands second in picturesque effect to no building in the 
county, of its date, and perhaps has no rival. The drawings do 
ample justice to the subject, and afford the Society additional proofs 
of the high artistic accomplishment of its member, Mr. Dudgeon. 



25th January, 1864. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from Miss James acknowledging 
the resolution passed at the last Meeting. 



REPORT FOR 18G3. 



281 



Arrangements were made with regard to a General Meeting at 
Hinckley, in the summer of 1864, and a Sub-Committee formed 
to cany them out. 

Mr. North (in the absence of the Treasurer) presented an 
audited Statement of Accounts for the past year, shewing a 
balance of £31. 16s. Od. in favour of the Society. 

The Honorary Secretary (Mr. North) presented, and read, 
the following Report of the Committee, for the year 1863 : — 

REPORT. 

The recurrence of the Annual Meeting of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society imposes a duty upon its Committee to render, as upon 
previous occasions, a short account of its stewardship during its year of office. 

In order to do this as concisely as possible, it may be well to speak of the 
Society — 

I. As to its Position. 
II. As to its Proceedings. 
III. As to its Prospects. 
The Committee for the previous year (1862) congratulated the Society upon its 
increased number of members. This congratulation can again be repeated, the 
member roll of the Society having been further strengthened by the addition of 
forty-nine names during the past year, whilst the loss by withdrawal and death has 
been very small. 

This number of members gives the Leicestershire Society no mean position in 
the goodly band of similar institutions existing in the midland counties, and extends 
its influence in some degree more generally over the county, into most of the 
districts of which its publications now find their way, disseminating its principles, 
propounding its objects, and encouraging a taste for studies of an Arcb geological and 
Architectural character. 

The Proceedings of the Society during the year just closed having differed little 
from those of previous years, may not seem to call for special remai-k. It may 
however, be said that the volume of the Associated Societies, placed in the hands of 
all the members, fully sustained the reputation of its predecessors, both as to the 
Reports and Papers printed, and the illustrations. The Rev. G. A. Poole's paper 
upon Painted Glass should be read by all who feel an interest — and what member of 
these Societies does not? — in an article now so extensively manufactured, and 
respecting which an opinion was expressed in our last Report. The contributions 
from the Leicestershire Society, consisting of tbe Rev. Prebendary Trollope's Paper 
upon Bosworth Field, and that of Mr. Roberts upon St. Martin's Church, have, no 
doubt, been read with interest by all the members. The former of these Papers 
was considerably enriched by an illustration contributed by Messrs. Goddard and 
Son, Architects, being an exact representation of the ancient Inn known as tbe 
White (afterwards the Blue) Boar, or King Richard's House, as it existed in 
Leicester in tbe time of Richard III. This drawing was made from exact dimensions 
taken of the edifice, and a careful examination of all its details previous to, and at, 
its unfortunate destruction in the year 1836. As this drawing had never before 
been published, not only all who feel an interest in tbe memoi'ials of the Battle of 
Bosworth Field, an event which stands out so boldly in our local and national 
history, but also all students of the domestic architecture of that period, will feel 
indebted to Messrs Goddard and Son for their courtesy and liberality in placing so 
valuable a drawing at the disposal of the Society. In addition to this volume, the 
Committee have had the pleasure of handing to each of the members, free of charge, 
Part II. of the Transactions of their own Society, compi-ising an account of its 
meetings, exhibitions, and excursions, with the Papers read thereat during the year 
1857, and part of 1858. This section of a volume contains various Papers of local 
and general interest, which it is thought will not be unacceptable to the members. 
For the illustrations to this part, the Society is again indebted to the artistic pencils 
of Mr. Joseph Goddard and Mr. Bellairs. The Rev. J. H. Hill and the General 



282 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Secretary of the Associated Societies also permitted the use of various steel plates 
and wood blocks, whilst the cost of printing two of the illustrations was defrayed 
by Mr. T. T. Paget and Mr. Thomas Nevinson. By the kindness and liberality of 
all these gentlemen, the interest of the Papers and the value of the publication is 
considerably enhanced. 

The annual general summer meeting was held last year, in conjuction with the 
Northamptonshire Society, at Kibworth, and the usual excursion was made from 
thence. The Committee and they believe they may say all the members thei'e present 
- — look back upon both the meeting and the excursion with unmingled feelings of 
pleasure and gratification. The courtesy, kindness, and hospitality extended towards 
the members, and the interest shown in their proceedings by rich and poor fully 
compensated for all the trouble and expense necessarily attending the carrying out 
of their programme. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, the 4th and 5th of August, were the days chosen for 
the proceedings. The first day was unusually wet — the rain scarcely ceasing to 
pour down in gloomy earnestness the whole day. This, however, did not prevent a 
goodly assemblage of the members of both Societies, and of the ladies and gentle- 
men of the neighbourhood, in the parish church of S. Wilfred, where the day's 
proceedings commenced with Morning Prayer ; after which Mr. Wm. Slater, 
Architect, of Carlton Chambers, London, described the architectural features of the 
fabric which had been recently restored under his care. As this description will be 
printed with illustrations in the forthcoming annual volume of the Associated 
Societies, it is unnecessary here to give even an abstract of Mr. Slater's remarks, 
which were listened to with considerable interest by all present. 

From the chui'ch the party proceeded to inspect the contents of the temporary 
Museum in the National Schools : one room being devoted to Archaeology, and the 
other to Architecture; the former was well supplied with objects of considerable 
interest and value, consisting of ancient swords, knives, rings, seals, keys, personal 
ornaments and dress ; ancient books, letters, and manuscripts ; many autographs ; 
fine collections of coins and medals ; a large collection of china, <fec, &c. The 
Architectural room contained many drawings of Leicestershire churches, Archi- 
tectural designs, views in Leicestershire, carvings in wood, and specimens of mural 
decoration and stencilling. Later in the afternoon a large party assembled, by 
invitation, at the house of Mrs. Buzzard, Kibworth Beauchamp, to inspect the 
ancient tapestry with which a large upper room in her house is completely covered. 
This gave much pleasure to those present. The tapestry was pronounced to be 
Flemish of the sixteenth century ; and though the whole is in fair preservation, it 
was, on account of the anachronisms in dress, &c, and in consequence of some 
portions being cut away, an interesting puzzle to attempt to assign an origin for the 
various designs, which evidently embraced both scriptural and secular subjects. 
Various and conflicting and — it must be confessed, with regard to several of the 
designs — unsatisfactory attempts at solution were offered. 

The gentlemen forming the Local Committee at Kibworth having given directions 
for the opening of a tumulus existing on the west side of the village, in a field 
adjoining the Leicester turnpike road, as many of the members as would encounter 
the pouring rain paid it a visit. The excavations, although undertaken in a most 
spirited and praiseworthy manner (those who know the large size of the tumulus 
will feel it required no ordinary courage to commence such a work), were not con- 
ducted in that careful and systematic way so necessary in such cases. Enough, 
however, was discovered in broken pottery, (fee, to prove that it had been used as 
a place of interment in Roman times. Perhaps, had the excavations been continued 
lower than they were, the primary interment or interments might have been 
discovered. 

After a Public Dinner at the Rose and Crown, to which about forty gentlemen 
sat down, the usual Public Evening Meeting was held in the Grammar School, 
where Papers were read : — 

i. By Mr. Levien, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Some Notes on the Lords of the Manor of 
Kibworth. 

ii. By the Rev. M. Osborn, on the History and Antiquities of Kibworth. 
hi. By Mr. V. Wing (in his absence by Mr. North), on the Requirements of Gothic 
Architecture in order to a successful competition with the Works of 
Antiquity. 



REPORT FOR 18G3. 



283 



The Iter. Prebendary Trollope then gave a short description of the tumulus just 
referred to, with the results of the excavations ; and Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., 
■toed some remarks, both humorous and practical, upon the Architecture of 
Churches aud their fittings. 

The usual complimentary speeches closed the meeting, which was a very crowded 
one — all the available space in the room being occupied. 

Fortunately for all concerned in the excursion, the following morning opened 
favourably, a bright sunshine welcomed all who assembled for an early breakfast 
at the village inn, previous to starting for the pleasures of the day. At half-past 
eight o'clock precisely the bugle sounded for the start. The party was quickly 
increased by the addition of many carriages which joined it on the rout, and the 
numbers soon reached about two hundred persons. And here the only disappoint- 
ment of the day was deeply felt and expressed — the enforced absence of the Rev. 
Canon James, through indisposition. Mr. James had undertaken to be the inter- 
preter of the churches during the excursion, and had a short time previously gone 
over the intended route in company with the Rev. J. H. Hill, in order to prepare 
himself for the occasion. In the meantime, however, his physical weakness had so 
much increased as to render his presence impossible. He nevertheless had, with 
that forethought and consideration for others which always distinguished him, 
written notes upon the various churches to be visited, which he transmitted to the 
Secretary for the guidance of any gentleman who, without preparation, might be 
called upon to fill his place. Since then, as we all know, his gentle spirit has 
passed from hence, leaving a void in Leicestershire which will be long felt, not only 
by all the clergy, but also by a large body of churchmen interested in, and anxious 
to promote, church extension and church work of every kind within the county. 
He has left an example of courtesy and kindness to all with whom he had any 
intercourse, of a highly cultivated mind and great scholarly attainments, made 
subservient to the encouragement of an extension of all that was good and beautiful, 
and likely to benefit his fellow-men or elevate their taste, which we shall do well 
to prize, and attempt to follow, but which we can scarcely hope to emulate. 

The first place visited was Thorpe Langton, and there the Rev. Prebendary 
Trollope entered upon the duties of expositor, which he had kindly undertaken at 
the last moment, aud which he discharged throughout the day to the gratification 
and instruction of the large assembly he addressed. It would be wearisome to 
repeat here the proceedings of a day still fresh in the memory of those present. It 
must, therefore, be sufficient to note that Church Langton was next visited and 
descanted upon ; then at Nosely the company not only visited the interesting (once) 
Collegiate Chapel, but through the courtesy of Sir Arthur and Lady Hazlerigg were 
invited to inspect the Hall, to see its paintings, and to read many original letters 
and documents of great interest and value. From thence a short drive brought the 
party to Keythorpe Hall, where the Society was entertained by Lord and Lady 
Berners, in a manner combining the profuse hospitality for which the English 
noble and gentlemen have always been proverbial, and the grace, elegance, and 
refinement which now happily add such a charm to their entertainments. After 
showing every appreciation of their noble host's hospitality the travellers again 
filled the carriages, and the Churches of Tugby, East Norton, and Allexton were 
visited in succession; then, after many congratulations upon the success and 
pleasures of the meeting, the party separated, some returning to Kibworth, and 
some driving direct to Leicester. 

The Bi- Monthly Meetings of the Society have been productive of considerable 
interest, and the exhibition of antiquities well worthy of notice. A record of these 
has been preserved, and will appear, it is hoped, in a future number of the " Trans- 
actions" of the Society. 

The Papers read comprise the following : — 
Town Crosses, by Mr. R. W. Johnson. 

Genealogical Notes upon the family of Tailbois, by the Rev. J. H. Hill. 

The Jewry Wall, Leicester, by Mr. Henry Goddard. 

On some relics from Little Oxendon, by Mr. Thomas North. 

On an ancient Gothic House on Chitterman Hill, by Mr. James Thompson. 

On Nosely, by the Rev. J. H. Hill. 

On a Penny of Athelstan I. (supposed to be unique), by the Rev. A. Pownall. 
On Ragdale Hall, by Mr. James Thompson. 



284 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Soveral architectural designs and working drawings have heen submitted to the 
Society at these meetings, upon which the Committee have had great pleasure in 
expressing opinions, and making suggestions. 

One of the primary objects of this Society being to preserve all ancient archi- 
tectural remains within the county which the Committee may consider of value and 
importance, they have exerted their influence during the past year to preserve two « 
memorials in Leicester, of widely different dates, and suggestive of far different 
associations, — the Jewry Wall, which, whether it be a portion of the ancient wall 
of the town (as some of our members suggest), or not, at least reminds us of the 
connection of our borough with a once powerful race, and their world-wide empire : 
and the Hospital of William Wigston, which recalls the pious deeds of an inhabitant f 
of Leicester, whose memory will long be cherished as one of its greatest benefactors. 
With regard to the first of these — the Jewry Wall — it has been found that, owing 
to the removal of a large portion of the wall on a line with the present road passing 
by it, there is an overwhelming mass of masonry in the upper part, which has no 
adequate support, and which, in the opinion of an experienced Architect, who has 
carefully examined it, may at any time fall, and the whole wall be reduced to a mass | 
of ruins. Excavations made some time ago by the Council of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, instituted in order to ascertain whether there were traces of 
a continuation of the piers of the wall in the direction of St. Nicholas' Church, 
revealed the extent and nature of a portion of the structure now buried, and of the 
foundation ; and in that way the proportions of the facade were exhibited in all 
their completeness. Under these circumstances, the committee of this Society 
came to the conclusion that it was desirable to take measures to prevent the fabric 
from falling, permanently to remove the earth in front of it down to the original level 
of the Roman way, and to protect it from injury by raising before it a low wall, sur- 
mounted with iron palisades, through which the entire front would be seen, from 
the uncovered bases of the piers to the tops of the arches. The consent of the 
Vicar of St. Nicholas' parish, and that of the Highway and Sewerage Committee of 
the Town Council of Leicester, has been obtained by the Society for these works, i 
which it is estimated will involve an outlay of at least £50. A statement embodying 1 
these facts has been circulated amongst those gentlemen likely to feel an interest in f 
the matter ; and though the donations have not been sent in so abundantly as could j 
be wished, enough has been already received to warrant a commencement. Measures 
are therefore now being taken to erect supports to the upper over hanging masonry, j 
and the whole scheme will be carried out when the requisite funds are forthcoming. 

The circumstances which, in the opinion of the committee, rendered it desirable 
to take steps towards recommending the preservation of Wigston's Hospital were 
these : under the new scheme lately issued for the regulation of that charity, the 
trustees are empowered to erect a new hospital on a new site ; and with regard to 
the present building, they are compelled to adopt one of two courses, either to i 
adapt it for the purpose of a school, or to destroy it, and erect new school buildings 
upon its site. As the present building is an interesting memorial of the founder of J 
the charity, the Society felt that it would be undesirable to destroy it, if it could j 
be preserved and used for the purposes of a school, without sacrificing any of the f 
requirements and comforts necessary in such an establishment. To test that, j 
carefully prepared drawings were made by Messrs. Goddard and Son, Architects, \ 
from which it appeared that the present building, merely by the removal of the i 
inmates' rooms which are erected within the main building, and are entirely inde- 
pendent of the roof, would form a fine hall well adapted for school purposes. This 
hall — not including the chapel, and the kitchens now separated from the former by 
a partition — would be sixty-eight feet four inches in length, by twenty-two feet in 
width, and would accommodate about two hundred and fifty children ; but an addi- 
tional twenty-two feet in length could be obtained by the removal of the partition 
just alluded to, and the hall would then accommodate about three hundred and 
thirty children. The present roof is an open timber one, entirely constructed of 
oak, in very fair preservation, and is architecturally of good design and execution. 
This arrangement would not interfere with the chapel, which it is suggested should 
be preserved, and separated from the school-hall by the restoration of the screen 
which formerly existed, but which has been destroyed, only a few traces being now [ 
in existence. The re-erection of this screen, and the restoration of the end window, ■ 
with the opening of the side windows, would complete all that were necessary in |* 



REPORT FOR 1803. 



285 



the chapel. The exterior walls of the building would require to be cleared of the 
plaster and to be pointed. It is further suggested that the highly picturesque 
limber and plaster building running at right angles with the main edifice, and now 
used as larders and store rooms, should be converted into play rooms for the 
scholars in wet weather, which could readily be effected by the removal of the 
partitions which now divide the building into separate compartments. 

The result of this examination of the Hospital, and the report upon it, was the 
adoption of a memorial to the Trustees of the Charity, suggesting the desirability of 
preserving the fabric of the present Hospital, and showing from drawings, and the 
above facts and calculations, that it could easily be converted into an eligible building 
for the proposed school. This memorial was favourably received by the trustees ; 
and now that steps are being taken preparatory to the erection of a new Hospital, the 
Committee of this Society trust the prayer of their memoriafwill not be overlooked. 

It now only remains to remark upon the prospects of the Society ; and this is the 
most difficult task proposed in this address, inasmuch as so many contingencies 
may arise to mar its success, or to strengthen its position. We may, however, hope 
that with its increased number of members, and consequently increased income, its 
usefulness will be extended, an impetus given to historical and antiquarian studies, 
and a juster appreciation of the glorious architectural remains of former times 
existing in this country be fostered, which will exert its influence not only in the 
erection of new ecclesiastical and civic buildings, but more especially in the preservation 
of old ones ; for to the eye of the ecclesiastical antiquary the time is not far distant, 
if it has not even now arrived, when the so-called restoration of a parish church — so 
full of reminiscences of the past — will be viewed with as much dread, as its neglect 
in bygone times has called forth our reprobation and censure. The brightness of 
the prospects of the Society, however, as to its future, depends not only upon the 
length of its member-roll, and the strength of its finances, encouraging and necessary 
as both those may be, no, nor even upon the energy and activity of its officers and 
' Committee, though the importance of that cannot well be overrated, but it depends 
j especially upon the hearty co-operation of its subscribing and honorary members. 
[ This Society should be the centre for the county of all things that can aid in 
forwarding the objects, and in advancing the studies for the encouragement of which 
i it was formed. Its bi-monthly meetings should be the opportunities used for com- 
municating topographical, historical, and antiquai'ian information from the various 
! parishes in the county : for the exhibition, decyphering, and, if necessary, collation 
I of ancient manuscripts : for the exhibition also of articles illustrative of the Fine 
i Arts in past times : of the ritual and ceremonies of the Church in mediaeval or 
» earlier times : and of the domestic and public lives of our ancestors. Every fragment 
] found in excavations should be religiously preserved and sent, or better still, brought 
; for inspection, and (if possible) for elucidation. And as the meetings of the Society 
j should be — and are to some extent — the opportunities for the exhibition of these, 
j and for a discussion upon their use and value, so the transactions of the Society 
1 would become a register of their existence, and of the time, circumstances, and locality 
i of their discovery, which would be no mean assistance to future students, and also 
to the future historian of Leicestershire. Who so able to give much valuable 
j information respecting their various parishes as the clergy, who . have free and 
| leisurely access to all parish documents, church registers, and other records, with, at 
the same time, the scholarly attainments necessary for a due appreciation of their 

• value and interests ? The noblemen and country gentlemen, too, from the frequently 

• long connection of their families, generation after generation, with the same locality, 
and from their possessing family papers inaccessible to previous historians, can aid 

; much in elucidating the past histoiw of the country, and especially of those sections 
j of it with which they are more intimately connected. 

[ It may fairly be hoped that the future annual summer meetings and excursions 
! of the Society will be as successful and replete with interest as those already within 
I the experience of the members ; and the exhibitions of antiquities in neighbourhoods 
not yet visited, will — as the Society becomes every year better known and understood 
' — probably be large, diverse in character, and consequently possess a high interest 
and value. It has always been a pleasure to observe the interest taken in the 
temporary museums by the poorer portiou of the population. They bring theil 
single cherished articles for exhibition with great readiness and pleasure, and these 
evidently acquire an additional value in their estimation when they ftnd lb.it othen 

x Vol. [I. 



280 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

beside themselves derive pleasure and profit from their inspection. Thus it is hoped 
ii spirit of conservation is encouraged which will assist in the presentation of articles 
and records, which every year hecome of greater value as illustrative of the arts 
and manufactures of former times, and of the history of the particular localities and 
subjects of which they treat, or to which they relate. 

It has been the custom in past years to refer in the Annual Report to the various 
works of church building and restoration effected in the county during the previous 
year, and as the extent of such works, and the way in which they are carried out, 
may fairly represent in some degree the progress of the principles advocated by this 
Society, a few notes are appended to this Report. 

Loughborough Clmre%. The restoration of this fine edifice under the care of 
Mr. G. G-. Scott, to which reference was made in the last Report as being then finished 
with the exception of the tower, has been completed through the munificence of 
Mr. W. Perry-Herrick and Miss Herrick. The tower has been partly recased, and 
the pinnacles and battlements in great part rebuilt. The large western perpendicular 
tower window has been filled with stained glass, representing in its fifteen compart- 
ments some of the principal persons mentioned in the Old and New Testaments, 
the effect being rich and pleasing. It need scarcely be said that under Mr. Scott, 
care has been taken to avoid needless destruction ; the interesting series of armorial 
bearings surrounding the west window externally, are, with one exception — the 
topmost — untouched. The mullions of this window and the belfry doorway beneath 
it have been to a great extent renewed, and the spandrils of that doorway, representing 
the cognizance of the Merchants of the Staple, and the arms of Burton, have been 
carefully restored. 

Emmanuel Church, Loughborough. — On Advent Sunday last the three-tiered 
structure for clerk, minister, and preacher, which almost entirely blocked up the 
eastern end of the nave of this church, causing the officiating clergyman to turn his 
back to the altar, and shutting out the chancel from the church, had been removed, 
and its place supplied by a pulpit, prayer desk, and lectern of carved oak, of perpen- 
dicular design, placed in their proper positions. The three were designed and 
executed by Mr. Barfield, of the Welford Road, Leicester. 

Kibworth Church. — The restoration of this church, under the care of Mr. Slater, 
was neaidy completed when it was inspected by the Society at the annual summer 
meeting in August last. It is, therefore, unnecessary to say more here than that the 
ancient font, which had been, during the Commonwealth, turned out of the church 
and sacrilegiously converted into a horse-trough, and which the present rector and 
Mr. Slater discovered buried in an adjoining field, has been restored to its proper 
position in the church, and will from henceforth be one of the most interesting 
reminiscences of those troublous times preserved within the parish. It must always 
be a matter of regret that the stairs leading to the roodloft in this church should 
have been carelessly destroyed during the late works. Such like landmarks in the J 
history of the church should always, when not absolutely in the way, be preserved; | 
and the desire for neatness and straight lines should give way before the claims of 
preservation set up by those marks of antiquity, and even by those vestiges of a | 
ritual, now happily abrogated, which are often so ruthlessly destroyed without the 1 
sanction of the better informed architect, and even sometimes in spite of his re- 
monstrances. Mr. Slater's valuable paper upon this church, accompanied with j 
illustrations, will appear in the next volume of the Associated Societies. 

Wigston Magna Church. Great improvements have been effected here by Mr. j 
Kirk, architect, Sleaford, by the removal of the galleries and opening the tower arch, 
by thoroughly cleansing and restoring the stonework at the western end of the 
church, and by reseating a portion of the edifice with open seats, the end panels and : 
fronts of which are ornamented with the linen pattern. The old oak panels of the 
pews being in too good a condition, and of too valuable material to be thrown away, I 
have been carved in the pattern last mentioned, and adapted to the open seats. In } 
doing this, the chief difficulty of the restoration, so far as it has now proceeded, 
consisted. 

Hinckley Church. "Very considerable restorations have been carried out in | 
Hinckley Church during the past year, which are well worthy of the careful notice ■ 
of the Society ; but as it is proposed to hold a meeting there during the ensuing ;' 



REPORT FOR 1863. 



287 



summer, it is not desirable or necessary to give an account here of that which every 
member can then inspect for himself. 

Stonton Wyville Church. The Chancel of Stonton Wyville Church has been restored 
by Messrs. Goddard and Son, architects, Leicester, at the cost of the Rev. T. Burnaby. 
.The debased roof and ceiling have been replaced by a king-post roof in character 
with the building it covers. The original eastern window had many years ago 
given place to a square opening fitted with a wooden frame : this has been removed, 
and an early pointed three-light window inserted, and the centre light filled with 
stained glass, representing the Crucifixion, and the patron saint of the church. The 
original window on the south side has also been filled with stained glass, and the 
stonework in the opposite window carefully cleansed and reglazed. The chancel 
floor has been effectively paved with Whetstone's tiles, and the new altar rails are of 
good design. This church would be much improved if the west window were re- 
glazed, and in the place of the questionable light in the northern entrance, a new 
three- light window were inserted similar to the one near the pulpit. 

Cranoe Church. In the parish church of Cranoe have been inserted four painted 
glass windows, the entire work of a young artist, Mr. F. R. Hill; and a very hand- 
I some corona, the gift of the rector, by Messrs. Hart and Co., has been placed in the 
chancel. It is much to be lamented that this good specimen of the early portion of 
I the perpendicular architectural period has given unmistakeable sign of premature 
decay. Four years ago several fissures appeared in the masonry, and the building 
has now made a second and considerable " settlement." Every effort will be made 
during the coming spring to put a stop to this misfortune. The church is on the 
brow of a steep hill, immediately under which winds the public road, and this is, 
j perhaps, the cause of the settlement. 

Shangton Church. The chancel of this church has been undergoing necessary 
repairs, which have been judiciously done. A new pulpit and a new reading desk 
have been placed in the church. 

In addition to these, many minor works have been completed, or are now in the 
.1 architect's hands : as at S. Margaret's Church, Leicester ; S. Mary's Church, Leicester: 

Wymondham Church, &c, &c. ; whilst at Misterton Church, near Lutterworth, very 
J considerable repairs and restorations have been completed. The fine church there, 

which was visited by the Society in the summer of 1861, was for some time in the 
I hands of Mr. Wm. Smith, architect, New Adelphi Chambers, London, and was re- 
I opened for divine service on Christmas Day last. Mr. Smith having kindly sent an 
i account of the work done, with some explanatory drawings, he shall speak for himself 
j in a short paper which will be read in this place this morning. The works were 
; well executed by Mr. Law, of Lutterworth, to the architect's entire satisfaction. 

Mural Decorations. The use of Mural Decorations in our churches is gradually 
i progressing. The Committee can refer with pleasure to further stencilling and 
| writing in that of Market Harborough during the past year. The spandrils of the 

nave arches are decorated with an easy flowing linked pattern ; and various texts of 

Scripture, divided by bands of geometrical and symbolical stencilling, have been 
: executed by Mr. C. J. Lea, of Lutterworth, with his usual good taste. The lettering 
■• is remarkably good. Care must be taken in wall decoration of this kind — texts of 

Scripture within straight lines, with parallel bands of geometrical design between 

— to avoid a redundance of horizontal lines, which ill accords with the spirit of 

Gothic architecture. 

The chancel of the parish church of Humberstone has also received a further 
addition to its decorations by the introduction of the Decalogue upon its eastern 
wall on each side of the window. The Commandments are written with illuminated 
capitals upon a vellum coloured ground, enclosed within richly coloured borders, 
which are figured with the rose and lily alternately, and which assume the niche 
shape. The remaining portion of the eastern wall, in a line with the window sill, is 
coloured blue, powdered with stars, the propriety of which ornamentation — notwith- 
standing many precedents — as a mural decoration may be questioned, it being from 
its nature better adapted for a roof than a wall. The reredos, too, has been richly 
coloured, golden fleur-de-lis and crosses, divided by pellets of blue being placed upon 
a Spanish brown or chocolate coloured ground, and the whole enclosed in an ex- 
tremely rich border of considerable width. The ground of the border is gold, and 
the pattern upon it is an adaptation of the convolvolus leaf conventionally arranged. 



LEICESTEHSL1I UE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



At the nii^lcs appear crosses studded in imitation of precious stones. The reredos, 
w Inch in general design follows the style of illumination prevalent in the manuscripts 
of the eleventh century, is the most successful part of these effective mural decora- 
tions, which, together with the texts round the nave arches, and in other parts of 
the church, have heen executed hy Mr. Fred. Winks, of Leicester, at the sole cost, so 
far as relates to the chancel, of a member of this Society, Mr. W. A. Kendall, of 
Sumberstone, who upon former occasions has shown by his liberality that he 
recognises the claims of the chancels of our churches upon their lay impropriators. 

New Schools. — Several new Schools have been erected during the year 1863, 
amongst which may be mentioned one at Kirkby Mallory, at the sole cost of the Earl 
of Lovelace, the owner of the soil. It is a commodious building, displaying much 
good taste, from designs by Mr. G. Watson. Both as to site and plan it is good. 
There are school and class rooms, with teacher's residence attached. Another school 
of considerable merit as to design and execution has been ei'ected at the cost of 
W. A. Pochin, Esq., at Edmonthorpe, from the designs of Mr. R. W. Johnson, Melton 
Mowbray. The extremely chaste and beautiful Gothic schools at West Cotes, Leicester, 
have been opened lately, and reflect as much credit upon Messrs. Goddard and Son, 
the architects, by their internal arrangements, ventilation, &c, as they do by their 
pleasing exterior. 

Proposed Works. In addition to the works already commenced in the county, 
many churches are proposed to be restored so soon as funds can be raised, and for 
many of these the plans and specifications are already made out. Somerby, North 
Kilworth, Claybrooke, Hoby, and others might be mentioned, but the most important 
of these is Melton Mowbray. An urgent appeal has been issued to all connected 
with that town for funds to aid in the restoration of its magnificent church. The 
fabric has been examined by two of the most eminent architects in England, who, 
in their written reports upon the state of the building, give as their decided and 
independent opinions that the roofs of nave, aisles, and transepts are in a dilapidated 
and dangerous state, and require immediate care and reparation. This church is 
well known to most of the members of this Society, and has been well described in 
its publications. Its symmetrical proportions and perfection of outline, the extreme 
beauty of its details, in which fine specimens of the three pointed styles of Gothic 
architecture are found, its large size (with its double aisled and clerestoried transepts) 
which invests it with a grandeur seldom found in a parish church, renders it not 
only the finest church in the county, but one of the finest among the many mag- 
nificent parochial churches in the country. With such a church to repair, under 
the peculiar circumstances in which the living of Melton is now placed, the minister 
and churchwardens have resolved not to commence the works or incur the responsi- 
bility of so large an undertaking until their subscription list amounts to .£4000. 
Towards this sum the Committee have received promises of .£1700, and make their 
appeal especially to the nobility and gentry attracted to Melton during the winter 
season, to aid them in their noble but arduous undertaking. 

Street Architecture. In consequence of the increasing commerce of Leicester 
through the introduction into it of various new branches of industry, and of the 
almost unexampled prosperity of the trade during the past year, many new buildings 
necessitated by this expansion have been erected since the last Report of this Society 
was presented to you. 

The most conspicuous and important of these are the new warehouses, now nearly 
completed, for Mr. Charles Noon, on the London Road, and for Messrs. Hodges and 
Sons, on the Welford Road, and new offices erecting by the Leicester Gas Company, 
in Millstone Lane. All these appear well adapted for their purposes. Comparing 
the two warehouses architecturally, that of Messrs. Hodges and Sons appears the 
bolder in effect, and shows more originality in design. The new office in Millstone 
Lane, necessarily of a very different character to these, will, when completed, be one 
of the best modern erections of its kind in Leicester. The value of the ground 
probably prevented a greater break in the facade, and the execution of the ornamental 
stonework appears scarcely equal in merit to the design. The judicious and sparing 
use of coloured tiles inserted in the front has a pleasing effect. The whole building, 
which is Gothic in character, with some nineteenth century features, is an ornament 
to the neighbourhood in which it stands. Mr. W T m. Jackson, architect, Leicester, 
has been employed to add some additional rooms to the Magazine, at the Newarke, 
Leicester, which he has done in a most satisfactory way, preserving in the new work 



.REPORT FOR 1863. 



289 



the character and stability of old. Mr. Jackson is also the architect of the picturesque 
and commodious cottages now erecting for the Militia Staff on two sides of the 
Parade ground iu the Newarke. Whatever opinions may be formed as to the taste 
displayed in these erections, it is evident that one of the first things contended for 
by this and kindred Societies has been gained : stucco and similar shams are now 
the exception, brick, with stone dressings, is the prevailing material honestly shown 
in the fronts of our factories, warehouses, and public offices. It is not, however, the 
use of uncovered brick only as a wall material which has been urged more than 
once at the public meetings of this Society; but the use of moulded bricks for the 
jambs and arches of windows and doors, for ornameutal string courses, chimneys, 
and other details in buildings, where the use of stone from any cause is not 
practicable, has also been strongly recommended. There are several buildings in 
Leicester where such moulded bricks have been used with various degrees of success. 
It should, nevertheless, be remembered that stone, especially when it is the natural 
production of the neighbourhood, is always the noblest and best for all buildings, 
especially for their dressings ; and it is only in cases where non-production, cost, 
inapplicability, or other good reasons intervene, that brick should be substituted in 
its place : when, however, it is so substituted, let it be brick to the eye, of the best 
quality as to make, bake, and colour, that can be procured. 

The probability of a new Town Hall being erected in Leicester, in which to 
transact the business of the Borough, has necessarily been brought before the 
notice of all members of this Society, by the publicity given in the local papers to 
the discussions upon the subject, in the Council Chamber and elsewhere. Without 
venturing to give an opinion as to the proper time for the erection of so desirable a 
building, the necessity for which is evident, the Committee would strongly urge upon 
the Corporation of Leicester the desirability and importance of raising an edifice 
worthy of the many historical associations of their ancient town, and of its present 
importance and commercial wealth : an edifice that will do credit to the increasingly 
correct architectural taste of the times in which it w T ill be erected ; for it should be 
remembered that a building, partaking as that will of a " Monumental " character, 
will be either a lasting testimony to the good taste and liberality of the generation 
erecting it, or a standing blot which cannot, at least, for very, very many years, be 
obliterated. There is one detail in the arrangement of the future Town Hall of 
Leicester, which it may not be out of place thus early to suggest. The interest and 
importance of the public archives of the Borough are well known, and their value 
fully appreciated by all local antiquaries. At present, notwithstanding the efforts 
made some years ago by Messrs. Kelly and Thompson, these documents are much 
scattered ; and even those collected in the so-called Muniment Room at the Guild- 
hall are in great jeopardy from the effects of damp, which it is next to impossible to 
drive from the room in which they are placed. There are still many documents 
which have not yet been examined and arranged, and which would probably throw 
additional light upon the history of the Borough. The Committee therefore trust 
that in the future Town Hall of Leicester a room properly arranged and ventilated 
will be set aside for their reception ; and the appointment of an honorary keeper of 
the Town Records would, in their opinion, tend much to their proper arrangement 
and preservation. 

Resolved, that the Statement of Accounts and the Annual 
Report of the Committee be adopted and printed, as usual, with 
the best thanks of the Society to Mr. North for the compilation of 
the latter. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Lanesborough was elected a 
President of the Society. The Members of the Committee for 
the past year, the Rev. C. W. Belgrave, Rector of North Kilworth, 
and the Rev. W. D. Moore, Vicar of Evington, were elected to 
form the Committee for the current year. The Officers for the 
past year were re-elected. 

Several appropriate votes of thanks were passed. 



2<)() 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



The following gentlemen were elected Members of the 
Society: — The Rev. John Bacon, M.A., Rector of Wymondham ; 
the Rev. T. C. Peake, M.A., Rector of Hallaton ; Mr Wm. 
Smith, Architect, London ; Mr. Wm. Millican, Architect, Leicester; 
Mr. Wm. Sheild, Uppingham; Mr. Henry Heycock, Norton 
Grange. 

Mr. James Thompson reported the progress making in the 
protection of the Jewry Wall, Leicester ; and the Secretary an- 
nounced several donations towards the expenses incurred. 

Charles Holte Bracebridge, Esq , Atherstone Hall, attended 
the meeting as the representative of the Local Committee formed 
at Stratford-on-Avon, for the purpose of celebrating the tercenten- 
ary of the birth of Shakespeare. Mr. Bracebridge said it was 
proposed to celebrate the three hundredth birthday of Shake- 
speare, in that town — the town in which he was born, and in which 
he died — in April next, under the presidency of the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Carlisle, K.G., Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; and it w r as 
proposed that the result of the celebration should be threefold : 
first, the purchase of a large garden connected with Shakespeare's 
house ; secondly, the establishment of one or more Scholarships 
to the English Universities, open to the competition of those who 
may receive their education at the same school at which Shake- 
speare received his, viz., the Free Grammar School founded by 
Edward VI.; and thirdly, the erection of a monumental memorial, 
of some kind at present not decided upon, at Stratford-on-Avon. 
The proceedings during the celebration will be of a varied character: 
excursions to places in the neighbourhood of Stratford, illustrative 
of incidents in Shakespeare's life ; grand oratorio and concert ; the 
performance of one of Shakespeare's comedies and of one of his 
tragedies ; a Shakespearean fancy ball, &c. To obtain the desired 
ends, money is necessary, and Mr. Bracebridge's object in coming 
to Leicester was to lay these circumstances before this and other 
Institutions, in the hope that a fund would be raised in Leicester, 
in small sums, and to enlist the sympathy of people of all classes j 
in the movement. 

After remarks from various members, the following resolution j 
was passed : 

" That, in the opinion of the Committee, the Tercentenary 
Celebration of Shakespeare's birth-day should be held at his birth- 
place, Stratford-on-Avon ; and that this Committee recommends 
the proposal of the Local Committee to the favourable considera- 
tion of the Members of this Society, the Honorary Secretaries 
undertaking to receive any subscriptions to promote the object." 
The following antiquities, &c, were exhibited : 
By the Rev. J. H. Hill, several Roman coins, including a small 
silver one of Arcadius, lately found in digging on the Roman road, 
near Medbourne. 



AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



291 



By Mr. John Hunt, a small pierced silver spoon ; Hall mark 
not decipherable. 

By Major Costobadie, through Captain Whitby, a finely 
carved circular horn tobacco box, once the property of General 
Mountcalm, and taken out of his pocket by an English seaman 
when the General was shot on the plains of Abraham, 13th Sep- 
tember, 1759; a Newark siege piece of Charles I. in beautiful 
preservation, lozenge-shaped, on the obverse a crown, with the 
letters " C. R " one on eaeh side, and underneath " xii." to denote 
its value, on the reverse the letters " OBS." ( obsidium J " NEW- 
ARKE, 1645;" a mother-of-pearl snuffbox, silver mounted, in the 
lid of which is inserted a silver medal commemorative of the battle 
of Blenheim, bearing on the obverse the profile of Queen Ann, and 
on the reverse a group representing Britannia, bearing a small 
" victory" on her hand, and at her feet a captive, with trophies of 
war; a remarkably fine Genoese gold coin, and a sapphire gold 
ring of considerable value. These two family relics were brought 
over to England in the year 1686, by John Costobadie. He was 
a minister of the Protestant religion at Argentat, en Auvergne, in 
France ; but soon after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
by Louis XIV., in 1685, he (in common with a vast number of his 
Protestant fellow subjects) fled from his country, and reached 
England, bringing with him the title-deeds to his patrimonial 
estates, and the coin and ring mentioned above. These two relics 
he enjoined should never be parted with but under great necessity; 
they should serve as memorials of the goodness of Providence, in 
protecting his posterity and blessing them with a competency. 
They are now preserved with great care by Major Costobadie, his 
lineal descendant. The coin or medal has the following inscrip- 
tions : 

Ob.: "DVX ET G VBERNATORES. REIP. GEN." 
Re.: "ET. REGE. EOS. 1641. G. Ses." 

By Mr. John Phillips, of Kibworth, a satirical print of the 
time of the Civil Wars ; a pectoral cross, about two inches long, 
double transomed, usually called a Cross Patriarchal : on one side 
was a figure of our Saviour extended on the cross, with the words 
"SALVATOR MUNDI," on the other a figure of the Blessed 
Virgin, with arms elevated, and the inscription "MATER DEI 
ORA PRO" [nobis] ; a medal struck in honour of Clementina, 
daughter of Prince James Sobieski, and wife of the Pretender. 
It was dated 1719, the year of their marriage. 

By Wm. Smith, Esq,, Architect, London : The ground plan, 
working drawings, and details of Gilmorton Church, in this county. 
This church is entirely new, with the exception of the tower and 
spire. The old church consisted of nave, north aisle, chancel, and 
tower, and was in a most wretched condition, with scarcely any 



£92 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

architectural feature left. The arcade between aisle and nave was 
the only part containing anything of interest, and the architect has | 
preserved its proportions in the new church. The cost of re-erec- 1 
tion was about £2000. raised by subscriptions, chiefly through the J 
exertions of the Rector, the Rev. J. M. Lakin, a member of this j 
Society. 

Also by Win. Smith, Esq., a similar set of drawings, shewing 
the work lately done under his care, at Misterton Church, as men- 
tioned in the Annual Report. Mr. Smith also contributed the 
following notes upon 

MISTERTON, LEICESTERSHIRE. 

Misterton (anciently called Minsterton, or Minestone), is 
situated about a mile on the south-east of the town of Lutterworth. 

The parish includes the lordships of Poultney and Walcote, the 
greater number of the inhabitants residing at the latter place, a 
short distance from the parish church. 

An ancient roll, called the Matriculus of 1220, mentions a 
chapel both in the precincts of Poultney and Walcote. 1 find also 
that Adam Neale de Clipston, of Poultney (1308), is said to have 
had, in right of his wife, (Maud, daughter of John de Napton, 
county of Warwick,) the advowson of the two chapels of Wal- 
cote and Poultney, belonging to the mother church at Misterton. 
There is now, however, 1 believe, not a vestige of either of these 
chapels remaining. The original mother church too has dis- 
appeared. 

The present church at Misterton (dedicated to St. Leonard), I 
consists of a nave, with arcades of four arches, north and south 
aisles, chancel, a western tower with a good broached spire, and a 
south parvise porch. ? 

The principal part (viz. the nave, and aisles, and tower,) I 
appears to have been erected about the year 13-35. The chancel 
and south porch are of a much later date. ! 

The windows of the south aisle and the west window of the ( 
north aisle are good specimens of the second pointed work. Air 
altar was undoubtedly placed at the east end of the south aisle I 
when the church was rebuilt. The piscina still remains, and the 
internal cill of the south window was carried down to form a 
seat. 

The east window of the north aisle is considerably larger than j 
any other in the church, and is of a little later date than the work 
just described. Probably very soon after the church was completed ( 
it was determined to form another chapel in this north aisle, and \ 
to give it more importance the original window was removed, and 
the present large one substituted. Evidently there was an altar j 
here, as the cill of the window is carried down with a sort of panel i 



MISTERTON, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



293 



to form a simple reredos, and the internal cill of the side window 
is made into a seat, as on the south side. 

I have been unable to find out the dedication of these altars. 

The next change was to remove the high pitched roof from the 
nave and add the clerestory, the south porch probably being built 
at the same time. Later still the chancel was rebuilt, probably 
about the date 1500. 

Prior to the restoration just completed (at a cost of more than 
£2000. principally provided by the munificence of the Rector), 
the state of the church was this : — Internally, the seats were a 
mixture of high pews and old open benches ; the latter were of 
the most solid description, with carved ends, very rude in work- 
manship, but rich in character. Between the first and second 
arches in the south side were fragments of a good parclose screen, 
and also on the north side ; in one arch was a portion of another 
screen totally different in design. There was also a portion of the 
lower part of the old rood screen remaining, and a few other 
tracery panels scattered in different parts of the church. 

I regret that a great part of these old fragments were found to 
be in such a decayed and dilapidated state that it was impossible 
to refix them. I have, however, retained a portion of the old rood 
screen, and refixed it against the side wall of the tower, where it 
can still be examined, and as many of the old seat ends and 
tracery panels as were at all fit to be reused have been refixed in 
the church. 

The whole of the new seating is executed in oak in the same 
solid manner as the original, with carved ends and panelled fronts 
of a variety of patterns. 

The whole of the roofs were of the poorest description, and, 
with the exception of that on the chancel, w T ere also in a very 
decayed state. They have all been taken off and replaced by new 
ones of a more consistent character with the rest of the work. 

On the removal of the plastering, the internal part of the wall 
of the south aisle was found to be in a most defective state, whilst 
the external facing, being built of ashlar stone, was quite sound. 
The experiment of taking down and rebuilding the inner half of 
the wall without disturbing the outer, was attempted and success- 
fully effected. The chancel arch, too, and part of the wall of the 
north aisle, had to be taken down and rebuilt. 

The paving was a wretched mixture of nine-inch tiles, bricks, 
and stone. This has been replaced by a pavement of M in ton's 
best tiles, and Wingerworth stone laid in patterns. Encaustic tiles 
being used freely in the chancel, and alabaster within the altar 
rails. 

A high screen has been fixed in the tower arch, and the new 
south door in porch has carving and tracery panels in the head, 
with drapery panels beneath. 



291 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



The font has been restored and a new cover is provided, having 
an ornamental top of brass and iron, manufactured by Hardman, 
from my design. 

A new organ is placed in the north aisle, and to make the work 
complete, a hot water apparatus has been provided. 

The old Pulteney tombs, formerly in the chancel and south 
aisle, are now placed, one on either side of the chancel. 

The fact of these tombs existing in the church has induced me 
to examine the earlier history of the family, thinking that possibly 
some record might be found of their having rebuilt the church ; 
and I have now little doubt that the nave, aisles, tower and spire, 
were erected by Sir John de Pulteney, who died in 1349. 

It appears that the Adam Neale de Clipston (afterwards de 
Poultney, before mentioned) had three daughters, and one son, 
John. This son " was not contented to grovel on in Poultney, the 
place of his birth, but rather choose to use his best endeavours for 
reputation and advancement in a larger sphere." He went to 
London, to the business of a draper, heretofore a very lucrative 
occupation, as large quantities of woollen cloth were then exported; 
" and that ardour which inspired him with a thirst after great 
things met with a suitable reward." 

The first account 1 find of his having acquired property is, that 
he obtained possession of the manors of Penshurst and Yenesfelde, 
in Kent. 

In 1330 he is described as " Sir John de Pulteney, Knight, 
Citizen, Draper, Lord Maior of London." 

He was also Lord Mayor in 1331, 1333, 1336. 

" This great man (for so he may be called, if real merit added 
to dignity and riches, hath any claim to that title,) having raised 
himself to a great degree of both wealth and honour, in which his 
natural genius was his indefatigable assistant, became highly ! 
favoured by King Edward III." 

1331. " ' Rex per solvit Johanni de Pultney, civi London? 
,£400. ei debif per Edwardum, nuper comitem Kanci<eS This 
monarch having deputed three persons to enquire into the damages 
done by sea between his subjects and the men of Flanders, so far 
confided in the abilities of Sir John de Pulteney, that he authorized 
him to commission any or either of them to go to Bruges on that 
account ; and in the ninth year of this King (1332), several ships 
and armed men assembling together, in order to commit hosti- 
lities, Sir John de Pulteney, with Reginald de Conduit, were 
commissioned to oppose them, as men in whose loyalty the King 
had entire confidence ; and, in the same year, on the 26th August, 
when the Scots and their confederates were preparing to invade 
the kingdom, and the force of men and ships ordered for their 
repulse not being duly regarded, under pretence of want of money, 
the King repeated his command for equipping such force, and, i 



MISTERTON, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



295 



that such an important service might be the better performed, he 
constituted this great and faithful man supervisor of the whole 
affair." 

1334. Sir J. de Pulteney purchased Cold Harbrough, or 
Harbour, Thames Street. He is also said to have " builded the 
Church of All Hallows the Less; the steeple and quire of this 
church stand on an arched gateway, being the entrance to a great 
House called Cold Harbrough." 

1335. Sir John de Pulteney obtained the whole Manor of 
Mister (on, and one mediety of the Rectory. 

1340. Adam, son of Sir Robert de Napton, Knight, granted 
the reversion of divers messuages and lands at Misterton and 
Poultney to Sir John de Pultney. 

1344. Thomas Owen (a nephew of Sir John de Pulteney) 
released to Sir John all his right and title to the Manor of Mis- 
terton, with a moiety also of the advowson of the church. 

1345. John (son of Hugo Neale, uncle of Sir John de Pulte- 
ney) Lord of Norton, released his claim on certain lands and 
tenements in Pultney and Dadlynton, and also of lands at Wel- 
ford, in Northamptonshire. 

Besides this property at Misterton, Sir John had also (as before 
mentioned) the Manor of Penshurst and Yenesfelde, in Kent, 
" The advowson of the adjoining Parish of Lyghe, South wood, 
Park wood, Orbiston wood, Heversmede, Corton's lands, lands in 
Lyghe-Tappenash, and others in the County of Kent. He had 
also a mansion at Cheule, in Cambridgeshire, and his great Town 
House, Cold Harbrough, in Thames Street, called also from his 
occupancy, in the style of the times, Poulteney Inn. Here he not 
only lived magnificently, but shone in a superior lustre by the 
exercise of his wisdom, piety, and great ability. 

" However, he was not so good a man in his own opinion as in 
that of all other men ; for we find him the founder of a Chantry 
Chapel in honour of the Holy Cross, adjoining to the Church of 
S. Lawrence, in Candlewich Street, for seven priests to perform 
divine service there for the expiation of his own sins: and the 
King himself, on the 26th July, 1333, wrote to the Pope, at the 
request of Sir John, that this chapel might be appropriated to the 
Abbot and Convent of Westminster. He also founded the Col- 
legiate Church of S. Lawrence, in the same street, making it a 
College of Jesus and Corpus Christi, for a master and seven 
chaplains (whence it gained the name of Lawrence Pulteney, 
and was surrendered in the reign of Edward VI., valued at 
£79. 17s. lid). By his will, dated November i4, 1349, he orders 
his own sepulture therein, and further directs his executors to build 
a chapel in the Church of S. Paul, London (which he desires to 
honour with filial affection), for three priests to perform divine 
service; one of whom was, every day, to say the Mass of the Blessed 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARC H IT E CT URAL SOCIETY. 



Virgin, for the benefit of his soul, and the other two to say the office 
of the dead for his own, li is ancestors', and all Christian souls, and 
further, he enjoins the said priests to say in their masses one special 
collect, with mention of his name. To these monuments of public 
spirit and benevolence we must add, the gift of the perpetual patron- 
age of Napton, County of Warwick, to his Collegiate Church of S. 
Lawrence, and in 1342 he founded the monastery of White Friars, 
in Coventry; and when Sir William Dugdale w T rote, his arms were 
then extant over the gate of that house." 

To the recital of all these " acts of benevolence," I think may 
with tolerable certainty be added, that he rebuilt the parish 
Church at Misterton. It is true I cannot find any mention of the 
fact ; but the architecture shews that the nave and aisles, with the 
tower and spire, were erected in the period in which he lived. His 
wealth, his piety and benevolence, and his immediate connection 
with the parish, both by birth and by property, are incidents which 
raise such a conjecture almost to the point of certainty. 

He died in 1349, leaving one son, who died without issue. 

WYMONDHAM CHURCH. 

The following interesting notes upon Wymondham Church were 
forwarded to the meeting by a member of the Society : 

The members of your Society and all lovers of archaeology 
and architecture will like to hear of our doings in the parish of 
Wymondham. The church, from its antiquity and beauty, is well 
worthy of their regard. It consists of tower with spire, nave, north 
and south aisles, north and south transepts, chancel, and porch. 
The tower, which is of ample dimensions, and good proportions, 
has its lower stories of transition from Norman to Early 
English. The next window on the ground floor is a single light 
with pointed head externally, but with a semicircular head and 
semicircular relieving arch to the inner splay, which, from the 
great thickness of the w T all and its good proportions, is (or 
would be if restored) very effective. The south window has 
externally a semicircular dripstone. The tower arch is pointed, 
but supported on round shafts with capitals, which have a smack 
of the Norman. The second floor has a two-light window, 
with head pierced in quartrefoil. The third story is Perpen- 
dicular style, of good freestone* masonry, and is surmounted by 
an elegant lighted spire, of the same date and workmanship. 
The most interesting internal features of this part of the church 
were unknown to most of the inhabitants, owing to a singing loft 
and brick wall, which quite hid the arch, and also blocked up two 
of the arches in the nave. A recent unanimous vote in the Vestry 
accepted a private offer to take down this loft, and seat the floor 
of the tower, for greater accommodation. The arch was found 



WYMONDHAM CHUKCH. 



•297 



magnificent in proportions, but ruthlessly mutilated in all its 
members by the" erectors of the loft, who had even destroyed many 
of the construction stones of the arch, and thus endangered the 
tower. A doorway was discovered a little on the north side of the 
point of the arch, formerly leading to the first floor of the tower. 
This I imagine communicated, as in some instances which I know, 
with an external winding staircase, on the north-east angle of the 
tower, by means of a short passage open to the nave. It w r as 
probably stopped when a winding staircase was cut out of the 
lower wall of the tower, and made partially to project inter- 
nally, with an interior doorway of the Perpendicular period, thus 
adding a feature of some interest, but I fear not adding to the 
strength of the tower. 

The nave has three arches on either side, of very interesting 
Early English work, probably late in that period, as one capital 
has the ball flower rudely executed. Some of the capitals and 
some carved heads are very curious. The doorway to the rood- 
loft still remains on the north of the chancel arch. The clerestory 
is a very elegant one of the Perpendicular period, with four well- 
proportioned windows on either side. In the chancel, which is of 
fine proportions, are simple but good sedilise and piscinae, of Early 
English. Most of the windows of the Church are Perpendicular, 
and in fair order. The north and south transepts have both been 
chapels. In one there is evidently an aumbry or locker stopped 
up ; in the other a piscina. In the south transept is a table 
monument, and a stone figure of a crusader, whom the people call 
Hamilton. 

The east chancel window is the only one which has under- 
gone much alteration. It is remembered to have been square- 
headed, of five lights, with stone mullions. A former Rector, Mr. 
Cragg, who was very interested in the Church, added a pointed 
head ; but unfortunately the design was by a tradesman of the 
village, who, though a very ingenious man, had no knowledge of 
the principles of Gothic architecture. Mr. Cragg was also for 
many years the master of the Grammar School, and his pupils, 
stimulated by the proposed restoration of the west end of the 
church, have conceived the laudable intention of placing good 
stained glass in the said east window, to his memory. Dr. Day, 
once his pupil, has contributed the munificent sum of £o0. It is 
to be hoped that enough may be realized from some quarter to 
rectify the stonework of the tracery also. No money will be raised 
from the parish, by rate or otherwise, for the proposed restoration 
of the west end of the church, and it will be a thousand pities if 
the good work commenced should be imperfectly or shabbily 
executed for lack of funds. The Archdeacon has kindly offered 
to preach at the opening of a new organ, about Easter, and I 
cannot but think, that if the lovers of Church Architecture and 



298 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



antiquity, within any reasonable distance, knew the many points of 
interest which they would find here, they would seize the oppor- 
tunity of surveying them, and of rendering the assistance so much 
required. 



28th March, 1864. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : 
the Rev. J. Mayor, Cossington ; the Rev. F. L. Cursham, Vicar 
of Horninghold ; and the Rev. T. O. Hall, of Great Easton. 

The following plans, &c, were exhibited : — 

By Mr. R. W. Johnson, Architect, Melton Mowbray, a per- 
spective view and ground plan of a new School, lately erected at 
Edmondthorpe, as mentioned in the Report for 1863, at a cost of 
about s£700., by W. A. Pochin, Esq. The schoolroom is 40 feet 
by 18 feet; the classroom attached, 18 feet by 14 feet; and there 
are separate lobbies and lavatories for boys and girls. The build- 
ing is of native stone ashlar, from Mr. Pochin's quarry, with 
Clipsham stone dressings. The general design is Gothic, the roof 
an open one, well pitched, with a stone bell turret on the western 
gable. The plans were approved by the Committee of Council on 
Education, and the fittings of the school are in compliance with 
their requirements. 

By Mr. C. J. Lea, of Lutterworth, sketches for the painting of 
doors, &c, at Beddington House, near Croydon, now being deco- 
rated under Mr. Lea's supervision ; designs for bookcases, &c, for 
the same house ; also sketches for the decoration of doors for a 
house in this neighbourhood. 

By Mr. Frederick Jackson, Architect, Nottingham, a copy 
of " Collections towards the History of Printing in Nottingham- 
shire, with an Index of Persons and Subjects," by the Rev. S. F. 
Creswell, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S., &c, &c, which Mr. Jackson 
presented to the Society. 

By The Rev. J. H. Hill, a copy of Record's Arithmetick, 
1646. 

By Mr. North, several forgeries in lead of Anglo-Saxon anti- 
quities, cleverly executed, sold some time since to a gentleman in 
Leicester, as genuine antiques found in the Thames. 

By Mr. Henry Goddard, two masks of coarse clay, about four 
inches in height, of very rude workmanship, from ancient tombs in 
Mexico. They were made for toys or for giving signals, by means 
of a whistle, which was produced by blowing through an aperture 



AND AKCHiE OLOGTCAL SOCIETY. 



299 



in the chin of the mask, the air then passing through the mask into 
its cheeks, which formed air chambers, and from thence escaping 
through the eyes, produced a shrill and strong whistle; a brass of 
Vespasian, in good preservation ; a small Roman glass bottle, one 
inch and a half high, probably used for unguents, and a bronze 
ear pick, both found in excavating in Horsefair Street, Leicester. 

By Mr. James Thompson, a silver coin, apparently a foreign 
one, of the fourteenth century, lately found near Wigston Magna. 

By Alfred Whitby, Esq., a very beautiful Malacca cane, 
silver mounted. 

The Rev. Ernest Tower, of Earl's Shilton, communicated to 
the Society a valuable and interesting Paper upon his parish. Mr. 
Tower, after explaining the origin of the name, traced the descent 
of the manor from the original Norman lord, Hugh de Grantes- 
mainell, through the Earls of Leicester to the Earls of Lancaster, 
and so into the hands of Queen Victoria, as Duchess of Lancaster. 
He also fully described the state of the parish at the Conquest, as 
revealed in the dry facts stated in Doomsday Book, and explained 
the tenure under which this and other lands were then and after- 
wards held of the King, or of the great Barons of the realm ; not 
neglecting to state how the manor is now rented of the Crown by 
" the lady in trust," and the very small pecuniary interest the 
Queen now has in the parish. The antiquities of the parish, its 
castle mound and parish church, the stocking trade introduced 
there at an early period, the progress of the place, as evidenced by 
the church registers, the ravages of the plague, the benefactors of 
the parish, the old benefit club, with curious instances of its use 
and abuse, were alluded to, and the paper ended by a short list of 
the surnames most common in the place, with their probable 
derivation. 

Mr. Tower was much complimented upon his interesting Paper, 
which not only showed considerable research, but a desire to 
interest his neighbours, rich and poor, in the history of their 
parish, which may well be commended to the imitation of other 
gentlemen in the county.* 



SOth May, 1864. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : 
The Rev, P. Mules, Belvoir Castle ; the Rev. C. S. Palmer, Rector 
of Owston ; Mr. Frederick Morley, Leicester. 

* It is hoped this Paper will he printed in a future "Part" of these Transactions. 



300 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL 



It was Resolved, that the proposed Meeting, &c, at Hinckley, 
be held on Tuesday and Wednesday, the 19th and 20th of July. 

It was further Resolved, that the Rev. Ernest Tower, the 
Honorary Local Secretary for that district, be requested to com- 
municate that resolution to the Vicar and inhabitants of Hinckley, 
and to invite them to form there a Local Committee for carrying 
out the proper arrangements for the Society's visit. 

The following architectural plans were exhibited : 

By Mr. Wm. Smith, New Adelphi Chambers, London, plans 
for the proposed restoration and alteration of Kenilworth Church ; 
plans of cottages, at Bitteswell, Leicestershire. 

By Messrs. Goddard and Son, Leicester, ground plan and 
working drawings for the proposed restoration of Cossington 
Church, Leicestershire. The plans were examined and com- 
mented on by the Committee, and the Secretary was directed to 
convey to the exhibitors their opinions upon several points 
specially noticeable. The plans for Cossington Church showed a 
thorough determination on the part of the architects to preserve 
all the features of the old building, and not to introduce novelties 
where the original work left a pattern to follow, which called forth 
the full approbation of the Committee. 

The following antiquities, &c, were laid upon the table : 

By The Rev. J. H. Hill, the original account of the church- 
warden of Cranoe, for the year 1693; a facsimile of an initial 
letter from a missal executed about the year 1480, by Francesco 
Veronese, showing a representation of the Presentation in the 
Temple ; a series of drawings illustrative of Stow ; an Indian ink 
drawing, dated 1717, by Lane. 

By Mr. North, a spur, and the upper part of a weapon, pro- 
bably a pike or a spear, or tilting lance, which Mr. North said 
were found several years ago in draining a field called the Town- 
ship, west of the village of Ragdale, in this, count}-. These 
antiquities were found about three feet below the present surface, 
and near them were scattered several fragments of human bones, 
among which, it is said, portions of a skull were clearly discernible. 
At the same time, considerable portions of pavement were cut 
across in the draining operations, which led to the belief that the 
present small village of Ragdale formerly extended in that direc- 
tion, and the name of the field, " The Township," certainly 
strengthened that supposition. The excavations were not required 
to be of great depth or very considerable in extent, which may 
account for the non-discovery of any foundations of buildings 
which would naturally be found in connection with the pavements. 
There is no remembrance of any such being seen at the time 
referred to. Judging from the appearance of the spur (which is 
perfect excepting the rowel, which is much broken), it is one of 
the long-necked spurs in fashion during the reigns of Henry V. 



AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



301 



and Henry VI. (1413-61). Its entire length (allowing for the rowel) 
is about nine inches, the neck itself (again allowing for the rowel) 
being fully five inches. In form and size it resembles the spurs 
given upon the full length figure of Robert Chamberlain, Esquire 
to Henry V., in the register book of St. Alban's {vide " Fairholt's 
Glossary, 1 ' 219), and was fastened by a strap or chain passing 
under the foot as well as over the instep, as is shown by the ends 
of the shanks of the spurs, to which those fastenings were attached. 
The other object found — a portion of a weapon as stated before — 
is much corroded. It is about sixteen inches long, and about one 
inch in width in its most perfect part. It tapers at each end; one 
end being so made, probably, for insertion into a socket of wood, 
and the other for purposes of offence. Mr. North also exhibited 
a copy of the facsimile of the portions of Doomsday Book 
relating to Leicestershire and Rutland, lately photo-zincographed 
by Her Majesty's command at the Ordnance Office, under the 
direction of Colonel Sir H. James. The publication of this 
important work has been undertaken by Messrs. Spencer, of 
Leicester, and they have added to this exact copy of the original 
document, a literal extension of the Latin text, and an English 
translation of the same. The work is issued in a style of typo- 
graphy which does the publishers much credit, and if the Latin 
extension, and the translation are good — which, on account of the 
very recent issue of the work, cannot yet have been tested — it is a 
reproduction of a document of such local interest and value, and 
so placed within the reach of, and made available for the perusal 
of the general reader, as well as the experienced antiquary, as to 
render it a valuable addition to the historical collections of the 
county. 

By Mr. Sarson, a small collection of antiquities found in ex- 
cavating behind his premises, in St. Nicholas Street, Leicester, 
comprising a Roman fibula, of the bow shape, so frequently found 
on all Roman sites ; a small circular fibula without the pin ; a 
brass of Vespasian ; a long cross penny of one of our English 
Henries; and the point of an arrow (?). Excavations upon the 
same spot have before produced vast scraps of Roman and 
mediaeval pottery and bones, and brought to light masses of 
masonry, the foundations of ancient buildings formerly there 
existing. 

By Mr. Weatherhead (Curator of the Leicester Museum), a 
drawing of a very curious and handsome fibula, lately found in 
Leicester, accompanied by a note, in which he said : " I enclose 
you a coloured drawing of a fibula or brooch, discovered in the 
early part of the present year, in Cook's brickyard, near the 
Cemetery, Leicester. The original is in bronze, slightly convex, 
and is enamelled with red, blue, and yellow. In ' Collectanea 
Antiqua] vol iv., plate xxv., the figures 5 and 8, though dissimilar 
y Vol. II. 



I 

302 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



in form, yet agree in character and style of ornamentation with 
our specimen, which evidently approaches the same date, and in 
the work just mentioned they are considered to belong to the 
Roman period. 1 have much pleasure in stating that the Town 
Museum is greatly indebted to Thos. Viccars, Esq., for this hand- 
some donation to our store of local antiquities," 

By Mr. Goddard, the molar tooth of a mammoth, found in 
close proximity with the tusk of the mammoth found in the out- 
skirts of Leicester, last year, and which is now preserved in our 
local Museum ; silver coins ; groats of Edward III. ; and a penny 
of Edward I. 





TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

THE LEICESTERSHIRE 
SOCIETY. 



VOL. II.— PART 4, 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE 



li 1870. 



Price TJtree Shillings and Sixpence. 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



TRANSACTIONS 



THE LEICESTERSHIRE 
SOCIETY. 

VOL. II .— P A E T 4 . 




LEICESTER: 
PRINTED BY CROSSLEY AND CLARKE. 

1870. 




PAGE 

General Meeting at Hinckley, 19th July, 1864 . . . 303 

Ancient Hinckley, by Mr. James Thompson . . . 313 
Notes on Ancient Hosieey, by Mr. John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. . 321 

Merevale Abbey, by Mr. Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, F.S.A. (with 

Ground Plan) . . . 324 

The Excursion, 20th July, 1864 . . . .335 

Bi- Monthly Meeting, 20th September, 1864 . . .346 

Stained Glass Windows, by the Eev. T. Drake . . . 347 

Bi-Monthly Meeting, 28th November, 1864 . . . 350 

The Jewry Wall, by Mr. James Thompson . . . 354 

Bathtjrst of Hothorpe, by the Eev. J. H. Hill . . 358 

History of Earl's Shilton, by the Rev. Ernest Tower . .361 



LEICESTERSHIRE 
ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY. 



Hinckley, July 19th, 1864. 

HINCKLEY MEETING. 

The Rev. W. Skirrow, Vicar of Hinckley, President. 

The following gentlemen formed the Local Committee : — The 
-Rev. W. Skirrow, Vicar (Chairman), the Rev. J. C. Edwards, 
Curate, Rev. G. Candy, Rev. F. D. Trenow, Messrs. Abell, 
J. Atkins, Billings, Bromhead, Choice, T. W. Clarke, Dale, 
VV. Farmer, Goadby, W. H. Griffiths, T. Harrold, W. Harrold, 
N. E. Hurst, T. S. Ludlow, W. McEwan, Payne, S. Preston, 
A. Atkins, Bally, Bonner, W. Cowdell, sen., Curtis, Davis, 
Farndon, Goude, Goode, G. Harrold, T. C. Harris, T. Kiddle, 
Morley, S. Pilgrim, Penton, W. Pridmore, J. H. Ward, and 
C. Woodcock. 

At 11.30 there was an assemblage of the Committee, the 
Members of the Society, and several influential inhabitants of 
Hinckley and its neighbourhood, in the Corn Exchange. 

The Rev. W. Skirrow, the Vicar of Hinckley, upon taking the 
chair, said: — Gentlemen, I feel sure I am only expressing the 
sentiment of every inhabitant of the town of Hinckley, when I 
state that it is with feelings of the deepest satisfaction we receive 
to-day the deputation of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society. In confirmation of my statement I would 
refer to the list of our local Committee, in which are enrolled the 
names of forty gentlemen resident in this town. In one sense, the 
parish of Hinckley may be said to stand in rather an important 
position regarding archaeology. With the exception of the fine 
old parish church, our records of the past are mostly legendary. 
We have but few material ones. Long since have our castle 
z Vol. II. 



804 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



towers and castle walls been battered to the ground by some I 
invading foe, or mouldered into dust under the destroying influence 
of time. In days long past we once were great, and I trust that | 
we shall some day be great again, but in a far different sense. I 
There was a time when the trumpets of the High Constables of 
England and of John O'Gaunt sounded within and around our 
castle walls, calling their followers to rally round the banners of 
their lords ; but we want war no more. It is to the arts of peace — 
the sound of machinery and the stocking looms — that we look for 
to our greatness now ; but perhaps I should be wrong in saying 
that this is all we look to for greatness. No ! we must not only 
look forward to the future, but also back upon the past. It has 
been sard by a great philosopher who lived upwards of two 
thousand years ago, that the anticipation of the future and the 
memory of the past, compose the happiness of the present time. j 
Therefore, gentlemen, we feel that we need not neglect archaeology 
if we wish to be either happy or great. A study of antiquity 
teaches all of us to avoid the faults of our ancestors, and also 
infuses into us a spirit of reverence for their struggles under a 
cloud of error darker than our own. We therefore welcome with 
gratitude this visit of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical Society to our town. 

The Rev. E. Tower, as local Secretary for the Hinckley 
District, replied in the name of the Society. He said that he had 
a great honour conferred upon him, deputed as he was to thank 
the vicar, churchwardens, and inhabitants of Hinckley, for the very ? 
ready and excellent reception of the Society into their town. The I 
Society was a very useful body. It was not only the means of 
pleasing a population upon such an occasion as the present by 
affording a little pastime, and drawing together a number of people 
of different ways and habits in life, and inducing them to look 
good naturedly upon each other, and charitably upon their fore- I 
fathers ; but it had for its chief object the diffusion of true know- j 
ledge of the science of architecture, the study of Gothic architecture [ 
in particular, and the spread of good taste in building, and the f 
conviction of the possibility of uniting taste and utility even in 
common domestic dwellings. It is to the noble benevolence of 
our forefathers that we are indebted for the possession of our 
beautiful old parish churches. No scanty hand built those houses 
of God, but by a munificence that is remarkable they were intended 
to last not only for their founders' time but for the use of genera- 
tions. It is the duty of the members of this Society to lead the 
way in preserving these churches, and whenever any of their old j 
stones become loose to see them restored and kept. 

The old parish churches were peculiarly the symbols of 
Christianity in the country — the representatives of religion itself, j 
and they witnessed by their beautiful spires especially to the | 



HINCKLEY MEETING. 



305 



elevating character of the worship they were built to uphold. He 
\>as glad to see that the chancel of the parish church in Hinckley 
had lately undergone a renovation, and that care had been taken 
in the work which was a credit to the town. 

Mr. Tower then announced that the subscribers numbered two 
hundred, and that the following were the names of additional 
members to the Society's list, viz.: — The Lord Bishop of the 
Diocese ; the Vicar of Hinckley ; Mr. Short and Mr. H. M. Ward, 
Hinckley; Rev. J. Harris, Men dan ; Rev. Frederick Sutton, of 
Theddingworth ; Mr. Bull, of Leicester ; and the Rev. W. H. 
Marriott. If any other inhabitant of Hinckley or the neighbour- 
hood wished to become a member, the subscription was only ten 
shillings a year, and for that the Society gave two volumes of really 
valuable information not only respecting the history of churches 
but different objects of interest in the county. The subject matter 
of those publications was valuable, being based on great research, 
and also because it had been listened to and pulled to pieces br- 
others. 

In the course of the proceedings the Vicar read the following 
letter, which he had received from Lord Curzon : — 

" 15, Lower Brook Street, London. 

" Dear Mr. Skirrow, 

" As I see by the Leicester Journal that the Leicestershire 
Architectural Society meet at Hinckley this week, and go to Mancetter 
on Wednesday, I thought, perhaps, they would like to see the old Manor 
House there, where I now live, and I have requested Mr. Richings to 
invite any one who likes to look over the house, and to explain the place 
where the martyrs were hid, and I am only sorry that I shall not be 
there myself to bid my Hinckley friends welcome. 

" Yours faithfully, 

"Curzon." 

The business of the Meeting having been brought to a close, 
the members and their friends attended Morning Prayer at the 
parish church. The organ was built in 1808, by G. P. England, 
and is one of the very few by that maker. 

At the conclusion of the service, M. H. Bloxam, Esq., ably 
pointed out the architectural features of the fabric. He said it 
was the first time he had entered that church. He was almost 
ashamed to say it, because in that church the remains of some of 
his ancestors reposed. His great-grandfather, and his great-great- 
grandmother lay buried in that place ; a great uncle, too, reposed 
in the western portion of the church. When the Castle was built, 
twelve centuries ago, it was probable that the church was built, b\ T 
the founder of the castle, Hugh de Grantmesnil. Of that structure, 
which was built twelve centuries ago, however, no remains what- 



306 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



BVer now existed. It was not in that church only that they found 
DO remains of the Norman period, but almost every church in the 
county he found to have been rebuilt at one particular period, and 
there were perhaps fewer architectural remains of the Norman 
period in the churches in this county than in any other county in 
the kingdom. In the fourteenth century, about the time of Edward 
the Third, there must have been, all over the county of Leicester, 
a complete renovation of church' buildings, and old churches were 
then pulled down and rebuilt. There were, perhaps, more churches 
in that county of the fourteenth century than there were in any 
other county in the kingdom. That church was rebuilt at that 
period, on a plan much the same as it was now. One part of the 
present structure was, however, of an earlier date than the four- 
teenth century. The portions belonging to the fourteenth century 
were the piers and arches of the nave and the lower part of the 
tower, with the great west window, and also the hood moulding 
over the east window of the chancel. In the fifteenth century the 
roof appeared to have been raised and the present clerestory 
windows added. The upper part of the tower seemed then to 
have been erected. Towards the close of the last century several 
alterations appeared to have been made ; the mullions of many of 
the windows were destroyed, and the spire was rebuilt. There 
were two monuments worthy of notice in the church. One in the 
chancel, with busts, which were painted : it was a fair monument 
of the kind of the seventeenth century. It reminded him of the 
monumental bust of Shakspeare in the chancel of the church at 
Stratford-on-Avon, which was originally painted, subsequently 
whitewashed, and then painted again. There was also in the 
south transept a monumental tablet ; the monument itself being 
framed like an ancient funeral targe, with scroll work round it. 
There was likewise an oil painting in the south transept, which 
was said to have been painted by Luca Giordano, the famous 
Neapolitan painter, but it was not by him, or after him ; it was a 
poor copy of some other master. The corbel heads, he noticed, 
were very curious, and were of the fourteenth century. There was 
not a great deal to remark upon in that church, or the vicissitudes 
it had gone through, except the absence of the south door, which 
he supposed must have been taken down when part of the spire 
was rebuilt, and the clerestory windows put in, in the last century, 
and* not replaced. The west door was certainly not of a later date 
than the latter part of the last century ; and the brass slab in the 
middle of the nave was of the fifteenth century. There were 
originally three brasses in the nave. Nichols calls them " Brasses 
of Monks," but the one left was undoubtedly that of a lady of 
the fifteenth century. That was as much as he could say upon 
the subject. 

The company then left the church, and were conducted over the 



HINCKLEY MEETING. 



307 



castle grounds by Mr. Stephen Pilgrim, the courteous owner of the 
property. 

After a time the party assembled in a suitable spot, which 
commanded a view of the hill and the surrounding country, whence 
the Rev. W. Sorrow spoke to the following effect : — He believed, 
he said, the pleasant task devolved upon him of making a few 
preliminary remarks upon the antiquity of the Castle Hill, upon 
which they then stood ; but unfortunately the subject with which 
he had to deal was a very poor one. There were no material 
remains about them ; unfortunately not a single stone of the castle 
was extant. However, he believed that it was supposed that 
originally it was a camp of the early Britons, and that after that 
it became a Roman camp ; but that was all mere legend. What 
they knew to be correct was that there was a castle there, inhabited 
by John of Gaunt, who was the fourth son of King Edward III., 
and heir to the honours and estates of the Earls of Leicester ; that 
after him it descended to Henry of Bolingbroke, afterwards 
Henry IV., and on his accession to the throne passed to the 
crown. How long the castle had been demolished was unknown, 
but soon after that time it disappeared, and it was supposed to 
have been destroyed about the year 1460, in the reign of 
Henry VI., or at any rate between that period and 1485. They 
knew for a fact that the castle was destroyed ; and it was believed 
that its final destruction came from cannons placed on the Priest 
Hills, or what was now called Priest Headland. The Lawns on 
the north of the town were once the pleasure grounds of the 
castle. After that time it long lay in a state of desolation, then 
became the property of a gardener, and subsequently (in 1760) it 
passed into the hands of the Hurst family, by whom the present 
house was built in 1770; and from them to its present highly 
respected owner, Mr. Pilgrim. He had now finished what he had 
to say on the subject, and would transfer it to the more able treat- 
ment of Mr. Bloxam. 

Mr. Bloxam said it was his first pilgrimage to that place, and 
therefore he had not had an opportunity of looking round and 
studying it. With reference to its being a British or a Roman 
remain, his opinion was that it was a mediaeval remain of the 
twelfth century. The castle must have been very small, and 
probably had a square tower, some eighteen or twenty feet square, 
with some few scattered buildings round it. That was doubtless 
the extent of the original castle ; what might have been added to 
it in after ages it was impossible to say. All that remained now 
were the earthworks, they were very extensive, and might have 
been the work of two or three periods. They showed that they 
were raised with a vast deal of labour, and that they must have 
been continued onwards, because on the opposite side the ground 
dropped down, but they had nothing to show any more than they 



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LEICESTEKSHIEE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



had in many other places. For instance, near Groby there were 
the earthworks of a Norman castle, consisting of a mound, in the 
centre of which the original castle or keep was erected, which was 
a distinctive mark of the Norman castle; they had not, however, 
got that mark there, but simply the raised earthworks around 
them. He thought, therefore, that if it was originally a Norman 
castle the remains must have been gradually destroyed in after 
times, when it became as it were, more a mansion than a castle. 
But really without greater discrimination and a reference to the 
surrounding country, it was almost impossible, on coming there for 
the first time, to make any observation that could be relied on as 
absolutely correct. 

Mr. James Thompson begged to add a few observations to 
those they had heard from Mr. Bloxam. In compiling the mate- 
rials for the History of the Castle of Leicester, he had of course 
gone over the very same ground as would have to be traversed if 
he were compiling a history of the Castle of Hinckley. Mr. 
Bloxam had stated so correctly the general facts in connexion with 
that particular place, the probable facts, that he need not recapitu- 
late them. He might say, in the case of Leicester Castle, that it 
was known to have been occupied by the ancient Saxon lords of 
the old city of Leicester ; consequently, there was reason for 
believing that the mound of the Castle of Leicester had an exist- 
ence prior to the Norman Conquest. How much further back it 
might date he would not venture to say. All statements in reference 
to British castles, and so forth, were mere conjecture of a subse- 
quent period. But, speaking generally, he thought those castle 
mounds were the work of the conquerors of this country in the 
twelfth century — of the Norman chieftains and captains who came 
over with William the Conqueror. It happened that they had an 
historical fact to guide them in reference to that case, which was 
very clear, and that was, that the mound was originally constructed 
by Hugh de Grantmesnil, one of the principal allies and colleagues 
of William the Conqueror, after he had subjugated the inhabitants 
of this island. He came over from France about the middle of 
the eleventh century. At that time, the conduct of the conquerors 
was very similar to what ours was in India at the present day. 
We, the British people, had conquered India, and of course held 
the whole country, the millions of Hindoostan, in subjection; they 
had been expelled from their property, and what was their ancestors' 
and of course they had been our enemies, and might be supposed 
were to a great extent enemies of the British rulers still. In the 
eleventh century precisely the same thing occurred in England. 
The houses, property, and lands of the ancient English people, 
were invaded by a foreign race who had settled in Normandy, in 
the North of France, three centuries before, and to whom the 
name of Normans was given. In order to guard against the attacks 



HINCKLEY MEETING. 



309 



of the Saxons, the Normans found it necessary to erect mounds in 
different districts on which they built the castle keeps of those 
days, and remains of which were found scattered all over England. 
At Leicester there were remains of one, at Hallaton another, at 
Groby another, at EaiTs Shilton another, another at Warwick, and 
in other places they were still to be seen. Wherever they went 
they found mounds similar to that: although, perhaps, not so 
extensive. They were simply large mounds, upon which were 
raised single towers, sometimes square, sometimes circular, in 
which the conquerors placed their garrison, and in which the chief 
men lived during the troublous period which followed the conquest 
of England by the Normans. He was reminded during that 
beautiful Service at the Church, of the period when the men-at- 
arms, the retainers of the chieftains who inhabited the castle, 
heard the old service, the mass and vesper, chanted or said to 
them within those walls, as they knew was the case in the days of 
yore. The poet had said : 

" Not dry and barren are the paths of Hoar Antiquity, 
But strewn with flowers." 

Every person who had directed his attention to antiquarian 
pursuits, knew that they were not dry and uninteresting, but grew 
upon them in interest, pleasure, and delight, as they made progress 
in them. Mr. Thompson concluded by thanking his audience for 
the patient attention with which they had listened to his remarks. 

Mr. Bloxam asked to be allowed to make another remark. 
With regard to Warwick Castle and Tamworth Castle, both of 
which stood on mounds, they knew those had been erected by the 
Saxons, the precise year of their erection being recorded in the 
Saxon Chronicles. With regard to Hallaton, he passed that way 
a few months ago, and came to the conclusion that it was not a 
mediaeval mound, or a Norman, or Saxon mound, but simply an 
ancient British entrenchment ; and, after he had made a further 
examination, that view was corroborated by this curious cir- 
cumstance, that within half a mile there was a small Roman 
entrenchment, which showed what their mode of proceeding w r as. 
Whenever they had to attack a British entrenchment, if that was 
defended, they always, within a short distance, threw up small 
earthworks, on which to retire in case of need. They did not 
take it for granted that they would subdue the British fortifications, 
but always had some point of attack on which they could fall if 
necessary. That was the case at Hallaton. 

The Rev. E. Tower had great pleasure in saying that the 
Museum was now open to the public, and he could not help 
further remarking, in the name of the Members of the Society, 
that they owed a great debt to the Hinckley Committee for the 
extraordinary diligence they appeared to have shown in bringing 



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LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



together the very excellent Museum that was collected at the 
Town Hall, and he begged the attention of all present to it. The 
Vicar had reminded him of a duty he had to perform, that was, 
to acknowledge on behalf of the Society the great exertions of one 
member of the Committee — the best thanks of all were due to 
Mr. Cotman. They had heard of monuments being raised by 
travellers, each bringing a great stone and placing it, and so 
raising a great mound. Well, it was exactly the same with their 
undertaking. If one person tried to do it, he could not, but if 
every person who had an interest in raising the monument, used 
his hands and tried to work for an object like theirs, it was done ; 
but there must be a leader, and the leaders on the present occasion 
were the Vicar and Mr. Cotman. Mr. Tower then announced 
that at four o'clock a cursory explanation of the objects of the 
Museum would be given by Mr. Bloxam. 

THE MUSEUM 

Contained a great mass of objects of antiquarian and general 
interest, and of works of art, contributed by rich and poor residing 
in Hinckley and its neighbourhood. It is deemed unnecessary 
to give a detailed catalogue of the articles exhibited, but the 
following extracts will show that very many of them possess more 
than a merely local value. 

Exhibited by Mr. Rubley : Cabinet ; two fine bronze celts, 
found in Northamptonshire. 

By Mr. Short : First printing press introduced into Hinckley, 
in 1773 ; pectoral crucifix ; Dutch folding lantern. 

By Messrs. Harrold: Hinges from Sharnford and Stoke 
Churches ; poppy heads from ditto ; cannon ball, &c, found in 
Hinckley; spear from Bosworth Field ; collection of works upon 
architecture ; carving from rood screen, Sharnford Church : carved 
panels from Ibstock ; casts of oak panels from Atherstone ; bosses 
from Hinckley Church; three panels (linen pattern), from Burbage 
Manor House; tobacco box, dated 1764; scraps of ancient glass 
from Sharnford Church. 

By Mr. John Wilson : Pair of ancient slippers. 

By Mr. Cotman : Old and New Testaments, illustrated ; fine 
specimens of brocaded silk ; ancient housewife in brocaded silk ; 
fans, &c. ; Lady's chataline, &c. 

By Mr. Jno. Hopkins : Bill of Grand Musical Festival in 
Hinckley Church, 8th October, 1805 ; ancient font, said to be 
from Elmsthorpe Church. 

By Mr. H. M. Ward : Note Book of Peter Jaques, some time 
Vicar of Hinckley ; Nichols' History of Hinckley ; MS. copy of 
Award of Hinckley Parish ; Bullinger's Sermons on the Apoca- 
lypse, London, 1573; Macaulay's Claybrooke ; Leicester Herald, 



THE MUSEUM. 



311 



1732 to 1763; Nichols' History of Sparkenhoe Hundred; collec- 
tion of china. 

By Mr. Gutteridge : Hinkley Inclosure Act; and English 
coins. 

By Rev. Jno. Sankey: manuscripts on vellum, a portion dated 
1343, comprising apparently an office for the celebration of the 
Festival of Corpus Christi, and a summary of the Canons and 
Provincial Constitutions ; various books, including Latimer's 
Sermons, the title page of the first bearing date 1548 ; Fuller's 
Holy State, 1642; Queen Elizabeth's Injunctions, 1559; several 
medals, one by John Lilburne, giving the names of the jury who 
acquitted him, October, 1649 — A. Wood says of him, that he was 
so quarrelsome that if he were alone in the world, " John would be 
against Lilburne, and Lilburne against John;" coins of James II., 
William III., &c, &o. 

By Mrs. Bonner: Saddle covered with green velvet from 
Bosworth Field (?). 

By Mrs. Sheen : View of Charing Cross and Westminster 
Abbey in 1450. 

By Sir A. B. C. Dixie : Small box, containing four Tradesmen's 
Tokens, viz.— William Iliffe, Hinckley, 1662; Thomas Davell, 
Hinckley ; Samuel Willson, Leicester, and Joseph C . . . , 
Hinckley. 

By Mr. Brocklehurst : Manilla China. 

By Mr. W. Cowdell : Tobacco box, " George Cowdell, Naseby, 
Northamptonshire, 1734." 

By Mr. C. J. Lea, of Lutterworth : many specimens of mural 
decorations, executed by himself and under his guidance. 

By Mr. Weatherhead: Drawings of bronze antiquities, found 
in the Town and County of Leicester. 

By Mr. James Wykes: Prayer and New Testament, temp. 
Elizabeth. 

By Mr. Farndon : Collection of silver and copper coins ; lady's 
shoe, temp. Queen Anne. 

By Mr. James Lees : Working model of stocking frame. 

By Mr. S. R. Bonner: Small silver box for suspension — on 
front, the sacred monogram I.H.S. and a heart pierced by three 
nails — on back, M.R.A. and a heart pierced by a sword ; small 
pectoral crucifix, and various coins ; old spectacles. 

By Mrs. Cotton, Burbage : Indian curiosities and personal 
ornaments. 

By Rev. E. Tower: Models of statuary from the Vatican; 
Italian casts. 

By Mr. James Argyle : Dress, temp. George III. 
By S. Angent, Esq. : Chinese curiosities, very fine. 
By Rev. Wm. Skirrow: Glass lachrymatory from Egypt, with 
modern stopper ; fine Indian carvings in ivory ; gold comfit box, 



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LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



seventeenth century ; Swiss and other foreign curiosities of great 
beauty; Russian triptich from the Crimea; jewel box, a.d. 1614, 
richly ornamented with bead work, velvet, and mirrors; curious 
Chinese figures and china; Canadian curiosities. 

By Mrs. Pridmore : Specimens of china. 

By T. S. Ludlow, Esq. : Kaffir gourd bottles from Natal, 
&c, &c. 

By Rev. T. H. Evans : Statue in wood from Alexandria. 

By Messrs. Heaton, Butler, and Co.: Specimens of stained 
glass, and various designs for windows. 

By Rev. — . Bradford : Sword hilt from Bosworth Field ; fine 
specimen of ancient British bronze ; arrow-head found in Bosworth 
Field two feet below the surface in December, 1837. 

By Mr. A. Atkins : Lachrymatory from Pompeii. 

By Rev. E. Tower: Large Dutch Jug, temp. Geo. I. 

By Mrs- Cleaver : Pair of Jugs. 

By Mrs. Pridmore : Ancient Needlework. 

By Rev. M. Berry : Horns found at Burbage, three feet below 
the surface, in cutting a drain. 

By Mr. W. A. Todd : Comfit box, temp. Elizabeth. 

By Mrs. Smith, Elmsthorpe : Box enamelled on copper ; 
Chinese idol, &c, &c. ; indentures, dated 1714 ; various boxes ; 
ancient watch and key ; piece of tapestry, representing the story 
of Susannah and the Elders ; a large brass button, with the initials 
W. R., formerly belonging to Sir William Roberts, of Sutton 
Cheney — he founded an hospital there in 1612, was sheriff of 
Leicestershire in 1618, was knighted at Belvoir, August 6, 1619, 
died 24th February, 1633, and left the interest of £30. between 
the poor of Hinckley and Barwell ; portraits of John Ward of 
Hinckley and John Throseby; ancient spur and bit; specimens of 
ancient delf ; a large collection of ancient and modern china. 

At four o'clock, Mr. Bloxam commenced a lucid description of 
the more prominent specimens, beginning with a quern or hand 
corn mill, dug out of the railway excavations near to Whetstone. 
Mr. Bloxam described it as one of the largest and most perfect of 
these Roman mills he had ever seen, and it must have originally 
come from Germany. He next inspected some spear heads found 
at Bosworth, pointing out that one of them must be considered of 
the early English period, consequently much older than the date 
of the Battle of Bosworth Field. Several keys, said to be of the 
Roman period, were hardly of the pattern they should have been 
if they were authentic ; one especially, found at Twycross, he 
pointed out as being about one hundred years old. Some earthen- 
ware, spurs, a small casket, and unfinished needlework, he described 
as rare specimens of their class. In the course of his remarks, 
Mr. Bloxam alluded to a number of curious horns of the Roman 



ANCIENT HINCKLEY. 



313 



period which had been found in a heap at Burbage ; he was not 
naturalist enough to say to what species of animal they belonged. 
There was a remarkable little coffer, covered with leather and 
bound in iron, probably of the Elizabethan period. Having 
described some local tokens formerly used by the tradesmen of 
Hinckley, Mr. Bloxam alluded to an illuminated MS. described in 
the above list, as a curious relic, and proceeded to call attention, 
especially that of the ladies, to a very perfect but laughable 
specimen of a "poke bonnet" worn "when George 111. was 
King," believing that we should soon come round to the same 
fashion again. One of the next objects pointed out was a copy of 
Latimer's sermons, printed in his lifetime, which he thought was 
very interesting. 

Mr. James Thompson supplemented Mr. Bloxam's observations 
by a few general remarks on the successive periods of English 
history, with a view to the classification of articles of antiquity 
according to their dates and styles of ornamentation. He briefly 
glanced at the Roman, Saxon, and Norman periods, and then 
referred to the styles of Gothic architecture, including the Early 
English, the Decorative, and the Perpendicular, and added that 
the subsequent periods were known as the Renaissance, the 
Elizabethan, and the Jacobean. Mr. Thompson gave these 
explanations with a view to prevent misunderstanding as to the 
use of terms in connexion with the articles exhibited in the 
Museum. 

THE ORDINARY. 

At half-past six o'clock in the evening there was an Ordinary 
at the George Hotel, Hinckley, which was largely attended, the 
room being quite full. 

THE EVENING MEETING. 

At eight o'clock a public Meeting was held in the Corn 
Exchange, the Vicar, as President of the Congress, occupying the 
chair. 

The Chairman called first upon Mr. James Thompson to 
read his Paper on 

ANCIENT HINCKLEY. 

At the Norman Conquest, when the defeat of the iiative English 
by the Norman conquerors was followed by a complete change 
of proprietors, the land at Hinckley fell into the possession of 
Aubrey de Vere, the Lord High Chamberlain of King William. 

At this time (about the year 1086) the lordship consisted of 
fourteen ploughlands, which in the time of Edward the Confessor 



314 



LKICKSTKKSU1IJ.K A \iC\ 1 1 T KCT U K A I , SOOIK/L'Y. 



— thirty years or so before — had been valued at six pounds' weight 
of silver, but which now were worth in yearly rent ten pounds 1 
weight, or between thirty and forty pounds in modern reckoning. 
This was at a time, too, when money gave a greater command over 
commodities than it does in this age ; as wheat, for instance, then 
sold for Is. 9d. a quarter. Earl Aubrey had four ploughs and eight 
serfs or bondsmen ; while forty-two villans (whom, for the sake of 
plainer speaking, I may call " smockfrock farmers"), with sixteen 
bordars or cottagers, and three persons in higher rank and more 
independent position, called " sokemen," had nine ploughs and a 
half. There was, at an outside computation, supposing every 
ploughland to consist of 120 acres, 1680 acres under cultivation 
about Hinckley. There was a meadow six furlongs long and three 
broad ; and a wood one mile long and three furlongs broad, which 
probably covered the ground on the south side of the town, between 
it and the adjoining parish of Burbage. From these particulars 
(still preserved in the Domesday Survey) it may be inferred that 
Earl Aubrey kept in his own hands as much as could be ploughed 
by four ploughs and eight serfs, while the remainder of the 
inhabitants, all in a more or less dependent condition, worked as 
much as nine ploughs, and half as much as one plough more, would 
enable them to do — that is, they had not enough to require ten 
ploughs to be going regularly. The whole male adult population, 
all husbandmen, numbered 69. If they were married men, with an 
average family of three children each, the number of residents 
would be 345. It is probable the arable land , in the parish was 
much less than 1680 acres ; as the ploughland has been variously 
estimated at from 30 to 120 acres ; and therefore, of the 2000 acres 
of which the lordship consisted, there may have been as few as 420 
undergoing culture. 

By comparison with Market Bosworth at the period under 
notice, we learn that Hinckley was the larger domain ; there being 
32 males employed in agriculture in Bosworth, when there were 69 
in Hinckley, and 14 ploughlands in Hinckley when there were 8 in 
Bosworth. Barwell, at the same date, was still lower in the scale, 
having only five ploughlands under the share, and 26 men to 
labour in the fields. 

Humble, obscure, and oppressed, the men of Hinckley anciently 
huddled together in huts round the open space now known as 
the Market Place and the Round Hill in the Borough, in which 
different roads centered. Their dwellings were built of timber, 
with mud filled in between the parts of the framework, and they 
were covered with sods, boards, or thatch. One room, lighted and 
entered by the door, served as lodging room and kitchen ; and 
there was no storey above, for if another room could be afforded, 
it was added to the end or side of that already erected. 

The lord of Hinckley succeeding Earl Aubrey was Hugh de 



ANCIENT HINCKLEY. 



315 



Grantmesnil, or (as it may be Englished) Hugh of the Great House, 
who was the largest landholder in Leicestershire. He was a Norman 
and an intimate associate of the Conqueror, and became High 
Steward of England, as well as possessor of the manor and bailiwick 
of Hinckley. To him is attributed the erection of the Castle, the 
foundation of a park around it, and the building of the parish 
church. 

If it be permissible in an historical paper like this, to refer to 
the pages of fiction, I may show you from Bulwer's novel, " Harold, 
the Last of the Saxon Kings," what these Norman barons were : 
<k Like the Spartans," says Bulwer, "every Norman was free and 
noble ; and this consciousness inspired not only that remarkable 
dignity of mien which Spartan and Norman alike possessed, but 
also that fastidious self-respect which would have revolted from 
exhibiting a spectacle of debasement to inferiors. And, lastly, the 
paucity of their original numbers, the perils that beset, and the 
good fortune that attended them, served to render the Spartans the 
most religious of all the Greeks in their dependence on the Divine 
aid ; so perhaps, to the same causes may be traced the proverbial 
piety of the ceremonial Normans." 

When in the story Wolnoth, the darling son of Harold, pleads 
that he may go to the court of William the Norman, he says, " the 
good king knows that I shall be welcome, for the Norman knights 
love Wolnoth, and 1 have spent hours by the knees of Montgommeri 
and Grantmesnil, listening to the feats of Rolfganger, and playing 
with the gold chains of knighthood." Throughout the narrative, 
Grantmesnil is mentioned again and again, always as one of the 
bravest of Norman knights. In the course of the fierce conflict, 
the Norman Conqueror exclaims, "Our soldiers are but women in 
the garb of Normans. Ho, spears to the rescue ! With me to the 
charge, Sires D'Aumale and De Litton — with me, gallant Bruse and 
de Mortain ; with me, De Graville, and Grantmesnil — Dex aide! 
Notre Dame 1" 

The town standing on a sloping site, the spot selected for the 
Castle was at its upper end, some distance from the dwellings, and 
there a mound of considerable elevation was probably raised by the 
labour of the Earl's serfs and tenants. A deep ditch was dug 
around it, and on its summit a tower of stone in all probability was 
erected. In this the armed retainers of the baron were lodged, nnd 
by their power the surrounding country was kept in subjection. 
With enemies on all sides, composed of the inhabitants dispossessed 
by the Normans of their lands and homesteads and houses (some of 
the natives reduced from being the lords of the soil to become 
labourers on estates which had once been their own), the soldiers 
of the castle needed a stronghold to fly to, and from which they 
might defy the menaces of the exasperated population. 

In this unsettled state of things, the relations of the people <>t 



316 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hinckley to their foreign masters were necessarily hostile, and 
embittered by a desire for mutual revenge. No feelings but one 
of a determination to rule on one side and to resist on the other, 
would possibly exist between them ; and such must have prevailed 
during the life-time of Hugh de Grantmesnil. From him to the 
Earls of Leicester passed the manor and bailiwick of Hinckley. 
Under these personages, who flourished during the twelfth century, 
in the successive reigns of William Rufus, Henry the First and 
Second, Stephen, Matilda, Richard Cceur de Lion, and John, there 
was a gradual change from the implacable enmity existing shortly 
after the Conquest to more amicable relationships ; as may be 
inferred from the progress of events in Leicester, where the 
Earls, during the same epoch, granted charters to the burgesses, 
guaranteeing to them a restoration of the ancient liberties and 
customs of which the Conquest had deprived their forefathers. 

No charter, however, is extant relative to Hinckley. Doubtless 
the Earls of Leicester, as its feudal barons, held their Court Leet, 
at which the inhabitants of the place were bound to do homage 
and service. This was presided over by a bailiff, who was appointed 
by the Earl for the time being, and who very likely lived at the 
Castle as the locum tenens of his masters, and as the officer in 
command of its garrison. 

At this time the Court Leet was no shadowy institution or 
occasion of unmeaning ceremonialism ; but a substantial reality, 
and an operative agency in local affairs. Having been at the pains 
to investigate this subject on another occasion, with a view of 
illustrating the municipal institutions of this country, I may here 
repeat the explanations there offered as the conclusions of my 
researches. 

In the outset, we have to conceive of a state of society widely 
different from that now existing, and to carry back our ideas into 
the period preceding the Norman Conquest. We have to premise 
that when the invasion by the Saxons had proved generally 
successful, and the land had fallen into the hands of its new 
owners, the chief of these constituted, in their own domains, the 
rulers — or, to select a term in modern use, the " lords of the 
manors." To them, by a nominal delegation from the sovereign, 
was imparted authority over all their tenants and the residents 
upon their estates. They held their courts, in which all males 
were obliged to be enrolled at a certain age, to find two friends to 
be securities for them, and to appear at stated periods yearly. In 
these courts the steward or deputy of the manorial lord presided, 
and justice was done — the criminal laws being therein administered, 
and civil suits being therein determined. The jurisdiction was 
necessarily limited and defined — other courts, as those of the 
County and the Hundred, having greater authority, and being 
appealed to in cases where the manorial courts were supposed to 



ANCIENT HINCKLEY. 



317 



be incompetent to the final arbitrament of weighty matters of 
controversy. 

In the rural districts this system had, perhaps, its original and 
primitive home, and was brought into this country from Germany 
by the invaders, who had been accustomed to it in the scattered 
communities of their fatherland ; but it was capable of adaptation 
to the requirements of townsmen. We may ascertain what the 
system had become shortly before the Norman Conquest, by 
referring to the Laws of Edward the Confessor, in which the 
various powers of the lords of the manor are minutely detailed. In 
the twenty-second of those laws they are stated to be soc, sac, 
iheam, and infangtheof. Under these obsolete terms are disguised 
the right to have jurisdiction over a domain, in settling various 
pleas and suits that might arise among tenants, and the power of 
punishing theft ; the right to take the fines or forfeits imposed at 
the courts ; the right of persons living in the manor to buy and 
sell; the right of levying forfeits or penalties upon offenders ; and 
the right to punish a thief belonging to another district, if he 
robbed a tenant and were captured in the lordship. 

It will be perceived that here are the rude germs of local self- 
government. When towns became populous, and communities 
acquired sufficient unity of purpose and character, they sought to 
procure from the monarch or the lord of the manor, either by agree- 
ment or purchase, the same authority as that he himself possessed. 
In such an event, the townsmen in their communal character, became 
entitled to appoint their own steward or bailiff to preside in the 
Court Leet, and to decide pleas and to punish offenders, selected a 
jury or juries among themselves, and put into a common purse the 
fees levied upon the suitors in the courts and the fines imposed 
upon convicted criminals. It is not improbable the lord of the 
manor would find it ultimately advantageous to transfer his powers 
absolutely, or for a term of years, to the townsmen, on consideration 
of receiving, without the trouble of collection, as large a sum 
annually as he had previously derived from his own bailiff, with 
whom he had to share the receipts. Beginning in this way, by 
compounding with their lord for the exercise of his prerogative, it 
is' only in the course of events to suppose the townsmen would 
eventually procure a still greater extension of the principle of self- 
government, and would acquire greater ability for its exercise. 

The history of the connection of the ancient lords of Hinckley 
with the place, and the history of its ancient privileges, are neces- 
sarily closely interwoven. We therefore turn to the former, as 
presented by Nichols, the county historian, in order to illustrate 
the latter ; and in so doing find that in the year 1277 king Henry the 
Third bestowed all the honours and rights which Simon de Mont fort 
had enjoyed, on his second son Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, 
and to his heirs for ever. In 129b* it was found that this nobleman 



318 



LR rCESTKRSl I 1 MR A KCH1TKCTU HAL SOCIETY. 



held directly of the king, his brother, sixteen virgates of land in 
demesne, in the suburbs of Hinckley. On his decease, in the same 
year, he was the possessor of the manor of Hinckley; and among 
the fees for which he received a certain tax called " scutage" of the 
tenants, were those derived from " the free tenants of Hinckley," 
who held a virgate and a half, and a fourth part of a virgate in the 
lordship. In 1298 the manor and park of Hinckley were assigned 
for the dower of Blanche, the widow of Earl Edmund, and from 
this precedent they became afterwards the regular dower of several 
of the queens dowager of England. 

In Edward the Second's reign, a number of persons named in 
the Feodary's account of Leicestershire, held fees in Hinckley. 
These were John Baseville, Michael de Maynard, John de Calby 
and his wife Christiana, William Chapman, junior, Thomas Wake 
of Lydell, Richard Charnells, Thomas Astley, Lady la Botiller of 
Wera, William de Ashley and Christiana his wife, and Sir John de 
Seagrave. They were the proprietors of portions of the land and 
houses. 

Among the other documents throwing light upon the history 
of the town is one bearing date 1344, which proves that William de 
Shilton and William de Crudworth gave three messuages, and half 
a messuage, and one shop, in Hinckley, to the Abbot of Merevale. 

But we can infer little from these facts in relation to the progress 
of local freedom, and we are left to guess in what way that became 
developed. I presume that the place became a " borough" when 
the inhabitants acquired a certain degree of independence of the 
feudal relationship — when the inhabitants in their Court Leet 
managed, to a certain extent, their own affairs, after paying a com- 
position to the lords of the manor. This probably took place when 
the borough of Hinckley merged in the Crown, on the accession of 
Henry, the son of John of Gaunt, as Henry the Fourth ; the direct 
influence of the ancient feudal lords of the place being then weak- 
ened, through their non-residence in the county town, and by their 
election to the sovereign authority. This view derives some con- 
firmation from the fact of Hinckley being first known to be 
designated a "borough" in the year 1416, that is, within twenty 
years after the date of Henry the Fourth's assumption of the crown. 
It was then rated at £2. 8s. in a book of fifteenths and tenths 
granted by the laity. In 1444, Henry the Sixth, in his marriage 
settlement upon his intended consort, gave to her the manor of 
Hinckley, the borough of Hinckley, and the bond of Hinckley; 
which means, we may suppose, that the king gave the rents due 
from the lordship, and the fees and payments received in the Court 
Leet of the borough and the bond, to the queen, for her use and 
benefit. 

Hinckley, it would thus appear, has enjoyed the distinction of 
being a borough for four hundred and fifty years, during which 



ANCIENT HINCKLEY. 



319 



period it has been within defined limits self-governed, — has chosen 
its local officers, its bailiffs, its juries, and its constables. Unfortu- 
nately there are no very ancient documents extant (of which I am 
aware) to enable us to trace the rise and growth and diminution of 
local privileges. In answer to ray enquiries (which have been 
courteously met by Mr. Samuel Robinson Bonner, Mr. Stephen 
Pilgrim, and Mr. Thomas Short) no information has been furnished 
respecting any archives in Hinckley. 

The earliest document placed in my hands is scarcely venerable 
enough in the estimation of an archaeologist, but it conveys by 
suggestion, perhaps, what were the more ancient usages of Hinckley. 
It is dated 1744, and is headed thus: "Manor of Hinckley, with 
the members. To wit, the Court View of Frank Pledge and Court 
Baron of Thomas Sansom, Joseph Robinson, and William Venable, 
Gentlemen, Lords of the said Manor, the 19th day of April, at the 
Guild Hall in Hinckley aforesaid, in the year of our Lord 1744, 
before Edward Taylor, Esq., there, and I, Strong Ensor, Gent., 
Deputy Steward there." 

Then follow the names of the Borough Jury, or " the Jury for 
our Sovereign Lord the King, as well as for the Lords of the said 
Manor." These are Mr. John Nutt, Joshua Morris, William 
Bentley, Joseph Iliff, Wm. Langham, Thomas Hurst, John Corbitt, 
John Lee, Edward Wilkinson, and James Watson. There was also 
the Bond End Jury, composed of Mr. Wm. Morris, Mr. Samuel 
Craven, Mr. Lakin, Richard Goode, John Warren, Joseph Neal, 
John Russell, Wm. Cooper, John Groudage, Thomas Sharp, 
William Blakesley, Thomas Morris, and Edward Hopkins. A 
third Jury, called the Foreign Jury, was also sworn, consisting of 
William Appleby of Hinckley, Thomas Marson of Hinckley, 
Richard Garner of Hinckley, John Suffolk of Stoke, John Cox of 
Stoke, George Ball of Stoke, Samuel Coward of Atterton, Robert 
Fortescue of Hinckley, George Conduit of Wykin, Richard 
Sandifer of Wykin, John Hutshins of Higham, Jos. Moggs of 
Wilnecote, and Timothy Freer, jun. of Hinckley. 

Numerous defaulters were fined for non-attendance, and con- 
stables and third-boroughs were chosen. Then comes a long list of 
penalties levied by the Borough Jury for committing small offences; 
for neglecting to keep pumps and chimneys in repair, for obstruct- 
ing the roads, for allowing heaps of refuse to accumulate, for using 
false weights and measures, and so forth. The Bond End Jury 
seemed to have exercised a wider jurisdiction. Altogether there 
were thirty-eight laws, principally relating to the town field and to 
turning-in, numbered in succession — defining the rights of each 
commoner. The Foreign Jury made regulations for the Castle 
End of a similar nature to those made for the Borough. 

Mr. Nichols observes as follows, in vol. 4, part 2, of his Historj 
of the County, concerning the Borough and the Bond: M Under its 
aa Vol, II. 



820 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



original lords, the town of Hinckley enjoyed the privileges of a 
Borough; and, from their connection with the Lancaster family, 
the inhabitants took a decided part in the civil contests. But, 
whatever their privileges were, they became forfeited to the 
conquering monarch of the house of York. The lordship, however, 
is still divided into two distinct liberties, the Borough and the 
Bond ; and the former of which divisions has its peculiar privileges. 
. . . The whole number of town officers are fifteen, namely, 
chosen at the Court Leet ; for the Borough, the Mayor or Bailiff, 
one constable, two head-boroughs ; for the Bond, one constable, 
three head-boroughs [Here follows a list of Church and Poor- 
Law Officers, and Mr. Nichols continues] : The Mayor of 
Hinckley, who must necessarily be an inhabitant, residing within 
the Borough, has authority to regulate the markets and examine 
the weights. . . . The Borough, as far as I can find, is the 
only part of the ancient property from which a chief rent is reserved 
to the Crown in right of the Duchy of Lancaster." 

The statement of the forfeiture of ancient privileges rests on 
the authority of Mr. Nichols, who does not refer to any documentary 
evidence in support of it; but it has been shown that Hinckley 
was a borough in the reign of Henry the Fifth. Owing to the entire 
absence of local charters and manuscripts of a date before the 
feoffment took place, in the sixteenth century, there are no means 
of ascertaining what the actual state of affairs was which constituted 
the place a borough — whether there was an officer placed on the 
footing of a Mayor — or whether an organization existed which 
could by any stretch of definition be properly designated a Corpo- 
ration. There can be no doubt that the grim symbol of the law's 
power, the gallows, formerly stood on the road from Hinckley to 
Derby ; a pillory was also standing in the Borough ; and an 
ancient Guild Hall occupied a site in its very centre. The old 
Earls of Leicester also, in right of their honour of Hinckley, bore 
a distinctive banner, which, in heraldic phraseology, was " party 
per pale indented, argent and gules " and under which the ancient 
inhabitants would be led, as the modern Hinckley Volunteers might 
appropriately be led, were occasion to require, to gallant service 
in defence of Queen and Fatherland. All these things — the gallows, 
the pillory, the Guild Hall, the distinctive banner — indicate a Past 
in which the community here resident had a corporate unity, and a 
status among the old centres of English population ; but beyond 
these bare suggestions of what has been, the antiquary looks in 
vain for remains and tokens of Ancient Hinckley. Protected by 
its Castle Keep in the mediaeval period, it needed no walls ; and 
when the improved state of society rendered the Castle unnecessary, 
that building fell into ruin ; so that in the reign of James the First, 
when the topographer Burton wrote, it was " utterly ruinated and 
gone, and only the mounts, rampires, and trenches, were to be seen; 
and the fair and large park was then disparked." 



NOTES ON ANCIENT HOSIEEY. 



321 



I trust 1 have said enough to show that there is much to be 
interested in, and much to be discovered in relation to, the borough 
of Hinckley. If the visit of the Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society shall have occasioned light to be thrown on 
obscure matters connected with its history, its institutions, and its 
relics, the visit will have fulfilled one of its principal purposes, and 
will have offered a species of return, however inadequate, for the 
kindly and hearty welcome the Society has received from the 
Committee and other inhabitants. 

The Chairman then explained that Mr. John Gough Nichols, 
F.S.A., was unavoidably absent from the meeting, but that his 
promised Paper would be read by Mr. North, one of the Honorary 
Secretaries.. 

NOTES ON ANCIENT HOSIERY. 

Having failed to discover in any books a satisfactory account of the 
introduction and history of the Stocking, I suggested the subject 
to the officers of this Society, as one possessing peculiar claims on 
its attention, considering how much the commercial prosperity of 
the county of Leicester has been founded on the manufacture of 
hosiery. My proposition was not only kindly responded to, but I 
was requested to communicate my own observations, which I con- 
sented to do, although my notes were fragmentary and incidental, 
and consequently inadequate to form a connected memoir. 

The stocking is not a garment of high antiquity either in name 
or substance. Our ancestors clothed their lower limbs with hose, 
of which the stock or stocking was a part only. At first the name 
was not stocking, but stock. The second syllable is a corruption of 
the old plural en ; and the phrase — a pair of stocken — was gradually 
altered to a pair of stockings ; as we have in like manner redoubled 
the plural in chickens, instead of adhering to the form expressed 
in the old domestic proverb, that 

" Children and chicken, 
Are always a picking." 

For liosen we have still the ancient plural in our present translation 
of the Bible, where we are told of Shadrach, Mesech, and Abed- 
nego, that they were bound in their coats, their hosen, and their 
hats, and their other garments, and were cast bound in the midst 
of the burning fiery furnace. 

The stock being then, originally, a part of the hose, it is neces- 
sary, in the first place, to ascertain of what the hose altogether 
consisted. Hose were a combination of what we now term drawers 
and stockings, such as in more recent times have been named 
pantaloons, from having been the characteristic costume of the 
Piantaleone, or imbecile old man of the Italian pantomime. They 
covered all the lower part of the body, as the doublet covered the 



822 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

upper part. Over both might be occasionally thrown a cloak or 
mantle, or other outer vestment, which took the several names of 
coat, surcoat, surplice, jerkin, jacket, and others, according to its 
size, fashion, or material, but which in the Elizabethan age was 
usually termed the gown. It is remarkable that we have now 
breeches, and that our forefathers had them in the days of the 
ancient Romans ; but in our mediaeval period the term breeches 
was, for some centuries, superseded by that of hose. The sur- 
name of Hoese or Hussey was Latinized by Hosatus (a man 
wearing hose), although, like many other names that have apparently 
a personal meaning, it had probably a local origin in Normandy ; 
and a hose was the heraldic cognizance of that family, now con- 
verted into their crest of a boot. But we do not find any hoses, 
or hose, in classical Latin, whilst braccce or breeches are spoken of 
by Ovid, Tacitus, Propertius, and other ancient authors. The 
Northern nations, whose climate required this kind of clothing, 
were on that account inconsiderately stigmatized as effeminate by 
the Romans ; and Gallia braccata, or that part of Gaul about 
Narbonne, was thus distinguished as by contrast from the Italia 
togata on the other side of the Alps. 

Shakespeare speaks of hose in various passages ; in others 
of stockings, but which he as often called stocks, retaining the 
original signification of the word that we have already noticed. In 
Twelfth Night Sir Andrew Aguecheek boasts of his leg, and says, 
" Ay, 'tis strong, and it does indifferent well in a flame-coloured 
stock whilst in the same play we have the ever memorable yellow 
stockings of Malvolio, as well as the fashion of cross-gartering, 
which he was befooled to imagine that his mistress admired, though 
she really detested it, and abhorred the colour of yellow. In 
Hamlet Ophelia describes 

" Lord Hamlet, with his doublet all unbraced, 
No hat upon his head ; his stockings foul'd, 
Ungarter'd, and down-gyved to his ancle." 

But these stocks, stockings, or hose were all alike made of 
linen or woollen cloth, cut into shape and sewn together ; and that 
was the cause of their requiring garterings, and even cross-garterings, 
much more than our more elastic fabrics. In his description of the 
Seven Ages of Man, Shakespeare represents the lean and slippered 
pantaloon as wearing still his youthful hose, a world too wide for 
his shrunk shanks — for which garters or braces would be absolutely 
necessary. To go with hose ungartered was an evident token of 
slovenliness or absence of mind. Sir Protheus, in the Two Gentle- 
men of Verona, being in love, could not see to garter his hose — 
because love is blind. The materials of which hose were made were 
thinner or stouter, as warmth and strength required. They were 
sometimes made of linen only, but usually of the same cloths that 



NOTES ON ANCIENT HOSIERY. 



323 



were employed for coats and jerkins. In The Taming of ike Shrew 
Petruchio's lacquey appears e< with a linen stock on one leg. and a 
kersey boot-hose on the other, gartered with a red and blue list." 
The boot-hose,, which was made to wear under a boot, was formed 
of the stouter material. The seams were protected and strengthened 
by guards, which, for ornament sake, were often made of another 
colour, and in subsequent times were developed into what are still 
remembered as clocks. Before the term stocking was finallv adopted 
in its modern sense, the coverings of the leg were called stocks of 
hose or nether stocks, whilst what we now call breeches were termed 
upper stocks. 

When the great Earl of Leicester, as a knight of St. Michael 
of France, celebrated the feast of that order in the year 1571. at the 
town of Warwick, he was apparelled all in white, but the costly 
materials of his attire were various, and are thus described : — His 
shoes of velvet ; his stocks of hose knit silk ; his upper stocks — [that 
is what we should now call his breeches] — of white velvet, lined — 
[that is slashed and inlaid] — with cloth of silver; his doublet of 
cloth of silver; his jerkin white velvet drawn with si ] ver, beautified 
with gold and precious stones ; his girdle and scabbard white velvet ; 
his robe white satin, embroidered with gold a foot broad, very 
curiously ; his cap black velvet, with a white feather ; his collar of 
gold, beset with precious stones ; and his garter about his leg of St. 
George's order; altogether, a sight,"' adds the narrator, "worthy of 
beholding."' In this passage we have an early mention of knit silk 
stockings. Any knit stockings, and particularly those of silk, were 
in hisrh estimation in the reira of Elizabeth, and thev are more 
than once mentioned as presents made to the Queen and to other 
persons of the highest rank. I believe they were made entirely 
without machinery, even of the simplest kind, by needles worked 
with the hand. The great occupation of women, in mediaeval times, 
was, as is well known, spinning flax and wool : but with the spin- 
sters Shakespeare mentions also the knitters, and the makers of 
bone lace, who alike delighted in the sweetness of a simple song : — 

" Mark it, Cesario : it is old and plain ; 
The spinsters and the knitters in the snn, 
And the free maids that weave their lace with bones, 
Do nse to chant it." 

The greater comfort in wearing knitted hose rather than those - 
together of cloth may be readily conceived. One is not disposed to 
envy people who were condemned to wear those of the latter descrip- 
tion, which must have been in many ways disag -eeable. Still less 
can we fancy the task of the hosier, whose business it was to repair 
such stockings after long use. We now talk of sweeping the Btreeta 
as an alternative preferable to any occupation we may consider par- 
ticularly obnoxious: but in Shakespeare's time there WM nothing 



S'24 



U 1 1 c U<; ST K 1 IS 1 1 1 1 IK ARC II I T KCT URAL SOC 1 ETY. 



worse than mending stockings. Sir John Falstaff, when most dis- 
gusted with his condition, exclaims, " Ere I lead this life long, I'll 
sow nether stocks, and mend them and foot them too." These few 
remarks have been derived from sources perhaps too obvious and 
familiar to be considered new or important; but I have collected 
many more upon the same subject during the last few years, which 
unfortunately I have recently mislaid whilst removing my papers. 
On my recovering them, I shall hasten to offer them to the Society, 
and in the meantime i shall feel much obliged by the communica- 
tion of any memorandum bearing upon the subject of ancient 
hosiery, and more particularly by any works or anecdotes that are 
trustworthy, relative to the first introduction of the stocking frame, 
the circumstances of which, so far as I can find, have hitherto been 
but imperfectly ascertained. 

This Paper was succeeded by the following, contributed and 
read by Mr. Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, F.S.A. 

MEREVALE ABBEY. 

It is difficult to estimate the immense influence the great religious 
communities possessed during the middle ages, both in this country, 
and also in Ireland, Scotland, and on the continent, in the progress 
of civilization. Even in the present day we see the effects every- 
where around us, in our Churches, in those venerable ruins of the 
Monasteries and Conventual foundations scattered all over the 
country, and the further destruction of which would, in the opinion 
of every one of the slightest education, be considered as an act of 
barbarism worthy of the severest reprobation. Time was, at no 
far distant period, when these ruins were looked upon as mere 
quarries of building stone, ready cut and fitted for that purpose. 
And that such was the case with respect to the ruins of Merevale 
Abbey, appears from an advertisement in one of the country papers 
about a century ago, for the sale of cut ashlar stone from these 
very remains. 

But as to the history of this Abbey, one of the three great 
Cistercian abbeys founded in Warwickshire, and one that w 7 as 
intimately connected with Leicestershire, as being founded by one 
of a noble family resident in that county, and who endowed it with 
considerable lands and possessions therein : — 

From the great, learned, powerful, and wealthy Benedictine 
Order, founded by St. Benedict in the fifth century, emanated, at 
the close of the eleventh century, a.d. 1098, the Cistercian Order, 
commenced by Robert, abbot of Molesme, at Cistertium or Cisteaux, 
in the bishopric of Chalons, in Burgundy. 

An Englishman, Stephen Harding, third abbot of Cisteaux, 
brought this Order into great repute, and he has been considered 



MEREVALE ABBEY. 



325 



as the principal founder. The great St. Bernard (the last, as he 
has been called, of the Fathers of the Church) was of this Order, 
and was Abbot of Clairvaux or Clareval, in the diocese of Langres, 
in France, about a.d. 1116. 

This Order of monks was introduced into England about the 
year 1128, and the first monastery of this rule that was here 
founded was at Waverly, in Surrey, Foundations of monks of 
this Order soon spread over the country, and almost all, if not all, 
were of the twelfth century. 

The magnificent and older monasteries of the Benedictine 
Order were for the most part placed in cities and towns ; those of 
the Cistercian Order in the country, choice being made of unculti- 
vated wastes in solitary places. The buildings were structures far 
inferior to those of the Benedictines, and the Cistercian monasteries 
were, I believe, invariably dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. At the 
suppression there were in this country, of the Cistercian Order, 
thirty-six of the greater monasteries, and thirty-nine of the lesser. 
The latter were dissolved before the former. The Benedictine may 
be considered as the aristocratic and learned Order; the Cistercian 
as a middle class Order, not so learned in book-lore as tillers of the 
ground with their own hands — as the great farmers of the age. The 
inmates of the Cistercian abbeys have, indeed, been described as 
farmers rather than monks. 

Both Orders were precursors of civilization, the former in cities 
and towns, the latter in the country ; and in those ages of violence, 
rapine, and plunder, these monasteries afforded a refuge to many 
who were tired, wearied out, and disgusted with the general turbu- 
lence which prevailed, and who fled to them as from the world. 

Of the three great Warwickshire monasteries of this Order, 
this at Merevale was founded the earliest, viz., in 1149, that at 
Combe a.d. 1150, and that at Stoneley a.d. 1154. There are 
architectural remains both at Combe and at Stoneley of the original 
buildings constructed at the founding of those monasteries. There 
are none such at Merevale. There is, however, reason to believe 
that the present site of the conventual church is as it was originally; 
and that, however it may have been rebuilt or altered, it shows no 
indication of having been enlarged from the original plan. 

In 1149, the fourteenth year of the reign of Stephen, Robert, 
Earl Ferrers, grandson of Henry de Ferrers, who came over with 
William, Duke of Normandy, at the time of the Norman invasion, 
" having," as Sir William Dugdale saith, " a reverend esteem of the 
Cistercian monks, which in his time began to multiply in England, 
made choice of this mountainous and woody desert (as fitted for 
solitude and devotion) to found therein a monastery of that 
Order." 

The endowment of the founder consisted of that part of the 
forest of Arden called the Outwood, theretofore a member of 



326 



LEIC E S T E R S 1 1 1 R E ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Orendon; of the manor of Overton, since called Orton-on-the-Hiil, 
and of some possessions in other places. By subsequent bene- 
factors, viz., Gerald de Simesi, Walter de Cainule, Ralph de 
Baskerville, and Pain de Baskerville, all of whose grants were 
ratified by a charter of King Henry II., the granges of More-barn, 
and other places, the churches of Orton-on-the- Hill, with the 
chapels of Grendon, Twycross, Gopsall, and Baxterly, were added 
to the original endowment. Other lands and possessions and 
divers places were subsequently granted to this monastery by 
different benefactors. 

The annual value of the possessions of this house, as ascertained 
by the Survey (26 Henry VIII., a d. 1535^ was £254. Is. 8d. It 
was surrendered to the king's use in 1539, when peusions for life 
were granted to the abbot, sub-prior, and eight other monks, to the 
amount of £84. 7s. 8d., hardly a third of the annual value. 

The Register of the Abbey of Merevale, which in the early 
part of the seventeenth century was in the possession of Richard 
Chamberlain, Esquire, is not now to be found, and the historical 
notices we possess of the abbey are few. We know the names of 
few abbots only besides William Arnold the last, who surrendered 
this abbey on the suppression, viz.: — Abbot Thomas, a.d. 14*21; 
Abbot John Ruggeley, 1*2 Henry VI.; Abbot John Freeman, 
elected a.d. 1463, on the resignation of Abbot Ruggeley; Abbot 
Thomas Arnold, 23 Henrv VIII. , 1534 ; Abbot William Arnold, 
26 Henry VIII. 

On the 6th of July, 1309, the king, Edward II., was at this 
abbey, as appears from his itinerary, as follows: — July the 1st he 
was at Chester; 2nd at Wiz Vlanban (Xantwich) ; 4th, Hey wood ; 
5th, Litchfield ; 6th, Merivall ; 7th, Coventry ; 8th and 9tb, 
Towcester.* 

Whilst here on the 6th of July, the privy seal was affixed to 
certain documents. 

On the 6th of September, 1503, Henry VII. was at "Meryvall" 
Abbey, as that fact is noticed in the privy purse expenses of that 
monarch. 

In 1535 the value of the possessions belonging to this monastery 
amounted annually to upwards of £200., which, for a while, and for 
a while only, secured it from the fate of the smaller monasteries, 
the revenues of which were under £200. a year; but in 1539 it was 
suppressed with the greater monasteries. 

It is much to be regretted that we do not know what became of 
the register of this abbey. In the early part of the seventeenth 
century, it was seen and quoted from by the historian of Leicester- 
shire, and the historian of Warwickshire, Sir William Dugdale. 
The register of Combe is likewise lost, but the register of Stoneley 

• The Itinerary of King Edward the Second, compiled by the Rev. Chas. Henry 
Hartsliorne, M.A. Private distiibution. MDCCCLXI. 



ME RE VALE ABBEY. 



327 



is still existing. This is a work compiled in the fourteenth century 
by Thomas de Pipewell, Abbot of Stoneley, and contains not only a 
transcript of the charters and gifts made to that Abbey, but also 
" Acta Abbatum," an account of the lives of the abbots of that 
monastery up to the fourteenth century. 

But if the register or cartulary of Merevale be at present lost to 
us (and it may at some day or other be brought to light), we have 
perhaps of this abbey a more copious inventory of the furniture and 
goods belonging to it at the suppression, than of any other abbey. 
It does not, however, appear to have been sumptuously, but rather 
poorly furnished. 

The goods in the church (which I shall bye-and-bye show must 
have been a structure of considerable architectural interest and 
beauty) comprised a sculptured reredos, there called " a table of 
alabaster," a pair of organs, six altars with images, six gravestones 
with brasses on them, and other effects, including the glass in the 
windows, valued at <£4. lis. I wish I could procure the fragments 
which remain of the window glass at that price. You will see those 
fragments to-morrow. 

The vestrie contained the vestments, of different kinds, valued 
at £6. 9s. 

The cloister and chapter-house (for we learn from the account 
that there was a cloister, which was not always the case) contained 
twenty-eight panes of painted glass ; this was valued at 5s. There 
was also a laver of metal and lead, valued at £2. I shall be able 
to show you to-morrow where this laver was placed ; it was a little 
eastward of the door of the refectory. 

We next come to the refectory, the only portion of the abbey, 
except the chapel of the gate-house, of which the walls exist. This 
is called in the inventory "The Hall." When you see it to-morrow 
you will perhaps exclaim, It must have been a noble room. In 
truth it was ; but what was the furniture ? To quote from the 
inventory : — It. 3 tables and seven forms. It. 2 cupboards, the 
whole valued at 3s. 4d. Then comes the buttery, the goods in 
which were valued at 2s. 6d. 

Then comes the chief parlour, which I take to designate the 
abbot's lodgings. The goods in this are valued at £]. 6s. 8d. We 
have next the dormitories, viz. : — the inner chamber, the great old 
chamber, the chamber next the old chamber, the chamber called 
the Breddones, and the white chamber. 

All the furniture in the five chambers, including feather-beds, 
mattresses, blankets, bolsters, coverlids, and other furniture (for I 
am not going into minute particulars), is valued at .£3. lis. The 
furniture in the kitchen, comprising pots, dishes, and so forth, is 
valued at £2. Is. 8d. That in the larder at 2s., that in the brew- 
house at £2. 16s., in the malthouse at 14s. 4d., in the bakehouse at 
3s. 4d. I omit the farm buildings, live and dead stock, both hcvc 



3-28 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



and at New House Grange, except that six drawing oxen were 
valued at £5., and four score sheep at Is. 8d. each. 

The plate sold was 47 ounces, producing £8. 12s. 4d., whilst 
132 ounces of gilt plate, and 26 ounces of white plate remained 
unsold. 

Four bells remaining, valued at £40. The inventory concludes 
as follows : — 

" Mm. There remayneth all the houses and edifices of the scite 
of the said late mon. the glass yron in the windovves, pavements, 
and vi gravestones in the churche the rofe slatte pavements, and 
glasse in the cloyst and glasse in the chapit house excepted and 
soulde." 

"Mm. the seid honourable Lord Ferres were put in possession 
to or. Sovtraign Lord the Kyng's use of the cite of xvth day of 
October, in the xxx yere of or. said Sovaign Lorde Kyng Henry 
VIII." 

In the 32nd Henry VIII., a.d. 1541, nearly 400 years after the 
foundation of this abbey, the site and great part of the possessions 
thereof were granted by the king to one of the same family as the 
founder, namely, to Sir Walter Devereux, Knight, Lord Ferrers of 
Chartley, and to the heirs male of his body. Which Walter dis- 
posed thereof to Sir Walter Devereux, Knight, his younger son ; 
for it was he, saith Sir William Dugdale, " that patched up some 
part of the ruins here and resided thereon as I have heard." 

From this time we know little of the state of the buildings, 
except that in the last century there was an advertisement, which 
I have seen, offering for sale the ashlar stone from the ruins for 
building purposes. 

About the year 1765, a century ago, Mr. Cradock, of Gumley, a 
well known literary character of that period, and an F.S.A., wrote 
the following remarks on this abbey : — 

" We made a considerable stay at Mere vale, a place always 
rendered more agreeable to me than my wife, for I had an excellent 
library to refer to, and some management of the garden ground; 
but it was to some rather dull, for I must confess on a close survey 
the whole routine of the interior did not a little savour of the 
Nunnery or the Monastery." 

" During one of my longer abodes there, I received a letter 
from Lord Leicester, a learned antiquary, relative to an ancestor 
of his who was buried in the churchyard near the Old Abbey, in 
which he was pleased to enumerate many family particulars. ' He 
was (says his lordship), according to our records, deposited under 
a very large stone in an Ox's hide, at so many feet from the wall 
of the corner,' mentioning the exact distances from the ancient 
documents, ' and I should take it as a very particular favour (he 
adds) if you could obtain permission to make an accurate exami- 
nation.' I accordingly applied to Mrs. Stratford, and went with 



MEREVALE ABBEY. 



329 



her full consent with a crow and spade, and was attended by the 
clerk and sexton, and a few select friends, who anxiously awaited 
the result. We almost immediately struck upon the corner of an 
immense stone, not far from the surface, and at the precise distance 
that had been pointed out. The lower end had considerably sunk, 
but 1 hesitated to proceed further, for it appeared to be a service 
of danger, as no faculty had been obtained from the Ecclesiastical 
Court, and 1 was legally informed afterwards that the Bishop of 
the diocese should be previously applied to, before any process in 
taking up such a corpse for examination could possibly be per- 
mitted. I informed Lord Leicester of all particulars, but various 
occurrences afterwards interfering, 1 believe his Lordship's 
ancestor still remains safely and quietly deposed, statu quo, in the 
ox's hide."* 

No information is given to us by Mr. Cradock as to where he 
attempted to discover the founder's remains, whether in the church- 
yard of the now parish church, formerly the chapel of the gatehouse, 
or amongst the ruins of the abbey. The founder was probably 
buried in the chapter house, the site of which I shall point out to 
you to-morrow, and which was undisturbed in more recent exca- 
vations. 

In 1849, some fifteen years ago, the foundations of the abbey 
church, the site of which was used as a stack-yard, and which had 
long since been covered with greensward, were exposed to view in 
different parts, by excavations then made under the superintendence 
of Mr. Clutton, a celebrated London architect, and which excava- 
tions were sufficient to enable the whole of the ground-plan of the 
church to be traced out. Like other abbey churches of the Cistercian 
order, the plan was plain and simple — a long narrow nave, with 
narrow aisles, two short transepts, and a short choir. Though the 
structure appeared to have been rebuilt, either entirely or princi- 
pally, in the fourteenth century, the original ground plan of the 
Norman church did not seem to have been altered ; a continuous 
foundation wall or footing showed on what the piers of the arches 
dividing the nave from the aisles rested. I do not find, from Mr. 
Clutton's account, that any fragments of Norman mouldings were 
discovered ; those mouldings and details that were discovered were 
t)f the fourteenth century. The entire length of the church was 
230 feet, the width of the nave 28 feet ; of the aisles 15 feet each ; 
the length of the transepts from north to south was 88 feet, the 
width 28 feet; the length of the choir was 40 feet, the width 21 feet. 
Some walls to the south of the choir seemed to point out the site 
of the vestry. I believe some fine base mouldings were discovered. 
It is to be regretted that these are now covered, they might furnish 
a key to the chapel of the gatehouse as it now is. The excavations 



Literary and Miscellaneous Memoirs, by J. Cradock, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 16M« 



330 



T.rciTIHSTKRSIl [RE A RC MIT E 0 T U R A L SOCIETY. 



in 184J) did not extend beyond the church and walls of the vestry. 
This is to he regretted. 

In my plan of the church and conventual, buildings, I have 
been obliged to make some portions conjectural, though I have no 
doubt as to the site of some of the buildings, viz., the narrow room 
or mortuary chamber adjoining the south transept, next to this the 
chapter house, then one or two narrow apartments, and then the 
abbot's lodgings. The foundation walls of all these lie at present 
undiscovered. Southward of the church was the refectory or dining 
hall, a rather noble room, constructed in the fourteenth century. 
It was entered near the west end through the north wall ; near to 
this entrance was the monks' lavatory. In the south wall of the 
refectory was the pulpit, a portion of which still remains. At the 
west end of the refectory was the buttery, and next to that the 
kitchen ; the space between the kitchen and the church was 
occupied by offices below and dormitories above. The brewhouse, 
bakehouse, and other offices would be detached probably near the 
kitchen. The entrance into the cloister court would probably be 
under the dormitory near the church. I will not weary you with 
further details. 

The close round the abbey was bounded by stone walls. West- 
ward of the abbey, at the distance perhaps of 200 yards, was the 
gatehouse, of which we have no remains ; and near to this was the 
Chapel of our Lady, called also the Chapel of the Gatehouse — 
now the church of the district, which is, I believe, a peculiar and 
extra parochial. 

Now, a chapel at, or annexed to, or near the gatehouse, was 
not an essential part of the buildings of a monastery, but we often 
find it described, and, near the ruins of some monasteries, remains 
of it. The chief purpose to which it was applied, was the per- 
formance of early service for the benefit of the labourers and 
servants connected with the monastery. 

At Chertsey this chapel was described as " Capella super 
portam" " the chapel over the gatehouse." Over the gateway at 
Barking was a chapel of the Holy Rood. At Furness Abbey, a 
chapel adjoins the principal gatehouse on the east side of it, but 
does not actually form part of it. The gatehouse at Mailing Abbey, 
Kent, has a chapel attached to it on the east side. In the charters 
of the endowments of the Priory of Finchale, mention is made 
of " Fundacio Cantarie ad Porlam de Fynchall" i.e., the founda- 
tion of a chantry in the chapel of the gatehouse there. 

An endowment was also made to the monks of Merevale in 
1358 of a messuage and one yard land, perhaps some thirty acres, 
at Bentley, to find fifteen tapers in the " chapell of our Ladie," 
near the gate of the abbey. Whether these were hearse lights, or 
burnt before the image of the Blessed Virgin, or on the altar or 
altars, we have no information It appears, however, that in the 



E 




W 



- A Nave of Church 
BB Aisles 

C Choir 
DD Transepts 

E Vestry 

Of these, portions of the Foundation Walls only remain, 
coloured black, 
F Slyppe or Mortuary Chapel 
G Site of Chapter House 
^ j Small Apartments 

I Site of Abbot's; Lodgings 

The Walls of the above are conjectural. 
K Refectory 

Of this the North and South Walls are standing. 
L Remains of Refectory Pulpit 
M Remains of Lavatory, near Refectory Door 
N Site of Kitchen, Buttery, etc. 
O Offices with Dormitories over 
P Probable Entrance into Cloister Court 
Q Cloister Court or Cemetery Garth 



ME RE VALE ABBEY. 



331 



middle of the fourteenth century, a.d. 1361, pilgrimages were made 
to this chapel, perhaps to some particular image, and that a large 
number of people of both sexes resorted thither. 

The Chapel of the Gatehouse appears to have been originally 
constructed of a larger size than usual ; and, from the construction 
I should imagine it to have been built in the latter part of the 
thirteenth century, either in the reign of Henry III., or that of 
Edward I. It consisted of a nave and aisles — each of the latter 
divided from the nave by two pointed arches — and a chancel. The 
latter is gone, the aisles have been demolished, and the ancient 
nave alone forms a kind of ante-chapel to the present church. But 
now comes the singularity of the structure ; for eastward of the 
present nave and aisles is a nave and aisles constituting the greater 
portion of the present church. 

The piers and arches of the nave and the north aisle are of 
late fifteenth century work, whilst the south aisle and the east 
window of the nave are of rich and chaste fourteenth century work. 
The east window is peculiarly interesting ; the jambs and architrave 
are well and boldly moulded, but the tracery of the window, though 
the mullions are moulded on the face, appears of a transitional 
character, and I should ascribe it to the reign of Edward the Third, 
or to early in the reign of Richard the Second. It is a structure 
worthy of the most minute and careful examination. My own 
opinion is that, after the suppression of the monastery, portions of 
the conventual church were taken down and built up hither, and 
that the fine east window was originally the east window of the 
conventual church. 

For we have not, as I shall point out to you, or some of you, 
to-morrow, all the architectural details and arrangements we should 
have had if this portion of the structure had been originally designed 
and built here. We have no defined chancel ; the roof does not 
fit, being too narrow in width ; the buttresses do not exhibit that 
finish we might reasonably expect ; and, if I remember right, there 
is an absence of base mouldings. But the want of these will be 
pointed out to-morrow. On the other hand, we can form a fair 
estimate of the beauty of the abbey church as rebuilt in the 
fourteenth century, and probably by that abbot, whoever he was, 
whose effigy now exists in Orton-on-the-Hill ; perhaps removed 
thither from the conventual church after the suppression. 

There are details in the Chapel of the Gatehouse which were 
evidently removed from the conventual church — the very curious 
ancient wooden loft or gallery of the fifteenth century, of which wo 
find no mention in the inventory of the goods of the abbey, but 
which was probably the organ loft; the ancient painted glass, part 
of that in the east window being late in the fourteenth century, 
and portion of a Jesse window ; that in the north aisle being mostly 
of the fifteenth century. 



832 LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHlTECTtTRAL SOCIETY. 

Then we have some of the monuments removed hither from 
the abbey church : the brass of a knight and his lady, of the age 
of Henry the Sixth ; the sculptured effigies on a high tomb of a 
knight and his lady of the same period ; and the mutilated but 
highly interesting effigy of an earlier period. 

This latter is the effigy of a knight clad in a hauberk or shirt 
of ringed mail, to which gloves of the same kind of mail are 
attached ; the legs are protected by chauses or pantaloons of the 
same description of mail, and over the whole is worn a long surcoat 
or sleeveless garment of linen, the skirts of which reach nearly to 
the feet ; whilst affixed to the left arm is an exceedingly long 
heater-shaped shield, not less, I think, than three feet nine inches 
in length. It is, indeed, the length of the surcoat and of the shield 
that enables me to assign a proximate date to this effigy, the head 
and feet of which are gone. The period of the execution of this 
effigy I should consider as early in the thirteenth century, in the 
reign of John, or early in the reign of Henry III. It certainly is 
not the effigy of the founder. The register of the Abbey of Mere- 
vale might have thrown light upon this effigy, but unfortunately 
that is not to be found. 

I think that this effigy is commemorative of the fourth William, 
Earl of Ferrers, who died a.d. 1254, and was buried in this Abbey 
of Merevale. His father, the third William, Earl Ferrers, who died 
1247, married, in 1192, Agnes, one of the daughters and co-heirs 
of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, who died nearly the same time as her 
husband ; but where this worthy couple were buried (and he was a 
great and distinguished nobleman in his day) I have as yet been 
unable to ascertain. 

The high tomb and effigies thereon of alabaster are, I think, 
those of John Handewell and Alice his wife,* and, in an inscription 
in a north window, were thus described : — 6 ' Orate pro animabus 
Johis Handewell quondam pretoris Couentrie et Alicie uxoris eius 
qui islam fenestram unacum opere armato ubi tumulatur tumulo 
de alabastro in partibus borealibus et sumptibus suis propriis 
fieri fecit quorum animabus miseretur Deus Amen" This John 
Hand well or Handewill, I take to have been one of the bailiffs or 
sheriffs of Coventry ; as I do not find his name amongst the list of 
mayors, and there are only two sheriffs whose names are preserved 
of the fifteenth century, in the middle of which the bailiffs, by royal 
grant, a.d. 1451, first appear as sheriffs. I think, also, the word 
Pretor must here signify sheriff. 

There is one more effigy I have to remark upon, and that is 
the recumbent effigy at Orton-on-the-Hill. This I take to be the 
effigy of one of the abbots of this monastery, one whose name is 
lost in oblivion, but the one who rebuilt a great part at least of 
the abbey church and the refectory parallel with it ; for this effigy 
is one of the same period as that in which those works were 



ME RE VALE ABBEY. 



333 



executed. It is the effigy of a Cistercian monk, habited in the 
Cappa Clausa or close cowl, without sleeves, of that Order, with 
the Caputium or hood attached to the mozetta, a plain kind of 
cape thrown back on the shoulders, with the Biretum, or close- 
fitting skull cap or coif, on the head ; and, as the sepulchral 
representation of a Cistercian monk, is I believe, unique in this 
country. 

I have now to draw to a conclusion. Whatever we may think 
of the justice or injustice done in the suppression of the monas- 
teries in this country, we may fairly consider the results. 

As far as the appropriation of churches in large towns and 
populous places, and the services of which were performed by 
vicars, the result has been most unsatisfactory ; the appropriations 
in most cases on the suppression having been granted to the laity, 
the vicarial tithes only having been allotted to the clergy. 

On the other hand, the immense possessions in land held by 
the monasteries, and so locked up in mortmain, being granted out 
in parcels amongst the laity, soon became subdivided ; and hence 
arose in the reign of Elizabeth that mass of landed gentry, who, 
holding a middle class between the nobility and those below them, 
soon became the most important link in the Constitution of the 
realm between classes of all conditions and grades. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Bloxam's paper, Mr. C. H. Brace- 
bridge, of Atherstone Hall, rose to propose a vote of thanks to 
the readers of the papers, which were full of acumen, intelligence, 
and usefulness. He thought that societies of that kind were of 
great utility, and scarcely second to many others for the promotion 
of valuable religious and political objects. He could not agree 
with a most benevolent man, a friend of his, who said that he had 
no time to occupy himself with the past, and would rather devote 
himself to the enjoyment of the present, or make his principal 
occupation a contemplation of what might be the social state of 
his neighbours and friends in the future. He (Mr. B.) could not 
understand the pleasure or wisdom of contemplating what is to be 
without giving due attention to what is and what has been. By 
means of such societies as that, and such papers as had just been 
read, they had an opportunity of finding out objects of interest 
around them, and they obtained an enlarged knowledge of many 
historical matters bearing upon their ow T n times. Not only were 
such papers as those to which they had just listened useful upon 
the occasions on which they were produced, but they were sifted 
down into reports and became volumes of important information, 
which were handed down for reference, and suggested subjects for 
further research. He had, therefore, great pleasure in moving thai 
the thanks of the meeting be given to Mr. Bloxam and the gentle- 
men by whom papers had been prepared and read. 



LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mr. Pilgrim seconded the resolution, which was most cordially 
adopted. 

Archdeacon Fearon proposed a vote of thanks to the Com- 
mittee. He said that he had felt the advantage himself of a visit 
from this Society to Loughborough. A Paper, which was read by 
the late lamented Canon James, describing the architectural merits 
of the Church of that town, as well as some interesting points in 
its history, had been, he believed, of considerable effect in 
promoting the Church's restoration. Societies of this kind, by 
the studies and antiquarian researches which they encouraged, 
had a refining influence upon the mind. Not only that, but we 
could not properly appreciate our present advanced state, or be 
thankful for it, without an occasional reference to the past. The 
description of the early days of Hinckley under the sway of the 
Norman Barons, to which they had just listened with so much 
interest in the paper read by Mr. Thompson, could not but bring 
to their minds through how many stages, conducted by wisdom and 
prudence, our ancestors had amended their forms of government, 
until the constitution under which we had now the happiness to 
live was consolidated. The last time he had the honour of 
addressing an audience in that room was w